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Copyright, 1894, 

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Early in 1885 I landed at Loanda, as pioneer and linguist of 
Bishop William Taylor's self-supporting missions in Africa. My 
duty was to acquire the languages, impart them to the mission- 
aries, and prepare grammars, vocabularies, translations, and other 
elementary books needed by missionaries in the course of their 

During the first two years spent at Loanda the necessity of 
supporting myself and the station by means of tuition, which had 
to be given in the Portuguese tongue, added to chronic dysentery 
and fevers, left me practically no time for the study of the native 
language. But I was compelled to master Portuguese, which in 
Angola is indispensable for dealing with the educated classes, and 
is always of utility in intercourse with the common natives. 

My attempts to acquire the native language in Loanda, though 
largely unsuccessful, taught me several things : (1) that the books 
hitherto published on the language were worse than useless, being 
positively misleading; (2) that the Portuguese and the educated 
natives were not to be relied on as informants ; (3) that the form 
of speech in daily use among Loanda natives, needlessly mixed 
with Portuguese elements, offers poor material for the study of the 
genuine Ki-mbundu ; (4) that the latter, and not Ambundo, Bunda, 
N'bundo, or any of the other current terms, is theonly satisfactory 
and proper name of the native tongue. 

My third year was spent in the interior, chiefly at Malange, the 
farthest inland settlement of the Portuguese, and the point of con- 
vergence of important trade routes. Here I had better opportunities 

^ for linguistic studies, although the necessity of teaching in Portu- 

^ guese still left me only a few late hours of the night for the record 

^ of daily observations. 

3 ~ Before the close of the year I had collected about three thousand 


vi Pnface. 

words, discovered the principal rules of Ki-mbundu phonology, mor- 
phology, and syntax, and firmly established the following important 
facts : (i) that the dialects spoken at and between Loanda and 
Malange are mutually intelligible, while those of Kisama, Lubolo, 
Songo, Ndongo, and Mbondo become so after very little practice ; 
that, accordingly, all these dialects form one language, and that 
books printed in either the Loanda or Mbaka dialect would be use- 
ful to these tribes ; (2) that the political and commercial impor- 
tance of the Loanda district, where Ki-mbundu is the vernacular, 
the number and partial civilization of the inhabitants, the vast 
extra-territorial use of the language — in the coast-belt, wherever 
there are to be found Portuguese traders, troops, or authorities, 
and eastward as far as the Lualaba, wherever the ubiquitous 
Ambaquista (native of Mbaka) has penetrated — fully warranted the 
founding of a Kimbundu literature ; (3) that I was at the time the 
only person willing and able to spend and be spent in this laborious 

The sense of this great need of the Angolan people brought me 
back to civilization. During 1888, while recuperating in the moun- 
tains of the Swiss Jura, at the house of my mother, I wrote and 
published a primer and a gospel, as well as the first reliable gram- 
mar of Ki-mbundu, and prepared a dictionary of the same. The 
specimens of the language, namely, proverbs, riddles, and two short 
tales, contained in this grammar, were also the first examples of 
Ki-mbundu folk-lore placed before the public. 

In 1889 I was again in America, and accompanied as philologist 
the United States Scientific Expedition to West Africa (called also 
the " Pensacola Eclipse Expedition ") as far as Loanda. Here and 
in the neighborhood I took especial pains to obtain folk-tales and 
proverbs, and succeeded in securing hundreds of the latter and about 
a dozen of the former. My intention was to publish this material 
in one of the volumes containing the contemplated Reports of the 

A few days prior to my sailing once more for America* Jeremiah, 
my former pupil and friend of Malange, arrived at Loanda and 
volunteered to accompany me to Christendom. To him I owe 
the bulk of my tales and the best of them, as also much reliable 
information in regard to native beliefs and customs. A few of his 
stories were written on shipboard ; the greater part were dictated, 

Preface. vii 

and subsequently type-written by him at Vineland, N. J., in 1890 
and 1 891. 

In June, 1891, when I returned to Angola as United States Com- 
mercial Agent, the manuscript, consisting of eighty folk-tales, with 
interlinear translation and notes, was practically ready for the press. 
It was then hoped that the Smithsonian Institution would undertake 
its publication. Since that time additional stories have been col- 
lected, and now there is material available for one or two additional 
volumes. Proverbs, riddles, and songs have also accumulated, so 
that the present volume, containing fifty tales, is only a first in- 
stalment of what I intend Jo publish as soon as means are forth- 

This will meet the objections of those who would have preferred 
to find in this volume examples of all the classes of native traditional 
literature. The remarks already made will also account for the 
prominence of the linguistic features of this book, which is intended 
to serve as a text-book for students of African languages as well as 
for students of comparative folk-lore. The scientific reader will 
appreciate the local coloring of the literal version and the proof of 
genuineness given by adding the original text. 

The Comparative Notes are not intended to be exhaustive, but 
simply to give a few stray hints to the folk-lorist, and to furnish the 
general reader with some idea of the world-wide dissemination of 
folk-tales and of mythologic elements. Those who are acquainted 
with the animal tales of American negroes will readily recognize 
their variants in this collection. Fictitious tales (mi-soso), including 
animal stories, are placed first, and followed by narratives taken to 
be the records of events (maka) ; historical traditions (ma-lunda) 
are left for future publication. Within each class the tales are 
grouped with the intention of bringing together those mutually 

The chapter on African folk-lore, in the Introduction, was written 
in 1890-91. Students of folk-lore will notice that recent articles 
contained in folk-lore journal*, and easily accessible to specialists, 
are not mentioned. Since 1890, Stanley's expedition into "Darkest 
Africa " has furnished a contribution to African folk-lore in J. M. 
Jephson's "Stories told in an African Forest." J. McDonald, in 

Folk-Lore " (London), and E. Jacottet, in " Revue des Traditions 
Populaires" (Paris), have published interesting articles on Bantu 


viii Preface. 

folk-lore. Very recently Dr. C. G. BUttner has published an "An- 
thologie aus dfcr Suaheli-Litteratur " (Berlin, E. Felber, 1894), which 
appeared but a few days before the author's death. As this excel- 
lent work is a publication and translation of Swahili manuscripts, it 
is not surprising that only one story is entirely African. 1 The bulk 
of the written literature of Zanzibar is, naturally, either wholly or 
in large measure of Arabian origin. 

No collector of folk-tales in a virgin field will be astonished to 
hear that mountains of prejudice were to be overcome by dint of 
diplomacy, perseverance, and remuneration before Angolan natives 
could be induced to reveal the treasures of their traditional lore to 
a stranger armed with pencil and paper. Now the spell is broken, 
and not a few natives volunteer, for a compensation, to have their 
stories taken down in writing. 

The future of native Angolan literature in Ki-mbundu, only nine 
years ago so much derided and opposed, is now practically assured. 
J, Cordeiro da Matta, the negro poet of the Quanza River, has aban- 
doned the Portuguese muse in order to consecrate his talents to the 
nascent national literature. The autodidactic, and practical Amba- 
quistas of the interior have begun to perceive the superiority, for 
purposes of private correspondence, of their own tongue to the Por- 
tuguese, — to them what Latin is to the Lusitanian peasant ; finally, 
indications are not wanting that the Portuguese authorities, civil 
and ecclesiastic, are becoming awake to the importance of a general 
language like the Ki-mbundu as a link between the official speech 
and the multitudinous Bantu dialects of their vast province of 

In Africa, Portugal is caught as in a trap between powerful and 
encroaching neighbors, each one of whom is more than her match. 
The only safeguard of the last, but still magnificent remnant of her 
once unequalled colonial empire lies in the affection of her African 
subjects ; and in no wise can she secure this better than by giving 
them what they desire, have patiently awaited, and are promised 
by the Constitution — namely, a rational system of elementary, 
industrial, and higher education. Nor can the primary school be n 
success so long as teacher and pupil are expected to read and write 
a language which neither understands. 

To the Department of State at Washington and to the American 

1 Der Fuchs unddas Wiesd, a parallel of our No. XXIX* 

Preface. ix 

Geographical Society are due my thanks for the plates of my two 
maps of Angola. 

It will give me pleasure to receive suggestions or criticisms from 
any person interested in African philology or folk-lore. 

New York, February i, 1894. 

Permanent Address : 

Care of National Museum, 

Washington, D. C. 


Introduction. page 

I. Description of Angola I 

II. Angolan Folk-Lore i . . . . 15 

III. Literature of Ki-mbundu 23 

IV. Pronunciation of Ki-mbundu 25 

I. Ngana Fenda Maria. Version A 29 

Version B 43 

II. Fenda Maria and her Elder Brother nga Nzua . . 53 

III. Na Nzua dia Kimanueze 65 

IV. The Woman who Longed for Fish 83 

V. Sudika-Mbambi 85 

VI. Ngana Samba and the Ma-kishi 97 

VII. The Girls and the Ma-kishi . 103 

VIII, The Children of the Widow 111 

IX. The Kianda and the Young Woman 115 

X. The Four Uouas 117 

XI. Mr. Carry-me-not and Mr. Tell-me-not . . . .125 
XII. Mutelembe and Ngunga 127 

XIII. The Son of Kimanaueze and the Daughter of Sun and 

Moon , 131 

XIV. A Bride and her Brothers-in Law 141 

XV. The Lions and Kimona-ngombe 145 

XVL The Blacksmith and the Blackbirds 151 

XVII. Man and Turtle 153 

XVIII. Nianga dia Ngenga and Leopard 157 

XIX. The Child of Hunter and the Child of Deer . . 159 

XX. Diniana dia Ngombe and Deer 159 

XXI. Leopard, Antelope and Monkey. Version A ... 161 

Version B , 173 

XXII. Leopard, Monkey, and Hare 183 

XXIII. Leopard and the Other Animals 189 

XXIV. The Young Leopard and the Young Goat . . . 191 
XXV. Hare and Leopard 197 

XXVI. The Lawsuit of Leopard and Antelope , . .197 
XXVII. Lion and Wolf 201 

xii Contents. 

XXVIII. Elephant and Frog 203 

XXIX. Fox and Mole 203 

XXX. Cock, and Fox 207 

XXXI. Jackal and Hare 209 

XXXII. Squirrel and the Kingship . • . . . .211 

XXXIII. Dog and the Kingship . . 211 

XXXIV. Dog and Lizard 213 

XXXV. Dog and Jackal 213 

XXXVI. The House-Hog and the Wild Boar . . . .215 

XXXVII. Partridge and Turtle 215 

XXXVIII. Frog and his Two Wives 217 


XL. King Kitamba kia Xiba 223 

XLI. The Young Man and the River ...... 229 

XLII. Kingungu a Njila and Ngundu a Ndala ... 233 

XLI 1 1. Two Men, One Woman 235 

XLIV. A Father-in-Law and his Son-in-Law .... 239 
XLV. The Young Man and the Skull ...... 243 

XLVI. The White Man and the Negro 243 

XLVII. The Lion is Strong; so is Friendship Strong. . . 245 

XLVIII. The Builder of Ability and the Builder of Haste . 247 

XLIX. The Past and the Future . . . . . . .247 

L. Ngunza Kilundu kia Ngunza . . . • . . 249 

Notes 253 

List of Works on African Folk-Lore, cited in the Introduction . 310 

Appendix— Music 3" 

Index 3*3 




As defined by the recent treaties with Germany, Eng- 
land, and the Kongo State, the Portuguese province of 
Angola is one of the largest territorial divisions of Africa. Owing 
to its geographic situation, variety of climates, resources of soil, 
mineral wealth, and the progress already made in civilization, its 
intrinsic value and other possibilities surpass those of any other 
tropical African possession. From 4 40' to 17 20' south latitude, 
it owns over twelve degrees of seacoast, with the two best harbors 
of the whole West Coast, the mouth of the Kongo, and the Bay of 

To the interior it extends to the Zambesi River from its bend to 
its source, to the Kassai River from Lake Dilolo to 7 q south lati- 
tude, and to the Kuaftgu River from 8° to 6° south latitude. In 
the north, its boundary runs along the 6° south latitude and a long 
stretch of the Kongo River. To this must be added the " enclave " 
of Kabinda. Thus this province forms a slightly irregular quad- 
rangle, covering about 1,250,000 square kilometers. 

In the south, it borders on German Soutliwest Africa, in the 
southeast on British Zambesia ; and the Kongo State is its eastern 
and northern neighbor. 

As regards geographic latitude, the whole of Angola is 
ComStSns. tropical, but the temperature is everywhere advanta- 
geously modified : on the coast, by the sea-breeze and a 
high bluff, where the heat in the shade is never disagreeable ; in the 
interior, by the elevation of the land. Of course the distance of 
twelve degrees between the extreme north and south latitudes im- 
plies a variety of climates irrespective of orographic conditions. 
From north to south the country may be aptly divided into four 
zones or belts.: — 

1. The coast-belt, between 50 and 150 miles wide, with an aver- 
age altitude of 100 to 150 feet; more or less sterile, because of its 

2 Introduction. 

sandy soil, but rich enough in subterranean water to become valu- 
able as soon as capital introduces wells and pumps. 

2. The mountain-belt, formed by the lace-work of erosion on the 
partition wall between the highlands and the low coast-belt, with 
occasional signs of volcanic action. This is also the zone of luxu- 
riant vegetation and mineral treasures, of grand scenery, of sultry 
vale bottoms and breezy peaks, of cascades and inspiring panoramas. 

3. The plateau, or highland, belt, extending from the Kongo to 
the Kunene, and rising from 2,000 to 6,000 feet. This is the realm 
of the prairie and parkland, the home of antelopes, gazelles, zebras, 
and of herds of sleek cattle ; the foreordained granary and live-stock 
ground of the coming century. Its general aspect differs little from 
that of undulating lands in the temperate zone. 

In its southern, and widest portion, rising between 3,000 and 6,000 
feet above sea-level, the white race can and will get acclimated, and 
thence raise the sunken native population of Southwest Central 
Africa to its own moral and political level. 

4. The fourth zone, a recent accession, and still unoccupied, may 
be called the inland depression, and is formed by the Kuangu and 
Upper Zambesi basins, separated by the high flats of their water- 

Rather low, swampy, distant, and covered by the darkness of our 
ignorance, this region is at present uninviting to the civilized man ; 
but its rich soil and its wide network of water-ways navigable by 
river-steamers, will one day make it no less desirable than its more 
advanced western sisters. 

As a rule it may be stated that, as moist heat is detrimental to 
the white organism, while beneficial to vegetation, the most fertile 
regions are also the most unhealthful, and that the most salubrious 
districts are the least favored as regards vegetation. This rule, how- 
ever, has many exceptions* Thus, on the coast north of Benguella 
it is possible for whites, with a sound constitution, who can afford 
the comforts of life and an occasional trip to the moderate zone, to 
live a goodly number of years; though not without paying their 
tribute in fevers and other endemic troubles. Yet, as a race, the 
whites cannot expect to prosper anywhere in Angola north of n° 
south latitude. American negroes, however, though suffering in- 
dividually, would, as a race, find a genial home in all the highland 
of the interior. 

Thus, again, the high plateaus of the province, south of u°, while 
perfectly adapted for the white race, are by no means sterile. They 
will yield abundant crops of all that is produced in the sub-tropical 
and temperate zones. But, before it can offer any inducement to 
white settlers, the highland must be connected with the seaports 

Description of Angola. 3 

by means of railways, and the duties on necessary articles must be 
abolished, or not exceed ten per cent, ad valorem. 

The mean temperature of Loanda is 23 centigrade, that of Ma- 
lange, 19.5°, that of Mossimedes, 20 . The average temperature of 
the coolest month is : at Loanda, 14.6 centigrade, at Malange, 4.3 ; 
of the hottest month, at Loanda, 31. 7° at Malange, 32 . 

The staple exports are : (i) india-rubber, which is still 
R^oSrces!" 1 found in the forests of the Kuangu basin, and imported 
from the Kongo State ; (2) gum-copal, and other gums, 
the collecting of which constitutes the main occupation and source 
of income of thousands of natives ; (3) coffee, growing spontane- 
ously and cultivated in the mountainous zone from the Kuanza to 
the Mbidiji River, but susceptible of cultivation through the whole 
length of said zone; (4) wax, which is produced, to some extent, 
among most independent tribes ; (5) hides, near white settlements; 
(6) orchilla-weed, which is exclusive to the arid coast-belt; (7) 
palm-oil, which comes from the river banks; (8) ivory, which is 
mostly brought to the coast from hunting grounds back of Angola, 
A few herds of elephants are still found in the southeastern corner 
of the province. 

As to mineral resources, copper, though no longer exploited in 
exportable quantities, is found at Bembe and many other points of 
the mountain-belt ; gold is found in the sand of the Lombiji River ; 
silver is said to exist in the mountains of Ngola ; iron is abundant 
everywhere ; salt is exported from Kisama, and coal crops up at 
Dondo. Clay for brick and tiles, or limestone, sandstone, and gran- 
ite for building purposes are nowhere lacking. 

The exports of Angola for 1890 amounted to slightly 
swppingf below $5,000,000, the imports to $5,350,000. Regular 
lines of steamers, two Portuguese, one English, one Ger- 
man, one French, one Belgian (Kongo), one Dutch, connect the 
province with Europe. 

The principal ports are: Kabinda, Kongo, Ambrizette, Ambriz, 
Loanda, Novo Redondo, Benguella, Mossimedes. 

A line of three steamboats plies on the Quanza River, between 
Loanda and Dondo ; and the lower courses of the Lifune, Dande, 
Bengo, and Longa are accessible to sailing crafts. 

The railroad from Loanda to the interior is built as far as the 
Lukala River, and Catumbela is connected with Benguella by a small 
railway ; yet the whole produce of the interior is still brought down 
to the coast by caravans of native traders, of whom the Mbaka (Am- 
baca), and Kasanji (Cassange), with terminus at Dondo or Loanda, 
and the Mbalundu (Bailundo), and Viye (Bihe), with terminus at 
Benguella, are the most important. 

4 Introduction* 

The province, as governed by Portugal, is divided into 
DiSL f° u r districts : (i.) In the north, the recently organized 

Kongo District, with capital and governor at Kabinda. 
(2.) The central District of Loanda, with this city as provincial and 
districtal capital, and residence of the Governor-General, who is also 
districtal governor. (3.) The District of Benguella, with governor at 
this port. (4.) In the south, the modern District of Mossdmedes, 
with this city as capital. 

Each district is subdivided into " Concelhos," which may be com- 
pared with counties, and these again into Divisions, which corre- 
spond in some respects to townships. 

The Governor-General and the District Governors, with right royal 
powers, are by tradition naval officers ; the " chefes " of the u Con- 
celhos " are, as a rule, officers of the colonial army ; and the " com- 
mandantes " of the divisions are resident traders or educated na- 

In the Kongo District, the heads of the " Concelhos M are called 
4S Residentes," and are five in number. Being part of the Kongo 
Basin, this district is placed under the liberal regime of the Act of 
the Berlin Conference ; which will, however, soon be modified by 
the adoption of the Brussels Act. The other three districts are 
under the old regime of high tariff and differential duties. 

The residences of the Kongo District are : Kabinda, Kakongo, S. 
Salvador, St Antonio, and Ambrizette. 

The " Concelhos " into which the District of Loanda is divided 
are: — 

Loanda, Barra do Bengo, Icolo e Bengo, Barra do Dande, Alto 
Dande, Ambriz, Encoge, Zenza do Golungo, Golungo Alto, Cazengo, 
Ambaca, Duque de Bragan$a, Talla Mungongo, Malange, Pungo 
Andongo, Cambambe (Dondo), Massangano, Muxima, Novo Re- 

The *i Concelhos " of the District of Benguella are : — 

Benguella, Catumbella, Egypto, Caconda, Quillengues, Dombe 
Grande. The new posts of Bailundo, Bihe, and Cubango are not yet 
4t Concelhos." 

The " Concelhos " of the District of Mossdmedes are : — 

Mossdmedes, Bumbo, Lubango, Humpata, Huilla, Gambos, Humbe. 
The boundaries of the districts coincide to some ex- 
DMsi^ pWc tent with those of the nations constituting the native 
population of the province. Thus the Kongo nation 
occupies most of the Kongo District, but overlaps the northern part 
of the Loanda District. The latter is occupied by the Angola 
(A-mbundu) nation, whose name has been extended to the whole 

Description of Angola. 5 

The District of Benguella is all occupied by the Ovi-mbundu nation 
and tribes closely allied. 

The people of the District of Mossdmedes do not seem to form 
an ethnic unit, but differ little from the Ovi~mbundu stock, though 
many have more affinities with the kindred Ova-Herero and Ova- 
Ndonga group of the German possessions. 

The people beyond the Kuangu and those of the Zambesi Basin, 
are not yet administered by Portuguese authorities, and are not com- 
prehended in any of the above districts. 

The tribes of the Kongo nation, as far as included in Angola, are r 

(i.) Ngoio, occupying the Kabinda enclave, north of the Kongo 
River. (2.) Solongo and (3) the Eshi-Kongo proper ; both south of 
the Kongo River. (4.) Mbamba, on the Mbidiji River and in scat- 
tered colonies. ($.) Luangu, scattered as wandering blacksmiths, 
but settled in strong colonies in the upper Dande basin. (6.) Hungu, 
around the headwaters of the Loji and Lukala (Lucalla) rivers. 

The tribes of the Angola, or A-mbundu, nation are :<— 

(1.) The federation known as Ji-ndembu (Dembos), between the 
Dande and the Lifune rivers. Still independent 

(2.) The Mbaka, comprising, besides Ambaca, much of Golungo 
Alto, Cazengo, Malange, Duque de Bragan§a, and scattered in small 
colonies as far as the Kassai River. Subdued. 

(3.) The Ngola (proper) or Ndongo, in the Hamba basin. Inde- 

(4.) The Mbondo, northeast of Malange, on the watershed of the 
Kuangu, Quanza, £nd Lukala basins. Half subdued. 

(5.) The I-mbangala, or Kasanji, between the Tala Mungongo de- 
pression and the Kuangu River, east of Malange. Independent 

(6.) The Songo, divided into Great and Little, occupying the whole 
right basin of the Quanza from Malange to Viye (Bihe). Mostly in- 

(7.) The Haku, between the upper Quanza and Ngango rivers, on 
the left bank of the former. Independent. 

(8.) The Lubolo, between Haku and Dondo, on the left bank of 
the Quanza. Independent. 

(9.) The Kisama, between the Quanza, the Longa River, and the 
sea. Independent 

To these must be added the mixed population under Portuguese 
rule, which forms all the larger settlements on the right bank of the 
Quanza River, between Malange and the sea. The Loanda type pre- 
dominates in this section so much that, but for its mixed elements 
and semi-civilized state, it might be called the Loanda tribe. It is 
the most advanced in European civilization and corruption. 

The tribes between the Longa River and Egito occupy a some* 

6 Introduction. 

what isolated position. They are the Mbwiyi (Amboim) between 
the Keue (Cuvo) and the Longa rivers, the Ba-sumbe and Basele, 
north and south of Novo-Redondo, and farther inland the Kibala. 

The Ovi-mbundu people are the Highlanders of Angola. They 
embrace the people between the headwaters of the Quanza and the 
coast region. The principal tribes are the Mbalundu (Bailundo) and 
Viye (Bihe), forming one linguistic stock. Smaller tribes are the 
Ndulu and Ma-lemba on the left bank of the upper Kuanza. 

The various tribes of the Nano (*. e. Highland) between the upper 
Kunene and the depression belong to the same group. 

Along the coast and small river courses are found : the Ba-ndombe, 
Ba-Kuando, Ba-Kuise, Ba-Koroka, Ba-Kaoko, which are little known, 
but owing to their savage state all the more interesting. 

The larger tribes of the District of Mossdmedes, excepting those 
of the coast, just mentioned, are : the Ba-Ngambue (Gambos) Ba- 
nianeka, BaJondo, Ba-rikumbi, Hai, Jau, Ba-ximba and Ba-kubale. 
Beyond the Kunene River are the Kua-mati, Kua-niama, Handa, 
Nyemba, Fende, and the Ba-kankala of the yellow Bushmen race. 

In the fourth climatic zone, which is formed mainly by the recent 
accessions of Angola, what is now known as its political zone of in- 
fluence, we find from north to south, in whole or in parts, the fol- 
lowing nations and tribes : — 

The Ma-Xinji (Ma-shinji), on the right bank of the Kuangu, eth- 
nically, but not politically, allied with the Ma-Kioko. 

The Lunda, farther east, once the greatest nation between Tanga- 
nyika and Loanda, now almost annihilated by civil wars and the 
slave-raiding Ma-Kioko. 

The Minungu, on the upper Kuangu, neighbors of the Ma-Songo 
and Ma-Kioko. 

The Ma-Kioko or Ba-Chibokue, along the upper course of Kassai, 
and now far scattered as bold hunters, traders, and slave-raiders. 

The Ngangela, east of Viye (Bihe). 

The A-mbuela, south of the Ngangela, and occupying most of the 
southeast corner of Angola, as recently enlarged. 

The Ba-rotse, in* the upper Zambesi valley, who are, by treaty, 
divided between England and Portugal, as the Lunda are between 
Portugal and the Kongo State. 

The Ma-mbunda on the Lower Kubango River. 

What constitutes a nationality in the natural state is 
and g ite DteScts. much less the political organization than the language. 
Our ethnologic division into nations and tribes corre- 
sponds to the linguistic division into languages and dialects. The 
people speaking one language constitute a nation, and each tribe has 
its own dialect. The political predominance of a tribe makes its 

Description of Angola. J 

dialect the basis of the national literary language, which is enriched 
and developed by the assimilation of forms and words from the 
various dialects. Thus the court-dialect of Kongo becomes the liter- 
ary language of the Kongo group ; and the dialects of Loanda and 
Mbaka form the basis of the literary Ki-mbundu. 

Angola proper is limited, in the west by the ocean, in the north 
by the Dande (Ndanji) and Susa rivers, in the east by the Kuangu, 
in the south by the Longa River and the boundary line between the 
Lubolo and Mbalundu tribes. 

The dialects of the Ki-mbundu language are those of the tribes 
already enumerated above : Kisama, Lubolo, Songo, Mbondo. Ndon- 
go or Ngola, Mbaka, and that of Loanda. Besides these, there are 
on the borders some intermediate dialects, which partake almost 
equally of the languages north and south of them. Thus the Mbamba 
and Hungu in the north, the Holo in the northeast, the Haku and 
Sele in the south. 

All the stories of the present work belong to the Ki-mbundu group, 
that is, to Angola proper, and to various tribes ; but all are written 
in the two main dialects of the semi-civilized population : the Loanda 
and the Mbaka. 

Therefore we limit the ethnologic data which follow to the Ki- 
mbundu stock. Still most of them apply as well to the neighboring 
groups in the north, east, and south. 

Every native community however small or large, inhab- 
ISitate? lt * n S one P^e, that is, forming a village or town, is gov- 
erned by a chief who is elected and controlled by the 
body of the elders. 

In an old community the chief is generally chosen in one family 
according to the tribal law of succession, provided the lawful he' be 
deemed fit for the office. If he is not, the dignity passes to the next 
heir. In new communities — as is the case of fugitives meeting in 
the bush and building together — the community by mutual con- 
sent organizes itself in accordance with its needs, traditional prefer- 
ences and superstitions, and the council of the elders bequeath to 
the following generation the constitution which they have framed. 

The form of government is neither purely monarchic, oligarchic, 
or democratic, but a happy combination of all three. The council of 
the elders, which might be called the parliament and forms the legis- 
lative and controlling power, is composed of all the adult and free 
males who show any ability. It delegates the executive power to a 
chief whose choice is determined by definite traditions and rules, and 
who is constantly controlled by the leading elders, whom he has to 
consult in every important matter. Within the limits of the tribal 
constitution or traditional laws, the chief or king has absolute power 

8 Introduction. 

over his subjects' lives and property. His chief officers are: (i.) 
His premier, who often is his presumptive successor, and whose title 
is Ngolambole, He is the chief's right hand, represents him in his ab- 
sence, and is regent during the interim between the chiefs death and 
the inauguration of his successor. (2.) The secretary, called Tandala, 
Muzumbu 7 or Sakala, who corresponds to the foreign secretary or 
minister of foreign affairs in European states. He is the chiefs 
mouth-piece, publishes his orders, receives and introduces strangers, 
and attends to the official correspondence, when he can write. 

Besides these two standing officers, Angolan chiefs have, accord- 
ing to their importance and tribe, a larger or smaller number of ac- 
cessory officers who carry out the chiefs orders, and keep him posted 
on the state of things ; thus, the captain of the militia, the collector 
of this or that tax, the superintendent of roads, or markets, and 

In some tribes, the chief may be a female as well as a male ; and 
in most tribes the head-wife of the chief has great power, even under 
the reign of his successor. 

The Kimbundu title of the chief is generally Soba. A vassal chief 
is called a Kilatnba of his suzerain. A suzerain of many vassals is 
called in some tribes Jaka (Portuguese Jaga), in others Ndembu. 
The latter name prevails among the independent chiefs between the 
Nzenza (Bengo), Ndanji (Dande), and Loji rivers, where a soba used 
to be an inferior chief. It is from this title of Ndetnbu that the 
whole district derived its official name " Dembos." The independent 
Ndembu form a federation. 

In former times every tribe had a head-chief or king ; now the 
only tribe which still has one great head is that of Ngola. It is still 
absolutely independent, and enjoys an elaborate system of elective 
and hereditary nobility. In Angola there is no trace of the military 
despotic system of the Ama-Zulu. 

The social organization of the family in Angola is similar to that 
of most Bantu peoples. As fatherhood is never absolutely certain, 
while there can be no doubt about motherhood, it is the mother, not 
the father that determines consanguinity or kinship, and succession 
or heredity. The father's relation to his children is as loose as, with 
us, that of a step-father to his step-children. Of course, affection is 
commensurate with the belief in consanguinity. Therefore, the 
closest relation is that of mother and child, the next that of nephew 
or niece and uncle or aunt The uncle owns his nephews and nieces ; 
he can sell them, and they are his heirs, not only in private property, 
but also in the chiefship, if he be a chief. 

Polygamy is honored, although its evil concomitants are not ignored 
In the absence of metal or paper money to represent capital, a large 

Description of Angola. 9 

number of wives, of children, and hence a wide circle of blood-con- 
nection and influence, is considered the best investment and most 
substantial element of wealth. Each wife occupies a separate house 
and tills her own fields. She provides her husband with food and 
tobacco ; he builds her house and procures her clothing. The wed- 
ding ceremonies are minutely described in the story of the Four 
Uouas. The money and other things given by the suitor to the girl's 
parents are not the " price " of the girl, as is often said, but the 
"pledge" and symbol of the contract thereby executed. If he treat 
her unmercifully he may lose the money ; if she prove untrue or un- 
fruitful the parents have to return the gifts. Impotence in men and 
barrenness in women are the greatest misfortunes that may befall 
them. Blindness and lameness are trifles compared to that ; so great 
is the abomination in which these infirmities are held. 

One of the most important institutions is that of the tambi % or 
funeral and mourning. The moment one dies, all those who are in 
the house and all those who soon come in, raise the most heart-rend- 
ing wail, and this is repeated daily at stated hours, and for weeks 
and months by the nearest relatives. The corpse is wrapped in a 
mat and carried on a pole to the grave, followed by howling men 
and women who march in the quickest trot. Broken pottery and 
other objects are placed on the grave. On the grave of a hunter a 
mound of stones is raised, or skulls of wild animals are placed on the 
trimmed limbs of a dead tree. 

In Loanda, the nearest relative of the deceased stays for months 
unwashed and unkempt in the bed just vacated; the windows are 
closed, the room kept unswept, and the mourner can break his or 
her silence only for the funeral wail. The greatest thing about the 
mourning, however, is the gathering of all the relatives and friends 
from afar for the mourning dance, and the regular Irish wakes they 
keep up at the expense of the successor and next of kin, as long as 
money lasts. Circumcision is very widely practised, but obligatory 
only among a few tribes. 

Slavery and its unavoidable concomitant, the slave-trade, are prac- 
tised all over Angola. It is based on three facts : (1) The right of 
the uncle to dispose of his nephews and nieces as merchandise, (2) 
the absence of penitentiaries, (3) war. If a man is unable to pay a 
debt, or has committed a crime and cannot otherwise pay the fine, 
he is sold himself or he sells his nephew or niece in his stead. Pris- 
oners of war are reduced to slavery and sold to the highest bidder. 
As a rule, the .slaves of uncivilized natives are not worked hard, nor 
cruelly treated ; and they have a chance to redeem themselves, as 
is shown in the story of the Young Man and the River. Civilized 
masters and the plantation owners, on the contrary, make the slaves* 
yoke a galling one, and sometimes thrash them to death. 

io Introduction. 

This brings us to the subject of jurisprudence. Whenever natives 
quarrel, one party or both call one or more umpires, generally old 
men, to settle the case. If it is an important case it is also brought 
before the chief. In vital questions, as that of witchcraft, the case 
is decided by the poison test, in which case the medicine-man is 
practically the judge, and frequently the executioner as well. 

The ever repeated assertion that Africans are fetishists, 

Religion. . \. r . . ,. . * *• ■« 

that is, worshippers of inanimate objects, is utterly false, 
or else all superstitious people are fetishists. The Angolans have 
the same religious system as the Bantu generally. They are not 
idolaters in the strict sense, nor atheists, nor fetishists, nor polythe- 
ists, but superstitious deists. They believe in one great, invisible 
God who made all things and controls all things. But they confess 
they know very little about his character. Tradition says men have 
offended Him, and He has withdrawn his affection from them. They 
do not formally worship God, nor do they ever represent Him in any 
visible form, or think He is contained in a fetish of any sort That 
is, inasmuch as they are purely native. They do, however, carve 
wooden images which they call gods ; but the images thus called are 
always in the shape of a crucifix, and every native knows that the 
image does not represent their own great, invisible god, but the god 
or fetish of the whites. True fetishism I have found, in Africa, 
among ignorant Portuguese, who do assert and believe that this or 
that image is God, does work miracles and must be worshipped, not 
as a mere symbol of its spiritual prototype, but as the actual incar- 
nation or embodiment of it, equal in all respects to the original. 

What other figures the natives have are not idols, for they have 
no connection with the Deity ; they are simply charms, amulets, or 
talismans, to which the medicine-man has, by his incantations, im- 
parted certain virtues emanating from an inferior spirit. 

These inferior spirits of Bantu mythology are generally, but with- 
out foundation, called African gods. It would be as rational to call 
the native chiefs gods because they are saluted by the most wor- 
ship-like prostrations. In their various attributes and powers, these 
spirits {ma-baniba) correspond pretty closely to the gods of classical 
antiquity, and to their modern substitutes the saints, minus their 
intercessory office. Each spirit or demon represents some force of 
nature, is morally no better than sinful men, and, according to his 
capricious passions, deals with men in a friendly or unfriendly man- 
ner. The friendship of the demons must be secured and maintained 
by presents, offerings, sacrifices, and in these consists the only visible 
worship or cult of the Bantu negro. The media between demons and 
men -are the professional medicine-men or women, the diviners, and 
any individual having the gift of possession or inspiration. These 

Description of Angola. n 

media constitute a kind of secret order, and have much influence 
individually; but they are not organized into a hierarchy, nor do 
they exert any combined effort. A few of the genii, or demons, 
are : Kituta or Kianda, who rules over the water and is fond of great 
trees and of hilltops ; Muta-Kalombo, who is king or governor of the 
woodland ; hence of the chase and of the paths, and is to be propi- 
tiated by hunters and travelling traders ; Leraba, to whom pertains 
the mysterious province of generation, gestation, birth, and child- 
hood The belief in the reality of these entities and in the power of 
their media is so deep, that even the civilized natives, whatever their 
position in the state, the church, the army, or commerce may be, — 
though nominally Christians or professed rationalists and material- 
ists conversant with Comte, Spencer, Renan, — will secretly resort 
to them as soon as they find themselves in great straits. Yea, not 
a few whites, after prolonged intimacy with native women, have 
been found to become secret adepts of those heathen superstitions. 
The spirits or shades of mortals are never confounded in the native 
mind with the genii of nature ; but their enmity is dreaded as much 
as that of the genii, and they are propitiated by the same or similar 

All the natives of the interior, that is, outside the cities 
aSd U c^Ltrct of Loanda and Dondo, are supposed to know the rudi- 
ments of certain arts. For instance, all women must 
know something <rf midwifery, washing, cooking, trading, tilling, 
sewing, carrying on the head or back, etc. Every man must have 
learned something about building a house, hunting, carrying loads, 
cooking, trading, medicine, etc. In small, isolated communities a 
man has to be jack-at-all-trades ; in large settlements, division of 
labor produces specialties, and increases the exchange of commodi- 
ties, that is, trade. The principal crafts or trades of native Angola 
are : — 

(l.) Medicine and Divining. This has already been referred to 
under the head of religion. 

(2.) Hunting. This has to be pursued as a specialty in order to 
be profitable, for since the introduction of firearms the game has 
become both scarce and wary. 

(3-) Fishing. This is, on the coast, one of the most important 
crafts, as the fish attracts the farthest inland tribes to the coast. But 
for its famous dried fish, Loanda, would scarcely be visited by any 
inland caravans. The quantity of dried fish yearly sold from Loanda 
to the far interior is truly astounding, and the quantity of fresh fish 
daily consumed in the capital is not less amazing. The nets, the 
canoes, and the sails used in this fishing business are all of native 
manufacture. A large proportion of the cotton thread is spun in 

12 Introdtution. 

Kisaraa and sold in Loanda. The fish of the rivers and lagoons of 
the interior is also dried and sold far away from where it was caught 
Dried " bagres " stuck in a slit of a stick are to be seen for sale in 
most market-places. 

(4.) Wood-carving. Spoons, tubs, drums, mortars, stools, images 
for charms, ornamental clubs, smoking pipes, sceptres of chiefs, 
plates, bowls, snuff-boxes, combs, and a variety of other objects are 
produced by native sculptors in wood. As a rule every tribe has its 
own pattern or design. 

(5.) Pottery. Clay is found everywhere, and is used in the manu- 
facture of cooking-pots of all sizes, of water jugs resembling the 
amphoras of the ancients, of pipes, lamps, dishes, clay figures, and, 
in some parts, of adobes for house-building. 

(6.) Spinning and Weaving. The African loom is well known. 
The material used in weaving is either palm fibre or cotton thread. 
The cotton-tree thrives all over Angola ; and among all tribes spin- 
ning and weaving is carried on to some extent. All native textiles 
are very strong and durable. With the palm fibres natives make 
mats, which were, of old, the principal garment, and formed, with the 
cowrie shells of Loanda, the cur&ncy which European cloth and 
coined money have not yet quite superseded. Mats are still manu- 
factured and sometimes beautifully dyed, around the headwaters of 
the Lukala and Ndanji rivers and around Pungo Andongo ; cotton 
mantles, hammocks, and loin-cloths are still woven for export to 
neighboring tribes by the people of Kisama. 

(7.) Smelting and Smithing. This trade is chiefly in the hands of 
wandering smiths whose original home is found in Luangu north of 
the Kongo River. They still speak their Luangu dialect along with 
Ki-mbundu. Their largest settlements are found between the Mbengu 
and Lufuni rivers, in the country of the independent Dembos. The 
articles they chiefly manufacture are : hoes, with single or double 
handles; hatchets, either for cutting or for ornament and cult; 
knives ; needles for basket and mat making ; arrow-points ; heads of 
spears ; arm-rings and anklets ; earrings of brass or copper ; and 
any object that may be ordered of them. 

(8.) Basket^ mat, and rope making. All Angolans sleep and eat 
on mats ; the walls, doors, and shutters of many huts are made of 
mats. This alone gives an idea of the quantities of mats that must 
be continually produced to replace the worn and torn. Angolan 
mats are principally of three kinds : (a) The coarse papyrus-mat 
(ngandu) ; (b) the fine and large grass-mats (ma-xisa), made of di- 
senu grass ; (c) the fine and small palm-mats (ma-be/a), used as cloth- 
ing, for sacks, for covering tables, or for the ornamentation of rooms. 
Baskets are made of all sizes, shapes, and qualities: for carrying 

Description of Angola. 13 

earth or stones ; for holding flour and corn ; for winnowing and for 
sifting ; for carrying loads either on head, shoulder, or back ; for hold- 
ing mush or cassava-meal, and so on. The baskets are made of ma- 
teba palm-leaf and fibrous grass. The former material is also used 
for sacks, fans, brooms, and ropes. The baobab fibre is used for 
skirts (among the Kisamas), for ropes, sacks, and caps. Hats are 
made of straw or mateba fibre by the Mbaka tribe. 

(9.) Throughout Angola are now found a few rudimentary trades 
of Europe : (a) Tailoring, which comprises the sewing of native loin 
and shoulder cloths, as well as the making of shirts, pants, vests, 
and coats ; (6) Shoemaking, which includes the old manufacture of 
leather sheaths for knives and swords, quivers, sacks and satchels, 
cartridge-boxes and any other object made of leather; (c) Carpen- 
tering, for making tables, chairs, trunks, bedsteads, doors, shutters, 
window and door frames, beams, niters, wooden locks, and repairing 
any wooden article of European manufacture ; {a) Cooperage, which, 
owing to the extensive manufacture and trade in rum and wine, as 
also to the export of palm-oil, has become an important industry ; 
(e) Masonry. There is already a host of natives who can build a 
very good stone house. 

The internal native commerce of Angola is almost exclusively that 
of barter, one commodity being exchanged for another. 

The Kisama people have salt, wax and honey, cotton cloths, or- 
chilla weed, some game, cattle and agricultural produce, to export to 
the north bank of the Quanza, where they receive in exchange guns, 
powder, Manchester cloth, blankets, rum, and minor articles. 

The Lubolo tribe exports cniefly slaves, its greatest market being 
Dondo. As long as the trade in human beings continues, there is 
little hope of the Lubolos tapping the exhaustless resources of their 
spontaneous vegetation, fertile soil, and minerals. Though in rela- 
tively small quantities, they do, even now, bring some food produce 
to barter for European goods. 

The Songo tribe trades to some extent in rubber and wax ; and 
some of the men earn a living by carrying loads between Malange 
and Dondo. 

The Mbondo tribe gets its very limited requisite of European 
goods in exchange for cattle, food, and scraps of rubber and other 
produce from the Kuangu River, 

The Ngola tribe has only recently entered the labor field as car- 
riers from Malange and Cazengo to Dondo or to the far interior. 
Most of the resources of the country are still untapped, and trade 
with the whites is on a very small scale. 

The Mbamba people of the Malange district obtain what they want 
of European articles by carrying loads and hammocks for the whites 

14 Introduction. 

of Malange and Pungo Andongo. As this suffices for their modest 
requirements, they do not produce anything. The bulk of the 
Mbamba, however, around the headwaters of the Lukala and Loji 
rivers, produce coffee. 

The great Mbaka tribe displays its best qualities away from home. 
They used to be active agriculturists ; and their peanuts (ground- 
nuts) were exported to Europe in great quantities. But the extor- 
tions of some Portuguese "chefes" discouraged them from pro- 
ducing, and scattered them to the neighboring districts and to the 
farthest interior, where they are doing well as farmers, traders, trades- 
men, secretaries of chiefs, clerks and servants of whites, and gen- 
erally as pioneers of civilization. It is not the Portuguese, nor the 
Germans or Belgians, but the black Ambaca people, who have opened 
up the Kuangu, Kuilu, and Kassai basins. They are the only people 
in Angola who cultivate rice. Their tobacco, too, is greatly appre- 
ciated. The main native produce of the districts of Cazengo, Go- 
lungo Alto and Dembos is coffee ; nearly all of which is exported 
via Loanda. 

The different tribes constituting the Angola nation have 
Data!° l0Sic no characteristic features distinguishing them from any 
other African negroes. Even the famous difference be- 
tween the so-called Negro and Bantu stocks exists only in the imagi- 
nation of writers who had no chance of making comparative obser- 
vations west and south of the Niger. 

A pure tribal stock in countries where slavery, the slave-trade, 
and polygamy have existed for centuries, is an impossibility. Never- 
theless, a few tribal features have developed and still remain. Thus, 
the Kisama people are rather medium-sized and slender ; have high 
foreheads and protruding cheek bones, small and flat noses, scarcely 
any calves. The Lubolo people are rather of a light bronze ; have 
coarse, angular skulls, and are medium-sized. The Songo people 
are tall, fine-built, have an open countenance and well-fed limbs, 
very much like the Ovi-mbundu of Bailundu. The I-mbangala, 
Mbondo, and Mbaka are mixed in stature, but rather slim, dark in 
complexion, and wiry. The Ngola, as a rule, are tall and spare, 
symmetric, oval-faced, with fine hands and feet, and dark complexion. 

Much depends on the occupation and food of the people. The 
most miserable native lad, born of rachitic-looking parents, devel- 
ops beautiful proportions as soon as he is made to take wholesome 
exercise and gets plenty of appropriate food. 

Abnormities, like dwarfs, giants, albinos, occur here as well as in 
other parts. Blindness, caused by small-pox, is frequent. Insanity 
is not very rare. Longevity is not inferior to that of most coun- 
tries ; but mortality among the young is much greater than among 
civilized peoples. 

Angolan Folk-Lore. 15 

The sleep-sickness is as common and as incurable as on the 
Kongo. Syphilis is found everywhere, but in its worst forms only 
near white settlements. Goitres are not uncommon in the high- 
lands. Elephantiasis is frequent, especially in the cities of the coast, 
and more common among men than women. Malarial fevers trouble 
the natives as well as the whites ; but all those who cannot stand a 
certain degree of fever succumb while young. However, the havoc 
made by the fever does not seem to be greater, among the natives, 
than that caused in America and Europe by the sudden changes in 
temperature. Diseases of the breathing apparatus are largely due to 
defective clothing and disregard of hygiene ; diseases of the digestive 
organs to defective food and impure water. 

While, in the uncivilized state, one never meets with an exceed- 
ingly fat native, obesity is very common among the civilized blacks 
and mulattoes. 



" I have often wished I could get inside of an African for an after- 
noon and just see how he looked at things, for I am sure our worlds 
are as different as the color of our skins/' says Prof. Henry Drum- 
mond in his "Tropical Africa." 

This glimpse into the interior of an African's mind — for more 
than one afternoon — is afforded by the study of African folk-lore 
and the perusal of this book. The professor had traveled in Central 
Africa, had scanned parts of its coast and highland scenery, and 
lived in contact with various tribes during several months, and this 
only made him realize the more his failure to reach and grasp the 
inner, the living, world of Africa. 

Now that the great geographical problems of the Mysterious 
Continent are solved; now that the solution of its greatest moral 
problem, slavery, has been vigorously undertaken by the whole of 
Christendom, and the European powers have assumed the position 
and duties of political guardians over portions of Africa greater than 
themselves, it behooves every member of Christendom — for every 
vote weighs in the balance of these vital questions — to form an 
intelligent opinion on the present status and possibilities of Africa's 
teeming millions, in whose education he has his share of responsi- 

Never have more momentous questions come before the bar of pub- 
lic opinion than these between European civilization — including the 
rum and cannon power — and the inoffensive native races, nations, 
tribes, and citizens of Africa. Yet the great court has hitherto 

1 6 Introduction. 

beard the voices of only one side ; yea, the principal, the offended 
side, has not even been notified of the proceedings, much less invited 
to testify on its own behalf and advocate its own vital interests. 

Nobody will deny that before a person or a people can be judi- 
ciously dealt with, their character must be studied and considered. 
The character of an individual can be known only by prolonged 
intimacy, that of a nation by intimacy with typical representatives 
of its constituent classes, and by a thorough study of its literature. 

In Africa, where there are no facilities for intimacy with the 
natives, and where there is no written literature, the only way to 
get at the character, the moral and intellectual make-up, of the races 
and tribes, is to make a thorough study of their social and religious 
institutions, and of their unwritten, oral literature, that is of their 

Books of African travellers have been prominent before the public 
for the last two decades, but, as a rule, only such accessory parts 
of folk-lore as strike the sense of sight — native dress, arms, and 
strange customs — have been described, and seldom accurately at 
that. The essential constituents of folk-lore, those embodied in 
words, have been ignored, and the moral and intellectual world of 
Africa is, to-day, as much a terra incognita as geographical Africa 
was fifty years ago. 

The failure of African explorers in this respect is due, first of all, 
to their ignorance of native languages, then to their vagrancy ; but 
also to their lack of training in, or taste for, this youngest of sciences, 
comparative folk-lore. ^ 

Missionaries alone, whose duties imply an intimate acquaintance 
with native languages and habits, have thus far revealed to us a few 
leaves from the wonderful mnemonic archives of African nations. 
Missionary linguists, like Krapf, Rebmann and Steere, in East 
Africa ; Grout, Dohne and Colenso, Brincker, Kronlein and Buttner, 
in South Africa; Bentley, Mackey and Goldie, Kolle, Schdn and 
Christaller in West Africa, had to unravel the tangles of African 
grammar and lexicology before the collecting of authentic native lore 
could be successfully attempted. 

With one exception it is among these linguists, too, that we find 
the few authors who have cast some light upon our subject Few 
folk-lorists are acquainted with their works, and none has, to our 
knowledge, gathered and compared the available material and arrived 
at some positive conclusions. 

Recently Dr. Haarhoff, now pastor of a Dutch church in Trans- 
vaal, published in German a dissertation on the Bantu and their 
folk-lore ; but the material on which he worked consisted of but a 
few volumes on South African tribes, and he often fell into the 

Angolan Folk-Lore. i y 

common error of predicating of the whole race, the Bantu, and even 
of all Africans, what he had found to hold true in several South 
African tribes. To this habit of unwarranted generalization must 
be attributed, very largely, the distressing inaccuracy and the con* 
tradictory statements with which books and articles on African 
topics are replete. 

Avoiding this error, we define our geographic field as Africa south 
of the Sahara, The people inhabiting Egypt, the Great Desert, and 
what lies north of it, belong to the Semitic and Hamitic families, 
of the white, red, or tanned complexion. The woolly-haired, but 
yellow-colored, race of the Ba-tua, including the Hottentots, Bush- 
men, and pygmies, we only refer to as compared with the Bantu. 
Thus our ethnologic field is confined to the black or negro race 
in Africa, generally divided into two families, the Nigritic, or pure 
negro, and the Bantu, or modified negro. Our studies, however, 
have led us to reverse this division, and to hold, as Lepsius did, that 
the pure and main branch of the black or negro race is to be found 
among the so-called Bantu, ethnically as well as linguistically, and 
that the so-called Nigritic family is but another branch of the same 
stock, linguistically modified by the admixture of Hamitic elements. 

Reviewing now the published material, we find that East Africa 
offers but few native tales, scattered in prefaces of grammars and 
in missionary journals. The collection of Suahili stories which we 
have seen is really one of Arabian tales in Suahili garb, and does 
not properly belong to our subject. The work of Almeida da Cunha 
on the customs of the Mozambique tribes is excellent as far as cus- 
toms go, but it fails to give any specimens of native literature. 

Since the above was written, the Rev. W. E. Taylor has published 
a collection of Swahili Proverbs, the best of its kind in any African 

South Africa is the best worked field in African folk-lore. As 
early as in the forties and fifties, Casalis and Grout gave important 
specimens of the Sutu and Zulu folk-lore. In the sixties, Bleek pub- 
lished his " Reynard the Fox in South Africa/* containing transla- 
tions of forty-two short tales and fables collected by German mis- 
sionaries. They are mostly of Hottentot origin, and therefore out 
of our special sphere. From 1866 to 1870, Dr. Callaway printed at 
the Springvale Mission Press his "Zulu Nursery Tales" and his 
" Religious System of the Zulus," which are by far the most valu- 
able works yet published on African folk-lore. The first contains 
a number of long as well as short tales and myths in the Zulu lan- 
guage, with an excellent English translation and suggestive compara- 
tive notes. The second treats in the same threefold and exhaustive 
manner the Zulu Tradition of Creation, Ancestor Worship, Divina- 

1 8 Introduction* 

tion, Medical Magic, and Witchcraft. Callaway's notes prove beyond 
all doubt two important facts : (i) that the folk-lore of the Ama-zulu 
is intimately connected with that of most other South African tribes ; 
(2) that dozens of incidents and peculiar notions found in the Zulu 
tales are also familiar to the folk-lore of Polynesia, Asia, Europe, 
and America. Unfortunately Callaway's books are rare, and they 
were brought to our notice only when the present collection was 

In i886, McAU Theal, the historian of the Boers, published a sec- 
ond edition of his volume on Kaffir folklore, which proves that the 
subject is becoming popular in the young states of South Africa* 
although a journal of South African folk-lore had only a short life. In 
1 886, too, some Herero tales appeared as a supplement to Brincker's 
Grammar and Dictionary. To these Dr. C. G. Biittner added sev- 
eral others ; and this collection, kindly sent us by the author, was 
the first intimation we got of the importance of African folk-lore 

In that collection, Dr. Biittner already doubted the correctness of 
Bleek's double assertion, (1) that the Bantu have no animal stories 
or fables, (2) that they have none, because their languages have no 
grammatical gender. Bleek based his assumption (1) on the theory 
that mythology is a product of the corruption of language, (2) on 
the fact that among the scanty Bantu material at hand he had found 
few animal stories, and these, in obedience with his theory, he forth- 
with declared to be of Hottentot origin. Our Angolan animal 
stories, which are purely Bantu and totally disconnected from Hot- 
tentot lore, added to similar specimens of other Bantu nations pub- 
lished since Bleek's day, demonstrate that the Bantu folk-lore is as 
rich in animal stories as that of any sex-denoting language. 

Proceeding to West Africa, we look at the great province of An- 
gola, where Europeans have been settled for about four centuries, 
and we search in vain, through a pile of colonial publications, for a 
single native folk-tale. When intelligent Europeans have been four 
hundred years living and mixing with a native papulation and never 
recorded a single sample of the natives' oral literature, is that not 
superabundant proof of its non-existence ? So it looks. Yet as 
soon as we intelligently and persistently searched for it, that litera- 
ture revealed itself to us in amazing luxuriance. One of the dullest 
native boys was able, unaided, to dictate to us, from the book of his 
memory, over sixty tales and fables, a material equal to that of the 
largest collection of African tales ever yet published. The stories 
of this book do not represent one half of those already collected in 

This completes the review of the folk-lore collections among the 

Angolan Folk-Lore. 19 

Bantu tribes, and we now pass to the Nigritic branch, which covers 
all Upper Guinea and most of the Sudan. 

In 1854 appeared S. W. Koelle's u African Native Literature," 
containing twelve tales and fables and several historical fragments, 
all in the Kanuri, or Bornu, language. Bornu is situated on the 
southwest bank of Lake Tshad. This valuable collection was fol- 
lowed, in 1885, by Schon's "Magana Hausa," giving the original 
and translation of eighty-one short tales and fables of Hausa. Most 
of these stories were drawn from the traditional lore ; one part was 
dictated by Dorugu, a Hausa lad who had been taken to Europe ; 
another collected by the native missionary C. J. John of the Niger 

In all these Sudanese productions it is relatively easy to distin- 
guish the purely negro and African elements, which are identical 
with the Bantu lore, from the Semitic and Hamitic additions intro- 
duced with Islamism. 

On the folk-lore of Yoruba we have a description of customs and 
a collection of proverbs by the American missionary T. J. Bowen, 
published with his dictionary in 1858, and a collection of proverbs 
published by Abb6 Bouche in 1883. 

Much valuable material on the folk-lore of the Gold Coast can be 
culled from the journals of the Basel mission. J. G. Christaller, a 
member of this mission, has published a collection of three thousand 
six hundred proverbs, unfortunately without translation ; recently 
also a few legends with a German translation and notes. Nor should 
we forget F. R. Burton's "Wit and Wisdom of West Africa/* 

The folk-lore of Sierra Leone is partially illustrated by Schlenker's 
" Temne Traditions," published in 1861, In addition to a few his- 
torical traditions the author gives seven Temne fables, which differ 
in nothing from similar productions of the Bantu. 

Boilat's Grammar of the Wolof contains a number of native tales 
and fables, and casts some light on the folk-lore of French Sene- 

For the Fulah group we only have a few historical and poetical 
specimens scattered in grammars and scientific periodicals. 

Summing up, it appears that the only collections of African negro 
tales, published as such, are Callaway's for the Zulu, Theal's for the 
Kaffir, our own for Angola, Koelle's for Bornu, and Schon's for 
Hausa. All the others are merely appendices to grammars or con- 
tributions to linguistic or ethnologic journals. 

The conclusions arrived at after a careful comparison of the whole 
material are briefly these : — 

(i>) Comparing the African folk-lore with that of other races, we 
find that many of the myths, favorite types or characters, and pecui- 

20 Introduction* 

iar incidents, which have been called universal, because they recur 
among so many races, can also be traced through Africa from sea 
to sea. African folk-lore is not a tree by itself, but a branch of one 
universal tree. 

(2.) Though the influence of Portuguese and that of Arabian folk- 
tales is evident in many stories, still the bulk of the tales published 
is purely native. As to the foreign stories, they have been so well 
adapted to the already existing native lore of kindred nature, and in- 
termingled with genuine African elements, that nothing remains of 
the exotic original except the fundamental canvas or skeleton. 

(3.) African folk-lore is especially rich in animal stories or fables. 

(4.) Considered in itself, the folk-lore of the Bantu appears to be 
remarkably homogeneous and compact, the most distant tribes show- 
ing often more identity in some, and similarity in other particulars, 
than those who are conterminous. 

(5.) After the exotic elements connected with Islamism are elimi- 
nated from Nigritic folk-lore, the latter is found to be virtually the 
same as the Bantu. 

(6.) The mythologies and superstitions of the various tribes are 
easily reducible to one common — the original — type, and this again 
is strikingly similar to the popular conceptions of the Aryan and 
other great stocks of mankind, when not identical with these. 

(7.) In the fables, or animal stories, each personified animal, while 
true to its real nature, shows the same character and is made to play 
the same r61e from one end of the field to the other. 

(8.) Among the Nigritic and Bantu tribes a great number of the 
stories have the peculiar feature of being used to account for the 
origin or cause of natural phenomena, and of particular habits, in 
animals as well as in men. Such stories are also met, though it 
seems less frequently, in the folk-lore oi other races. They may 
properly be called the etiologic class of tales. 

The space allotted to this chapter forbids our fully elucidating 
each one of the preceding points, and for data we refer to the notes. 
Two points, however, ought to be dwelt on in this introduction : 
(1) the native classification of Angolan folk-lore, and (2) the part 
played by animals in African folk-lore generally. The native classi- 
fication of Angolan folk-lore, as manifested in its terminology, strikes 
us as both practical and rational, and it may be applied as well to 
other national folk-lore of Africa, because the material is of the same 
nature throughout For convenience we will number the classes, 
as followed in this work, and give the first place to fiction. 

(1.) The first class includes all traditional fictitious stories, or 
rather, those which strike the native mind as being fictitious. They 
are the fruit and food of the faculty of imagination and speculation. 

Angolan Folk-Lore. 2 1 

Their object is less to instruct than to entertain, and to satisfy the 
aspirations of the mind for liberty from the chains of space and time, 
and from the laws of matter. These stories must contain something 
marvellous, miraculous, supernatural. As personifying animals, the 
fables belong to this class. In native parlance these stories are gen- 
erally called nti-soso. They are always introduced and concluded 
with a special formula. 

(2.) The second class is that of true stories, or rather stories re- 
puted tnje ; what we call anecdotes. Strictly historical accounts 
form another class. Though entertaining, too, these stories are 
intended to be instructive and useful as a preparative for future 
emergencies. The faculties which prevail in these productions are 
memory and foresight combined, that is, experience, practical wis- 
dom, common-sense. The didactic tendency of these stories is in 
no way technical, but essentially social. They do not teach how to 
make a thing, but how to act, how to live. These anecdotes are 
called, specifically, nzaka, which in its widest sense means any kind 
of Logos, i. e. f embodiment of thought in words. 

(3.) Historical narratives are called ma4unda> or nti-sendu, and 
mike a special class of history. They are the chronicles of the tribe 
and nation, carefully preserved and transmitted by the head men or 
elders of each political unit, whose origin, constitution, and vicissi- 
tudes they relate. The tna-lunda are generally considered state 
secrets, and the plebeians get only a few scraps from the sacred 
treasure of the ruling cl^ss. 

(4.) The fourth class is that of Philosophy, not metaphysical, but 
moral ; and is represented by the Proverbs, caXL*Aji#abu. That the 
negroes are deficient in philosophical faculties can only be said by 
those who ignore their proverbs, which both in diction and depth of 
meaning, equal those of any other race. This class is closely related 
with that of the Anecdotes. Often an anecdote is but an illustration 
of a proverb, and a proverb is frequently an anecdote in a nutshell. 
The proverb is the product of the faculty of generalization, of getting 
at the principles, of inference and discrimination, combined with the 
gift of graphic and concise expression, 

(5.) The fifth class is that of Poetry and Music, which go hand in 
hand. The epic, heroic, martial, idyllic, comic, satyric, dramatic, 
and religious styles are all represented, though not with equal prom- 
inence. As a rule, poetry is sung or chanted, and vocal music is 
rarely expressed without words. African negroes are the readiest 
extemporizers. Not even a child finds difficulty, at any time, if ex- 
cited, in producing an extemporaneous song. Of course, not many 
pieces are really original, nor do artists abound. The proverbs, 
though never sung, combine as well as the worded song the elements 

22 Introduction. 

of Wank versification. In Ki-mbundu poetry there are few signs of 
rhyme, but many of alliteration, rhythm, and parallelism. Songs are 
called mi-imbu. 

(6.) .A sixth class is formed by the riddles called ji-nongonongo, 
which are used only for pastime and amusement, though eminently 
useful for sharpening the wits and strengthening the memory of 
adepts. Often the nongonongo is nothing but a game or play with 
words. Like the mi-soso they are introduced and concluded with 
traditional formulae. 

In African folk-tales, the animal world, as also the spirit world, is 
organized and governed just like the human world. In Angola, the 
elephant is the supreme king of all animal creation, and the special 
chief of the edible tribe of wild animals. Next to him in rank, the 
lion is special chief of the tribe of ferocious beasts, and highest vas- 
sal of the elephant. Chief of the reptile tribe is the python. Chief 
of the finny tribe is, in the interior, the di-lenda, the largest river- 
fish. Chief of the feathery tribe is the kakulu ka humbi, largest of 
eagles. Among the domestic animals the sceptre belongs to the 
bull ; among the locusts to one called di-ngundu. Even the ants 
and termites have their kings or queens. Every chief or king has 
his court, consisting of the ngolambole, tandala, and other officers, 
his parliament of ma-kota and his plebeian subjects, just like any 
human African soba.. 

At the general assembly of the whole animal creation, in its pro- 
ceedings and in the execution of its resolutions, every animal exer- 
cises the office for which it is qualified. Thus, in the fables, the 
elephant is equally supreme in strength and wisdom ; the lion is 
strong, but not morally noble, as in European lore, nor wise as the 
elephant. The hyena is the type of brutal force united with stupid- 
ity ; the leopard that of vicious power combined with inferior wits, 
The fox or jackal is famous for astuteness ; the monkey for shrewd- 
ness and nimbleness ; the hare or rabbit for prudence and agility ; 
the turtle or terrapin for unsuspected ability. The partridge, on the 
contrary, is silly and vain. The mbambi antelope is swift, harmless, 
unsuspecting : the ngulungu antelope (tragelaphus gratus or scrip- 
tus) is foolish and ill-fated. The turtle-dove is, as with us, symbolic 
of purity, chastity, and wisdom; but the dog, on the contrary, per- 
sonifies all that is mean, servile, and djespicable. 

The myths and tales of the negroes in North, Central, and South 
America are all derived from African prototypes, and these can easily 
be traced in collections like the present, one. Through the medium 
of the American negro, African folk-lore has exerted a deep and 
wide influence on the folk-lore of the American Indians ; and that 
of the American white race itself bears many palpable signs of Af- 

Literature of Ki-mbundu. 23 

rican inroads. This gives the study of African folk-lore not only an 
additional charm, but, for Americans, a decidedly national importance, 
and should induce American anthropologists to promote the study of 
negro folk-lor6 on either side of the Atlantic, by encouraging the 
collection and publication of more original material. 



P. Pacconio, C. J. Gentio de Angola, etc. Lisboa, 1642. 

A catechism in Ki-mbundu, translated from Portuguese. The 
second edition, printed in Rome, 1661, in Latin, Ki-mbundu, and 
Portuguese, bears the Latin title, " Gentilis Angolae," etc. The 
third edition, printed in Lisbon, appeared in 1784. The fourth edi- 
tion, of 1855, * s given under another title below. 

Pedro Dias, C. J. Arte da lingua de Angola, etc. Lisboa, 1697. 

A very short, but pretty correct, sketch of Ki-mbundu grammar. 
We have seen only a manuscript copy of this rare work. 

Bernardo Maria de Cannecattim. Diccionario da lingua bunda. 
Lisboa, 1804. 

Owing to its incorrectness, confused spelling, and erroneous ren- 
derings of words, this large dictionary, written by an Italian Capu- 
chin, has never been of any use to students of Ki-mbundu. 

(Same author.) Collec§ao de Observagoes grammaticaes sobre a 
lingua bunda. Lisboa, 1805. Second edition, 1859. 

This grammar is no better than the dictionary of the same author. 
Both works are far inferior to those of the seventeenth century, 

F. de Saixes Ferreira. Explicates de Doutrina Christa, etc. 
Lisboa, 1855. 

This is a new but very incorrect edition of the old catechism of 
1642, reproduced from the very faulty edition of 1784. It is now as 
rare as the Older editions. 

Dr. Saturnino de Souza e Oliveira and M. A. de Castro Fran- 
cina. Elementos grammaticaes da lingua nbundu. Loanda, 1864. 

Written by a Brazilian doctor, assisted by an educated native, this 
work is slightly better than that of Cannecattim ; but it is as short 
and rare as Pedro Dias' work, which surpasses it in grammatical 

24 Introduction. 

In 1864, Dr. Saturnino de Souza e Oliveira began the publication 
of his "Diccionario da lingua n'bundu." A large part or the whole 
was printed, but never stitched, and only a few unique manuscript 
slips and printed pages of this valuable work are left 

Vocabularies of Ki-mbundu have been collected by Dr. Living- 
stone, of whose work an unpublished copy exists in the Grey Library, 
Cape Town ; by the German explorer Lux, published as an ap- 
pendix to his book, and by the Brazilian Dutra. The vocabulary 
of the latter was published without the author's name, as an appen- 
dix to Capello and Ivens' book "De Benguella As terras de Iacca,*' 
Lisboa, 1881. In 1887 it was republished, and again without the 
author's name, by the then Bishop of Angola and Congo, Don 
Antonio Leitao e Castro. The original manuscript is, for the pres- 
ent, in my possession. 

About 1883, Sebastiao de Jesus completed a "Diccionario 
n'bundo," which was not without value, but the author died before 
he could find a publisher. It still exists in manuscript, but is not 
worth publishing now. 

Heli Chatelain. Karivulu pala ku ri longa kutanga kimbundu, 


The first primer in Ki-mbundu. A Portuguese translation accom* 
panies the Ki-mbundu words. 

Heli Chatelain. O Njimbu ia mbote kua Nzud. B. & F. Bible 

Society. London, 1888. 

A translation of John's Gospel into the Loanda dialect of Ki- 

Heli Chatelain. Vocabularies of Mbamba and U-mbangala (with 
translation in Portuguese, English, German, and Ki-mbundu), pub- 
lished in " Zeitschrift fiir Afrikanische Sprachen." Berlin, 1889. 

Heli Chatelain. Grammatica do Ki-mbundu (Ki-mbundu Gram- 
mar). Geneva, 1888-89. (Price #1.50.) 
Written in Portuguese, but with English rendering of examples, 

so that with its help, an English student, too, can learn Ki-mbundu. 

Heli Chatelain. Grundziige des Kimbundu oder der Angola- 

Sprache. Asher & Co. Berlin, 1889-90. 

This Germaii edition has no practical exercises, as the Portuguese 
edition ; but it is enriched by many additional notes, and by tables 
comparing Ki-mbundu with the six principal West Central African 
languages. (Price 3 shillings, or 75 cents.) 

Pronunciation of Kvmbundu. 25 

J. D. Corpeiro da Matta. Jisabu, jihengele, etc. Lisbon, 1891. 

A collection of proverbs and riddles in Ki-mbundu with Portu- 
guese translation. The author, a full-blooded and self-taught native, 
published this book, add the following, at his own expense. 

J. D. Cordeiro da Matta. Cartilha Racional. Lisbon, 1892. 
A Ki-mbundu primer without Portuguese translation. 

J. D. Cordeiro da Matta. Ensaio de Diccionario Kimbundu- 
Portuguez. Lisbon, 1893. 

The best vocabulary of Ki-mbundu yet published. 

Note. — Most of these books may be procured through H. Chate- 




The vowels are pronounced as in Italian. The letters e and o 
have the open sound, though not quite so much as open e and in 
most Romanic languages. 

a like the English a in father, fan 

e " " a/ in fair, hair. 

* i " " ee in feet, heel. 

" " vowel sound in fought, taught 

*u u " 00 in fool, shoot 

Portuguese im, almost like English ing. 


* Semi" Vowels. 

(1.) Before a vowel, in the same syllable, i and u become semi* 
vowels, and are then pronounced like English y and w, thus : — 

ua like wa ia like ya 

ue " we ie " ye 

ui u wi ii " yi 

uo " wo to " yo 

uu " wu iu " yu 

In Ki-mbundu every syllable is open, and every word has as many 
syllables as vowels (not including semi-vowels). 

Bearing these rules in mind, words like the following need no 
accent in order to be read correctly : — 













































ki-zu-ua " 







Exception : When, however, the accent rests on i or u, the latter 
keeps the full vowel sound. In this case the accented i or u is 
written with an acute accent, e. g, Kuijia, kiztia. 

Sometimes these and similar words are written and pronounced 
kuijiia, kizuua (pronounce: Kwijiya, kizuwa), in which case the 
reduplication of the letter takes the place of the accent. 

(2.) In rapid speech, unaccented e and o before a vowel, without 
intervening pause, become semi-vowels i and u. However, this 
change of sound is not usually shown in writing when.* and o are 
final, e. g, pange ami pronounce pangi ami or pangyami, M momo t 
pronounce kt momu $ or ki momwt 

- Diphthongs. 

Final ai t au> ei, eu t ou> though pronounced in rapid speech like 
diphthongs, are in reality two full vowels; hence two syllables. 
E.g., sai is sa-i % dikau is di-ka-u, and according to the rule the 
accent rests on the penult. 

When an enclitic is added, the accent is shifted to the next vowel, 
e. g, sai-ku pronounce sa-i-ku. 

In kuzauka, for instance, the accent is orf*» {kuzatika) because 
that is the penult (Jzu-za-u-kd). 

In #iu/ t both a and i have the same tonic value, because the 
accent falls on the last syllable, not as usual on the penult ; thus 
a-i~ui. But for this accent on the last syllable, the word should be 
pronounced a>4~ue. 


Those sounding as in English are b,f, v, h % /, m 9 n, z. 

In the standard dialects of Ki-mbundu, p, t, k are pronounced as 
in French or Italian, i. e., without the explosive h generally heard 
after them in English. 

The letter s represents the harsh sound, never the soft z sound ; 
as in son, not as in has. 

The letter g is always hard as in anger, never soft as in angel. 

The letter x represents the English sh, never English x. 

The letter x represents the English ch or tsh. It occurs only in 
dialects of the interior. In the Mbaka dialect it always stands in 
the place of a Loanda x, e. g., Loanda, muxima; Mbaka, muxima. 
In the Bantu mother-tongue this x was a /, mutima. 

Pronvnciation of Ki»mbundu. 27 

The letter j has the sound q£ thje French j\ which in the English 
words azure and -measure is symbolized by z and s. 

The letter d before 4 represents a peculiar African sound, which 
in various tongues is written /; r, d, but in pronunciation is never 
exactly that. In Loanda, it is pronounced almost like simple (softy 
Portuguese r; in the interior it sounds almost like d. For English 
people it is safest to pronounce it like d. 

In all other cases d is pronounced as in English. 

Hitherto this di has been written ri 9 which is also correct. It is 
a parallel of the Spanish b and v. 


For the correct pronunciation and understanding of Ki-mbundu, 
it is essential to know the rules that prevail in the syllabization of 

(1.) All syllables are open ; that is, they end with a vowel 

{2.) The letters m- and n- are never pronounced with the preced- 
ing vowel, but with the following letter, whether it be a vowel or a 
consonant, e. g.> ki-nzo-nji, a-ntbu-ndu, ndo-tigo, ki-na-ma. 

(3.) Every syllable can have only one vowel ; but it may contain 
a semi-vowel preceding the full vowel, e. g. f i-mbua 9 kutnbia-mbia. 

Tonic Accent. 

(1.) The general rule is that the tonic accent rests on the penult 

(2.) Exceptions are indicated by an acute accent, e. g. f band, 

When the accent rests on the last syllable of a genuine Ki-mbundu 
word, one may depend on it that there has been an apocope of part 
of the original word. When the accent is on the antepenult, the 
word is of foreign origin. 

In polysyllabic derived verbs, however, it is admissible to put a 
slight tonic accent on the root of the verb ; e* g, zdngula ; but zath 
gMa is equally correct. 

(3.) Monosyllabic words may be accented or not When they are 
not accented, they are pronounced as one word with the preceding 
or the following, the sense indicating to which they belong. If 
they belong to the preceding word, the accent of the latter passes 
from the penult to the last syllable ; e. g. f Ngana 'ngo is pronounced 
ngandngOy and kutunga y nzo is pronounced kutungdnzo. 

Enclitic particles (not nouns) are tied to the preceding word by a 
hyphen ; e. g. 9 Ngi bane-kiu, kutala-mu. 

When a monosyllabic word is not to be pronounced enclitically, it 
is distinguished by an acute accent ; e. g, Kid, i5> id. 

2& Introduction. 

Diacritic Signs. 

' (i.) The acute accent indicates the tonic accent, when this is not 
on the penult, or when a monosyllabic word is pronounced separately 
from the preceding or the following,, e. g, divulu, kid. 

(2.) The grave accent is used to distinguish words which, though 
differing in meaning, could otherwise not be distinguished in writ- 
ing. Thus the locative, d, is distinguished from any other # by the 
grave d, e. g., Ngdbcka, udkala, mud Bangu. 

(3.) The circumflex distinguishes, graphically, words which, in 
spoken language, are pronounced with a different intonation. This 
a foreigner will hardly ever be able to learn, and it is of no practical 
use to explain it here ; e. g. f Njila, path, njila, bird, mbanibi, cold, 
mbdmbi, deer. Perhaps it may help some if we tell them to pro- 
nounce the word with circumflex rather slowly and with equal stress 
on both syllables, as is done in French. The word without circum- 
flex to be pronounced as usual. 

The negative kt is pronounced longer than ki meaning when. The 
suffix -i of the third person singular is distinguished by circumflex 
and a prolonged sound from -/suffix., of the second person singular. 
So is -d suffix of the third person plural from -d demonstrative. 

(4.) The trema in e and o indicates the crasis, or contraction of 
two vowels, with or without ellipsis of an intervening consonant, 
e. g., ngexana for ngaixana {a + i = <?), molungu for maulungu (a+u^a) 
ng&bana for nga ku bana (nga 'u band). 

(5.) The apostrophe indicates the dropping of a letter, e. g. f 'nga 
instead of ingo, mu 'atnenemene instead of mu kamenemene, ngu f u 
bana instead of ngu ku bana, mori a inutu instead of mona a mutu. 

The apostrophe also distinguishes k'a negative from any other 
ka f c. g., ITabanga, he, she, it, does not ; kabanga, he, she, it, does. 

When the word is negative the first syllable is pronounced longer 
and higher ; but the tonic accent remains as usual. 

(6.) The til over any vowel makes the same nasal, e. g. f i, pro- 
nounce ing. This t is a contraction of inga. It occurs only in the 
Mbaka dialect, and is the only nasalized vowel in the standard dia- 
lects of Ki-mbundu. 



Version A, 
Eme ngateletele l ngana Fenda 2 Madfa, uauaba 3 k'a rtiU uabelA.* 

1 often tell (of) ngana Fenda Maria, beautiful none more beautiful. 

Uakexidi €, 5 inga 6 tivuala mona. O mon' £, inga u mu ixana u6 

She lived on, and gave birth (to) a child. Child hers, an J she her called also 

ngana Fenda Madfa. O manii 4, se uauaba kavua, o mona 

ngana Fenda Maria. Mother hers, if (she) was beautiful the ninth, the daughter 

uauaba kakuinii. 7 

was beautiful the tenth. 

Manii & inga utuma ku Putu 8 kusumba lumuenu luzuela. 

Mother hers then sent to Portugal to buy a mirror that speaks. 

Kamenemene koso, ki azuba ku di sukula ni kuzuata, uia 

Morning every, when she had washing herself and dressing, she went 


mu lumuenu lufi, inga uibula o lumuenu: 

to the mirror hers, and asked the mirror: 

"E! lumuenu luami, e! lumuenu luami; ngauaba inga 

" O mirror mine ! O mirror mine I am I beautiful or 

ngaiiba?" — "Kanambd; 9 uauaba muene ; ku mundu oko kuenid 

am I ugly?" — "Not at all; thou art indeed; in world this there is not 


mutUj uauaba usokela n'eie." 

a person, beautiful equal with thee. 9f 

Iziia ioso, ki azuba o kuzuata, uakebula * o lumuenu lu& 

Days all, when she had finished dressing, she then questioned the mirror hers* 

O lumuenu inga lu mu tambujila kiomuene. 

The mirror and (it) her answers the same. 

Kizua kimoxi, o mon' 6, ngana Fenda Madia dia Mona, inga 

Day one, child heis, Miss Fenda Maria the daughter, and 

uakulu kid, o manii & ki atundile, o mona ujukula 10 o dibitu 

grownup already, mother hers when had gone out, the daughter opens the door 

dia mVnzo 11 mu ene 32 o lumuenu, inga ukala ku di talela-mu. 

of the room in which is the mirror, and she looks and looks at herself in it 

Ki azubile ku di tala, inga utund'6. 

When she had done looking at herself, then she goes out. 

30 Folk-Tales of Angola. 

Kiztia kiamukuA, o manii £, ki azubile o kuzuata, inga uia 

Day the other, mother hers, when she had done dressing, then she went 

mu lumuenu lu& o ku lu ibula. O lumuenu inga lu rau 

to the mirror hers to it question. The mirror then it her 

tambujila: "Ambula mbd, ngana Fenda Rfadfa. Uauaba muene; 

answers: " Leave it alone, ngana Fenda Maria. Thou art beautiful indeed; 

maji, se eie uauaba kavua, o mon* 6, uejile mazd momo, uauaba 

but, if thou art beautiful ninth, daughter thine, who came yesterday in here, she is beautiful 

kakuinii." Kat£ mu iziia itatu, ki aia mu lumuenu, o lumuenu 

tenth." Up to days three, when she went to the mirror, the mirror 

lu mu tambujila kiomuene. 

{it) her answered the same. 

O mama inga uamba kiki : " Kana ; 13 o mon* ami mu kuuaba ua 

The mother then says thus: "No; daughter mine in beauty has 

ngi tundu. Se ngilombuela u kiki, o mon* ami uando ku ngi 

me surpassed. If I let pass this, the daughter mine will from me 

tambula o mala. Ki a di bange kala kiki, o mon' ami, ngando 

take the men. As it has happened like this, daughter mine, I will 

ku mu katula ku bat' oko." 15 O mama inga utuma kubangesa 

her remove from house this." The mother then ordered to be made 

o 'nzo, inga uta-mu o mon' £ ni maseka 16 i£, kiiadi kid. O 

a house, and the put in daughter hers with nurse hers, both of them. The 

mama inga utuma kuxitisa o mabitu ni jinjanena, 17 inga ubangesa 

. mother then orders to block the doors and windows, and to make 

ng6 kadizungu, buoso bu abitixila 18 o kudia ni menia. 

only a small hole, through which they shall pass the food and water. 

mon'a ngan' 19 6 ni maseka id inga akala mVnzo. mueniomo 

The young lady this and nurse hers then stayed in house in there 

ndumba ia mivu. 

a lot 1 * of years. 

Kiziia kimoxi, o ngana Fenda Madia dia mona uakexile ni vondadi 

Day one, ngana Fenda Maria the daughter had a craving 

ia kudia muenge, inga uambela maseka ie : " E ! maseka iami ; 

to eat sugar-cane, and she tells nurse hers : " O nurse mine ; 

ngala ni vondadi 20 ia kudi£ muenge. Nd£ ku Palaia, 21 ki ngi 

1 have a craving to eat sugar-cane. Go to the beach, there forme 

sumbile muenge." 

buy sugar-cane." 

O maseka inga u mu ibula: "Aba ngana, ngisumba kiebi o 

The nurse then (she) her asks : " But, mistress, I shall buy how the 

muenge, maji kana dibitu buoso bu ngibitila ? " O ngana id inga 

sugar-cane, but no door through which I (can) pass?" The mistress hers then 

u mu ambela : " Tubange dizungu ffi bu mbandu ia kipalelu n 

(she) her tells: "Let us make a hole in the side of wall 

nda utunde." Inga abanga o dizungu. O maseka inga utunda, 

that thou mayest go out.'* And they make the hole. The nurse. then goes out, 

uia ku&sumba ** o muenge. 

goes to buy the sugar-cane. 

Ngana Fenda Maria. 31 

Ki ejile,. ngana Fenda Madfa inga ukala mu kudia p muenge, 

When she had come ngana Fenda Maria and was eating the sugar-cane, 


mu kuta o poko ku muenge, i mu tula ku mulembu ; poko 

while striking the knife at the sugar-cane, it (the her hits on a finger; the knife 


inga i mu kuama. 

and (it) her wounds. 2 * 

Ngana Fenda Madfa inga uixana masekp. id : " E ! maseka, e ! 

Ngana Fenda Maria then calls nurse hers: "O nurse! O 

maseka; ngafika o polo iami ng6 iauaba; manii, ki ngauaba 

nurse l I thought face mine alone is beautiful; but, as I am beautiful 

o polo, ni maniinga mami mauaba." 

in the face, (so) also blood mine is beautiful." 

O mon'adiiala, uexile 26 mu kubita bu kanga, o ki evile mVnzo 

A young man, who was passing outside, when he heard in the house 

mu azuela kiki, muene bu kanga inga utambujila: "Nga ku ivu, 

speaking thus, he outside then answered: "I have thee heard, 

mon'a ngana, uazuela mVnzo omo, kuma ki auaba o polo 16, 

young lady, who hast spoken in house this, that as is beautiful face thine, 

ni maniinga m6 u& mauaba. Aba, se uamuene ngana Fele 

also blood thine too is beautiful. But, if thou hadst seen Mr. Fele 

Milanda, tandu * ki auaba, o madiabu • ma mu sueka mu ikandu." 80 

Milanda, 87 so much is he beautiful, (that) the demons have him hidden in Ikandu." 

Ngana Fenda Madfa, ki evile bu kanga bu a mu tambujila kiki, 

Ngana Fenda Maria, when she heard outside that one her answers thus, 

inga ukala mu banza ngana Fele Milanda, ua mu tundu mu 

then she begins to think of ngana Fele Milanda, who her surpasses in 

Toiuaba, tandu ki auaba, o madiabu ma mu sueka mu ikandu. 

beauty, so much is he beautiful, (that) the demons have him hidden in Ikandu. 

O kizu' okio ngana Fenda Madfa k'adidi£ dingi. 

Bay that ngana Fenda Maria not ate more. 

Kiziia kienieki, inga ubongolola o ima i& ioso, inga u i ta mu 

Day this same, then she gathers things hers all, and she them puts into 

kalubungu 31 k£, inga utuma maseka i£ bu kitanda ku akk mu 

"kalubungu" hers, and sends nurse hers to the market to there her 

isumbila ndumba ia makezu ni jinjfbidi. 83 O maseka inga u mu 

buy a lot of kola-nuts 3 * and ginger. The nurse and (she) her 

sumbila o makezu. 

buys the kola-nuts. 

O m' usuku, ene oso muene azeka kid, ngana Fenda Madfa, bu 

In the night, they all indeed are asleep already, ngana Fenda Maria, in 

hama iS, ukatula o kalubungu k6, inga ukuata makanda mu njila. 81 

bed hers takes the "kalubungu" hers, and catches (her) soles on road.j 

Ukala mu kuia kui 85 ngana Fele Milanda. 

She is going to ngana Fele Milanda. 

Inga uenda, uenda: uzuba mbeji moxi t mbeji iadi; uenda 

And she walks, walks: she completes month one, months two; she walks 

32 Fi>lk- Tales of Angola. 

mai'S. 86 O ki azubile o kuinii dia mbeji, usanga o kaveia kezala 

on and on. When she completed the ten (of) months, she meets an old woman full (of > 

kitanga; 87 k'enie ku ki kulala. 88 Ngana Fenda Madfa inga u mu 

leprosy; there is no one to it cure. Ngana Fenda Maria and she her 

kulala; ua mu sukula, ua mu tumbu, inga u mu ta o milongo. 

cures; she her washes, she her dresses wounds, and her puts on the remedy. 

O kaveia inga uia ku kilu. 

The old woman then goes to sleep. 

Kiosueki o kaveia ki azeka, ngana Fenda Madfa inga u mu 

While the old woman sleeps, ngana Fenda Maria (and) (she) her 

lambela o mbiji ni funji. 39 Ki iabile inga ufundumuna o kaveia ; 

cooks the fish and the mush. When they are ready then she awakes the old woman; 

inga o kaveia kadia. Ki azubile o kudia, o kaveia inga u mu 

and the old woman eats. When she had done eating, the old woman then her 

bana o manongonongo: 40 "Kuma eie ualoi' 6, Fenda Madfa, eie 

gave the instructions : "Where thou art going thus, Fenda Maria, thou 

uazuba kid kuinii dia mbeji. Knk ku kamba mbeji jiiadi 

hast completed already ten (of) months. There is for the lacking months two 

pala kubixila. Maji, ki uakdbixila, 41 ki uak&sanga o jihoji, 

for arriving. But, when thou shalt there arrive, when thou there findest the lions, 

jingo, jinzamba, iama iama kid; 42 iala bu muelu; iazeka 

leopards,- elephants, wild beasts, wild beasts all over; that are at the door; asleep 

iedi 48 kala iafu, k'ukale ni uoma. Somboka-iu, ubokole mu 

as though they were dead, don't be with fear. Pass beyond them, to enter the 

kololo. 44 


O ki usanga o hoji ionene, iajukula mu kanu, ta o lukuaku 

When thou findest the lion great that has open his mouth, put (thy) hand 

mu kanu did, usunge-mu o jisabi: kuinii dia sabi ni sabi jiiadi, 46 

into mouth his, pull out from it the keys: ten keys and keys two (is), 

mu kuinii dia kudlutu ni kudlutu jiiadi. 

for the ten rooms and rooms two. 

Uie 46 ku kitadi, ukatule-ku o kuinii dia masanga ni masanga 

(Then) go to the yard, take out thence the ten jugs and jugs 

maiadi, u m' ambate, u ma bandese ku tandu. Inga udila, 

two, them carry and get them up up - stairs. And thou shall cry, 

ubuka, udila, ubuka, kat6 mu kuinii dia masanga ni moxi. O 

thou shalt fen, cry, fan, until the ten jugs and one (the nth). The 

dia kaiadi ki dizala, o ki difaf ela boxi, o ngana Fele Milanda 

twelfth when it gets full, when it runs over to the ground, (then) ngana Fele Milanda 


will revive." 

Ngana Fenda Madfa inga ui'£. Inga usanga o kaveia kamukui 

Ngana Fenda Maria then .goes her And she finds an old woman other 


•—lukuaku lumoxi, kinama kimoxi, mbandu ia polo ni mbandu ia 

—arm one, leg one, one side of face and one side of 

Ngana Fend* Maria. 33 

mukutu — i kalotua. Ngana Fenda Madia umenekena, utarabula 

body — she is pounding. Ngana Fenda Maria greets, takes from 

o kaveia o muisu. Ngana Fenda Madia inga utua o jimbombo, 

the old woman (her) pestle. Ngana Fenda Maria then pounds the dried cassava, 

inga usesa; ubanga o fuba, ubana kaveia. 

and sifts ; makes the flour, gives (it) to the old woman. 

Kaveia inga u mu sakidila, inga u mu bana o manongonongo, 

The old woman then (she) her thanks and (she) her gives instructions, 

kala m'a mu bene 47 o kaveia kadianga. 

like those her gave the old woman first. 

Fenda Madia ukuata makanda mu njila, uenda. 

Fenda Maria takes (her) soles to the road, walks. 

Ki kua mu kambele kid iziia iiadi ngo, inga uivua bu-lu, 

When there was her lacking already days two only, then she hears in heaven, 

l>u ala ku mu ixana : " Fenda Madfa ! Fenda Madfa ! ualoia 

there is (one) her calling: "Fenda Maria! Fenda Maria! thou art going 

ku£? ,,4S Fenda Madfa usakuka koko, usakuka koko; kualS 

where? 1 * Fenda Maria turns hither, turns thither: there is no 

mutu. Ukala mu kui'6, inga a mu ixana dingi ; kat£ lutatu. O 

person. She is about to go on, and they her call again ; op to thrice. The 

lua kauana, Fenda Madfa inga uimana, inga uzuela, uixi : " Eie, 

fourth time, Fenda Maria then stands (still) and speaks, saying: "Thou, 

uolo ng' ibula ! inga u mutu, inga u nzumbi, inga eie 

-who<art me asking! whether thou be a person, whether thou be a ghost, whether thou be 

Ngana Nzambi, ngaloia kui ngana Fele Milanda, tandu ki auaba, 

the Lord God, I am going to Mr. Fele Milanda, so much he is beautiful, 

o madiabu ma mu sueka mu ikandu." — " Kidi muene, Fenda 

<that)the demons have him hidden in Ikandu." — "Truly, indeed, Fenda 

Madfa, utena o kuia kud Fele Miland' A ? " *>— " Ngiia/* — « Ui' d ? " 

Maria, canst thou go to Fele Milanda?" — "I am going." — "Thou art going?" 

— "Ngiia." — "Poji, 60 ijfa nakiu, kuma erne Ngana Nzambi, ngala 

— "I shall go."— "Then, know this, that lam the Lord God, that am 

ku'u zuelesa. O tuveia tuiadi, tu uasange mu njila, erne muene, 

to thee speaking. The old women two, whom thou hast met on road, (were) I myself. 

Ngabilukile pala kutala, se u mutu uenda o ngongo. 51 

X had transformed myself to see, whether thou art one to stand hardship. 

Ngomono; 52 kuma u mutu, uenda o ngongo, k'ujimbidila. Ki 

I have thee seen ; as thou art one, that stands hardship, thou shalt not get lost. As 

a di bange 83 kala kiki, eie, o ngongo ua i ende kid, uende 

things are like this, thou, the hardship thou hast it endured already, thou hast walked 

o kuinii dia mbeji ni mbeji jiiadi, k'udte, k'unu6 ; kudia ku6 

ten months and months two, not eating, not drinking; food thine (was) 

dikezu, kunua ku6 makania. Tunde ki uatundu ku bata dieau, 

kola-nut, drink thine (was) tobacco. 6 * Since thou lef test home 70111*0, 

k'uzeke, uenda o usuku ni muania. Erne ngi ku amber 6." 

thou didst not sleep, walking night and day. I thee tell this." 

34 Folk- Tabs of Angola. 

Inga u mu bana o manongonongo kala m'a mu b'ene o tuveia. 

And he her gives the instructions as those that her gave the old women. 

U mu bana u6 kalubungu, pala ioso, i abindamena, uvunda o 

He her gives too a " kalubungu," in order that all things, she may need, she throws the 

kalubungu boxi ; mu kalubungu inga mu ene mutunda ioso 

box on ground; outol the box then there will come out all things 

i andala. 

she wants. 

O ngana Fenda Madfa, ki akexile kid pala kubixila, o 'nzo uala 

Ngana Fenda Maria, when she was already about to arrive, the house she is 

ku i mona kid, usanga o dizanga di akondoloka o jinjfla; inga 

it seeing already, she meets a lake which are surrounding birds; 88 and 

uxikama bu mbandu a dizanga. 

she sits down on shore of lake. 

Kiosueki ki axikama, ualokoxila, inga ukala mu kuanda o nzoji : 

While she is" seated, she falls into a nap, and begins to have a dream : 

Bu dizanga buatundu o njtla imoxi ; iai ku mu ambela : " Ngana 

From the lake comes- out bird one; it comes to her tellt "Ngana 

Fenda Madia, ualuka k'ujimbe o manongonongo, m'a ku bana 

Fenda Maria, take care that thou not forget the instructions, which to thee gave 

Ngana Nzambi." O muene inga utambujila : " Kana ; ki ngijimbiami- 

theLord, God." She then answers: "No; I shall not forget 

ku." 6 ® 


Fenda Madfa inga upapumuka \vl kilu, inga ui' 6. 

Fenda Maria then starts out of (her) sleep, and goes on. 

O ki abixidile, usanga o sabalalu m ionene. Bu kanga m buezala 

When she arrived, she found a palace great. Outside it was full 

iama iama kid. O muene, uoma ua mu kuatele dingi; o 

(of) wild beasts and wild beasts. She, fear takes hold on her again ; (the) 

muxima ua mu xikand. 60 Fenda Madia "ubokola mu kololo, usanga 

heart is her failing. Fenda Maria enters into the hall, finds 

o klhoji kionene, kiajukula mu kanu. Inga uta-mu o lukuaku, 

the lion big, that opens (wide) his mouth. And she puts in (her) arm, 

usunga-mu o kuinii <$& sabi ni sabi jiiadi, mu kuinii dia kudlutu 

pulls out the ten (01) keys and keys two, for the ten (of) rooms 

ni kudlutu jiiadi. 

and rooms two. 

Ujukula kudlutu : ahatu a mindele ala-mu ; mu amukud : jimosa j 60 

She opens a room: white ladies are in it; in another: mulatto ladies ; 

mu amukud. : mindele ia mala ; mu jikudlutu jamuku£ : ialu, jimeza, 

in another: white men; in rooms others: chairs, tables, 

itadi, ndumba ia ima. O mu kualutu iasukinina, mu asangele 

metal-ware, lots of things. In the room last, in it she found 

o mundele, uazeka bu hama, uauaba k'a mu uabelA. 

a white man, asleep in bed, beautiful there is no more beautiful. 

Ngana Fenda Marztt. 35 

Fenda Madfa inga uia ku 'itadi ; tt usanga-ku ndumba i' atu 

Fenda Maria then goes to the yard; finds there a lot of people 

azeka: abika a ngana Fele Milanda. 

asleep: the slaves of ngana Fele Milanda. 

Fenda Madfa uambata o kuinii dia masanga 64 ni maiadi, ubanda 

Fenda Maria carries the ten jugs and two, goes up 

namu w ku tandu, inga udila, ubuka, udila, ubuka, kajt£ ki ezalesele 

with them up-stairs, and weeps, fans, weeps, fans, till she had filled 

o kuinii dia masanga ni moxi ni kaxaxi. Ki kuakambele o kaxaxi 

ten of the jugs and one and a hall When there lacked one half (only) 

pala Fele Milanda kufukunuka, uiva bu kanga: "Nanii usumba o 

for Fele Milanda to revive, she hears outside: "Who will buy a 

mubika mu meni' 6?" 

slave with water ? " 

Fenda Madfa uia bu njanena; uixana o mutu, ualosumbisa o 

Fenda Maria goes to the window; calls the one, who is selling the 

mubika. Mukua-mubika inga ubanda ku tandu. Fenda Madfa inga 

slave. The seller of the slave then goes up up-stairs. Fenda Maria then 

u mu ambela : " Erne ngalami ni menia. O menia, mu ngala namu, 

him tells: "I have not any water. The water, which I have, 

masoxi. Se uandala, zuela." O mukua-mubika inga utambujila: 

is tears* If thou wantest, speak." The seller of the slave then answers: 

" Ngandala " 

" I want." 

Fenda Madfa inga ubana o mukua-mubika ni akuS, o masoxi ; ene 

Fenda Maria then gives the seller of the slave and his people the tears ; they 

inga anua. MamukuS, inga uezalesela 63 o midingi. 64 

then drink. The other (tears) then she with them fills (their) jugs. 

Fenda Madfa uambata o mubik* 6 ; uia n'£ ku 'itadi ; u mu 

Fenda Maria takes away slave hers; she goes with her to the yard; she her 

sukula, u mu zuika, inga u mu luka Kamasoxi. 

washes, she her dresses, and she her calls Kamasoxi. 69 

Uia n'£ ku tandu, inga u mu tuma: "Kamasoxi, mubik* ami, 

She goes with her up-stairs, and she her commands : " Kamasoxi, slave mine) 

didila mu disang* omo. O ki dikala pala kuizala, ngi fundumune," 

weep in jug that. When it is about to be full, me arouse." 

Fenda Madfa inga uzendalala 66 ku meza. Kiosueki ki azendalala, 

Fenda Maria then reclines on the table. While yet she was reclining, 

uai ku kilu. 

she went to sleep. 

Kamasoxi udila, ubuka, udila, ubuka. O ki ezalele o ditangi, 67 

Kamasoxi weeps, fans, weeps, fans. When got full the jog, 

ki.diafafele boxi, Fele Milanda uafukunuka. 

when it ran over on the ground, Fele Milanda revived. 

Ki atala kiki Kamasoxi, o muene, Fele Milanda, ubixila bu 

When saw this Kamasoxi, he himself, Fele Milanda, comes where 

36 Folk- Tales of Angola. 

Kamasoxi, u mu bana kandandu, uixi : «* Eie ua ngi bana 

Kamasoxi (was), he her gives a hug, saying: "Thou hast me given (saved) 

o mueniu." Akatuka, aia mu sala. 

life.*' They start, go into the parlor. 

O Kamasoxi utunda, uia mVnzo, mu ala Fenda Madfa. U mu 

Kamasoxi goes out, goes to the room, where is Fenda Maria. She her 

ixana : " Kamadfa 68 diabu, 69 f undumuka." Fenda Madfa uf undumuka. 

calls : ' (t Kamaria," devil, get up." Fenda Maria gets up. 

Ki atala kiki Kamasoxi, uixi: "Nd6, diabu Kamadfa, u&temese 

When sees this Kamasoxi, she says: "Go, devil Kamaria, go to warm 

menia pala ngana i6 ia diiala." 

the water for master thine (male)." 

Fenda Madfa uabanze ; utunda, uia ku kitadi, utemesa o menia ; 

Fenda Maria thought; goes out, goes to the yard, warms the water; 

uta bu mbanielu w ku tandu, uvutuk'6 ku itadi. 

puts (H) into the bath-tub up-stairs, returns to the yard. 

Fele Milanda uabange kii mbeji jiuana, o ki ebula Kamasoxi ; 

Fele Milanda had been (thus) already months four, when he asked Kamasoxi: 

" E ! Kamasoxi, o Kamadfa ua mu sumba 70 ku£ ? " Kamasoxi uixi : 

'* O Kamasoxi, Kamaria thou her boughtest where ?*• Kamasoxi says; 

"Nga mu sumbile ku Putu." 

**I her bought in Portugal.* 1 

Kiziia kimoxi, Fele Milanda uatumu kuludikisa o lopa iS pala 

Day one, Fele MUanda ordered to get ready clothes- his for 

kuia ku Putu, kuAmenekena o ndandu ]iL n 

to go to Portugal, to visit relatives his. 

Ki akexile pala kuia, utuma kufolomala abik'& oso. U a ambela : 

When he was about to go he orders to form in line slaves his all. He them tells : 

"Ngaloia ku Putu, Zuelenu ioso i nuandala." En' oso muene 72 

"I am going to Portugal. Speak out all that you wish. 91 They all indeed 

inga abinga ioso i andala. 

then ask everything they desire. 

O Fele Milanda inga uambela Fenda Madfa : " Zuela u6> Kamadfa, 

Fele Milanda then tells Fenda Maria: "Speak also, Kamaria, 

ioso i uandala." Kuala Fenda Madfa : '* Erne, ngana, k! ngandalami 

whatever thou wishest." Then Fenda Maria: "I, master, I do not want 

kima ; mukonda erne, ioso i ngandala — loko 73 ngi ku s&nga ku 

anything (now); for I, all that I wish — directly I shall thee find on 

telasu, 78 inga ngi ku bekela lelasd ia ioso i ngandala/' 

terrace, and there I thee will bring a list of all things I wish.*' 

Fenda Madfa ubanga o lelasi : Navaia di-zuike, ditadi dia muambi 

Fenda Maria makes the list: A razor sharpen-thyself, a stone speaker 

a kidi, lubambu, ni an'a mixaxiniu n kiiadi, kandeia di-sendele, ni 

of truth, a chain, and dolls two, a lamp Kgbt-thyself, and 

lumuenu di-muike." 

a mirror look-thyself." w 

Ngana Fele Milanda inga uia ku Putu kuimenekena o jindandu jid. 

Ngana Fele MUanda then goes to Portugal to visit relatives his. 

Ngana Fenda Maria. 37 

Ki abixidile ku Putu, manii &, pai &, ni ndandu ji6 joso, 

When he bad arrived in Portugal, mother his, father his, and relations his all, 

atambulula mon' &: kubanga fesa, 76 kudia, kunua, kutonoka. 

they received son theirs: feast-making, eating, drinking, playing. 

O kubanga iziia, Fele Milanda inga utangela manii Sl o ngongo 

Doing (after) days, Fele Milanda then related to mother his troubles 

ji6 joso, inga u mu ambela kuma: "O ua ngi bene 77 o mueniu, 

his all, and he her told saying: "She who me saved life (is) 

muhatu ua mumbundu, jina di6 Kamasoxi ; maji uene ni mubik' 6 

a woman of negro, name hers (is) Kamasoxi; but she has a slave hers 

a mu ixana Fenda Madfa, uauaba k'a mu uabeld. Muene ua ngi 

called Fenda Maria, who is beautiful exceedingly. She has me 

tumu ku mu sumbila: Kandeia di-sendele, navaia di-zuike, ditadi 

sent to for her buy: A lamp light-thyself, a razor sharpen-thyself, a stone 

•dia muambi a kidi, lubambu, ni an' a mixaxiniu kiiadi, ni lumuenu 

teller of truth, a chain, and dolls two, and a mirror 

di-muike." Manii a Fele Milanda uabanze o imbamb* eii, i atumu 

look-thyself." The mother of Fele Milanda thought over the things these, which had sent 

kusumba Fenda Madfa, inga uibula mon' 6: "E! mon* ami; o 

to buy Fenda Maria, and she asks son hers: "O son mine! that 

Fenda Madfa, mundele 78 inga mumbundu?" 

Fenda Maria, (is she) white or black?" 

Fele Milanda uatambujila kuma; "Mundele." — "O Kamasoxi 

Fele Milanda answered saying: "White." — "Kamasoxi 

ua mu sumbile ku6 ? " — " Kamasoxi uambele kuma ua mu sumbile 

she her bought where?'* — "Kamasoxi said that she her bought 

ku Putu." — u Eie, mon' ami, k'uatobd O ku Putu kuene ku 6 

in Portugal,"-— "Thou, son mine, be not foolish. In Portugal where thou wast 

valela, 79 uevile kid kuma ku Putu ene mu kusumbisa-ku abika?" 

bom, heardest thou (ever) that in Portugal they are wont to sell there slaves?** 

— "Kana." — "Ijia-kiu, kuma Kamasoxi ua ku nganala. Fenda 

— "No.'* — "Know this, that Kamasoxi has thee deceived. Fenda 

Madfa, muene o ngana ; Kamasoxi, muene o mubika. O ima i 

Maria, she (is) the mistress ; Kamasoxi, she (is) the slave. The things which 

atumu kusumba Fenda Madfa, pala ku di bonda. O im* eii ku 

ordered to buy Fenda Maria, (are) for killing one's self. Things these in 

Putu oko, k'a i sumbisS. ng6; ita kitadi kiavulu." 

Portugal here, they not them sell for nothing ; they cost money much." 

Fele Milanda, ki azubile kubanga mbeji jiuana ku Putu, inga 

Fele Milanda, when he finished spending months four in Portugal, then 

usenga 80 o ima ioso, i a mu tumine abik' 6. O i a mu tumine 

he bought the things all, that him ordered slaves his. Those, that him ordered 

Fenda Madfa, inga u i jimba. 

Fenda Maria, then he them forgets. 

O papolo, 81 ki iendele kia iziia iuana mu 'Alunga, Fele Milanda 

The steamer, when it had gone already days four in Ocean, Fele Milanda 

ulembalala 82 o ima i a mu tumine Fenda Madfa, inga ubinga 

remembered the things that him ordered Fenda Maria, and he begged 

38 Folk- Tales of Angola. 

kabitangu 83 ka naviiu pala kuvutuka. Kabitangu k'axikaneniS. 

the captain of the ship to go back. The captain would not. 

Fele Milanda inga u mu futa kondo ; kabitangu inga uxikana. 

Fele Milanda then (he) him paid a thousand; the captain then agrees. 

Inga avutuka dingi ku Putu, kusota o imbamb* eii. O mu loja 

And they return again to Portugal, to fetch things those. In the shop (store) 

mu a i sangele, inga a mu binga kondo jiuana, inga ubana o kitadi. 

where he them found, then they him demand thousands four, and he gives the money. 

Fele Milanda inga u di long'6 mu naviiu. 

Fele Milanda then embarked in the ship. 

O ki abixidile ku bata di&, oso muene a mu menekena; inga 

When he arrived at home his, all indeed they him greet; and 

ubanga iziia iiadi. O kia katatu, inga uixana abik' £ oso, inga u 

he spends days two. On the third, then he calls slaves his all, and he 

a bana o ima id, i atumine. Inga ukatula opadi 84 ia jibixa 

them gives things theirs, which they had sent for. And he takes a pair of earrings 

jia ulu, ja madiamande, jivolota jia ulu, ni nela ia ulu, ia madiamande, 

of gold, of diamonds, wristlets of gold, and a finger-ring of gold, of diamonds, 

inga ubana Fenda Madfa kuma : " Tambula o im* eii, i a ku tumisa 

and he gives Fenda Maria saying: "Take things these, which to thee sent 


manii etu ku Putu, sandu 85 i&" 

mother mine in Portugal, namesake thine." 

Fenda Madfa inga utambula o im* eii ; tnaji o Kamasoxi lumbi 

Fenda Maria then takes things those; but Kamasoxi envy 

lua mu kuatele. 

(it) her grasped. 

O. mu ngoloxi, ngana Fele Milanda inga uia ku telasu ; o Fenda 

In the evening, Mr. Fele Milanda then goes to the balcony; Fenda 

Madfa inga u mu batesa 86 kat6 ku telasu, inga ubinga o ima id 

Maria then (she) him follows up to the terrace, and asks for things hers 

i atumine. Fele Milanda inga u mu ta makutu, kuma kana, k'a 

which she had sent for. Fele Milanda then (he) her tells a lie, that no, he not 

i bek& Fenda Madfa inga uzuela, kuma : " Abik* 6, eie ua 

them brought Fenda Maria then speaks, saying: "Slaves thine (own), thou hast 

a bekela ioso, i atumine ; maji erne, kuma ngi mubik* a mukaji 

them brought all, that they sent for ; but tome, because I (am) the slave of wife 

6, k'uaxikan£ ku ngi bekela ioso i ngatuma. Manii, uakexile ni 

thine, thou wouldst not to me brings all that I sent for. Forsooth, wast thou with 

uoma, xila 87 ngi ku futami?" Fele MUanda inga ukatula o ima, 

fear, lest I thee pay not?" Fele JAflantfa then took the things. 

inga u mu bana naiu. 88 Fenda Madfa inga utambula inga u mu 

and he her gave them. Fenda Mark then received (them) and she him 

ibula, se 89 kikuxi? Fele Milanda inga u mu ambela kuma: "O 

asked, saying how much? Fele Milanda then he her told saying: "The 

kitadi ki ate o im' eii, k'uten£ ku ki bana." — 

money that cost things these, thou canst not it give." — 

Ngana Fenda Maria. 39 

" Zuela ; iene, inga se makuiniatatu a kondo, eme ngi ma bana." 

"Speak; the same, even if (it be) thirty thousands, I shall them give." 

Fele Milanda uabanze uixi : " O mubika uala ni makuiniatatu 

Fele Milanda thought saying: "The slave has thirty (of) 

a kondo, maji o ngana i A k'alS namu ? mukua-kizuatu kimoxi 

thousands f but mistress hers has not them? having cloth one 

kuabu ? " Fele Milanda inga uambela Fenda Madfa kuma : " Ndai6, 

only?" Fele Milanda then tells Fenda Maria saying: "Go, 

k'ufute kima." 

pay not * anything.'* 

Fenda Madfa inga. usakidila. 

Fenda Maria then thanked (him). 

Om'usuku — osomuene azeka kia — o ngana Fenda Madia — 

At night — all indeed were asleep already — ngana Fenda Maria — 

kuma a mu bana 'nzo k'ubeka u6 ni kaveia kene ku mu zekesa 90 

as they her had given a house alone to herself with an old woman who used to sleep with her 

—-Fenda Madfa inga utula ku tandu a meza o im* eii, i a mu 

— Fenda Maria then set down on top of table things those which to her 

bekelele Fele Milanda, inga uxikama ku kialu. 91 Uabundu kid 92 

had brought Fele Milanda, and she seats herself on a chair. She has knocked already 

o kalubungu ke boxi. Muatundu izuatu ia mbote, iofetale % ni ulu 

kalubungu hers on ground. Out come dresses elegant, adorned with gold 

ni matadi ma jibilande. Uakembe 94 k'a mu kembeld. 

and gems of brilliants. She dressed (as) none else could dress. 

Inga ukala mu kufundila % o im' eii, iala ku tandu a meza, 

And she began to plead (before) things those, that were on top of table, 

inga utanga o ngongo jiS jioso, m'oso 96 mu abitile pala Fele Milanda 

and told trouble hers all, which she went through for Fele Milanda 

kufukunuka, O ki azubile, inga uzuela : " Se makutu mu ngazuela, 

to revive. When she had finished, then she said : " If (is) a lie what I said, 

eie, tadi dia muambi a kidi ni an* a mixaxiniu, o navaia di-zuike 

thou, O stone teller of truth and (ye) dolls, the razor sharpen-thyself 

i ngi batule o xingu ; ni lubambu lu ngi bonde." O ki azubile 

let it me cutoff neck; and the chain may it me hang." When she finished 

o kuzuela, o kandeia kasendela ; o navaia ia di zuika ku ditadi dia 

speaking, the lamp lit itself; the razor sharpened itself on the stone 

muambi a kidi ; o lubambu lua di niengeneka bu lu. O lubambu, 

teller of truth; the chain hung itself on high. The chain, 

ki luakexile pala ku mu nienga, o navaia pala ku mu batula o xingu, 

as it was about to her hang, the razor about to her cutoff the neck, 

ana a mixaxiniu inga akuata o im' eii. 

the dolls then seized things those. 87 

Manii, kiosueki ngana Fenda Madfa ki alobanga o im' eii, o kaveia 

However, while ngana Fenda Maria was doing things these, the old woman 

katono 6. Mu kamenemene o kaveia inga ka di xib'6. Fenda Madfa 

was awake. In the morning the old woman then held her peace. Fenda Maria 

inga u ki banga kat6 mu mausuku matatu. O ua kauana, mu 

then she it did as much as nights three. On the fourth, in 

40 Folk- Tales of Angola. 

kamenemene, o kaveia inga kambela Fele Milanda kioso ki alobita. 

the morning, the old woman then told Fele Milanda all that was going on. 

Fele Milanda inga uambela o kaveia, kuma : " O m'usuku, ki ujika 

Fele Milanda then told the old woman, saying: "At night, when thoo closest 

o dibitu, k'u di jike ni sabi." 

the door, do not it lock with the key." 

Fele Milanda, o mu kaxaxi w kausuku, inga utuluka, inga ubatama, 

Fele Milanda, at mid of night, then he goes down, and hides, 

inga ukala mu kuzongola mu musula" ua dibitu. Fenda Madfa 

and begins to peep through a crack of the door. Fenda Maria 

uazuata, inga ubanga ki ene mu kubanga-jinga, inga utanga o ngongo 

dressed, and did as she used to do always, and related troubles 

jd joso, inga uamba : "Aba eie, Kamasoxi, kuamba kidi, eie, uabene 

hers all, and said: "Say thou, Kamasoxi, speaking truth, thou, who didst save 

Fele Milanda o mueniu, o sabi ia palata ia kualutu ia Fele Milanda, 

Fele Milanda (his) life, the key of silver of the room of Fele Milanda, 

palanii k'u i telekaU ? Se makutu, mu ngazuela, enu, nuala ku 

why didst thou not it deliver? If (is) a lie, what I said, ye, that are on 

tandu a meza, ngi bondienu. ,, O im* eii, ki iakexile pala ku mu 

top of table, me hang ! " Things those, when they were about to her 

jiba, Fele Milanda ujukula o dibitu, ubokola, Fenda Madfa uai ku 

kill, Fele Milanda opened the door, entered. Fenda Maria went into 

kiambu; Fele Milanda ud uai ku kiambu. O kaveia inga ka 

a swoon ; Fele Milanda also went into a swoon. The old woman then she 

a bangela milongo ; ene inga apapumuka. 

for them makes medicine; they then wake up. 

Fele Milanda uamesenene kuambata Fenda Madfa ku tandu ni 

Fele Milanda wanted to carry Fenda Maria up-stairs with 

izuatu id, i azuata ; maji o Fenda Madfa k'axikanenid, inga uta 

dresses hers, which she had on; but Fenda Maria refused, and put 

o ima id mu kalubungu kd ; inga uzek'd. 

things hers into kalubungu hers; and she went to bed. 

O Fele Milanda, ki abixidile ku tandu, inga ubanga o mikanda ia 

Fele Milanda, when he arrived upstairs, then he made letters of 

kutuma kukuvitala o makamba md pala ku di mosalela 100 ku bata did. 

sending to invite friends his for to take breakfast at house his. 

Mu kamenemene inga utumisa o mikand* eii ; inga utuma kutesa 

In the morning then he sent the letters these; then he ordered to pot 

kalakataU 101 mu pipa. 

coal-tar in a barrel. 

En' oso muene, ki ejile ku di mosala, o ki akexile mu kudia, 

They all indeed, when they had come to breakfast, when they were - eating, 

o Fele Milanda inga uibula Kamasoxi: "O sabi ia kualutu 102 

Fele Milanda then asked Kamasoxi: "The key of the room 

iebi?" Kamasoxi uixi : "Kana; 108 ngasangediami-mu sabi. ,, — 

where (ia it)?" Kamasoxi said: "No; I not found there a key." — 

Ngana Fenda Maria. 41 

« Tanga hanji m'oso mu uabitilc pala ku ngi katula mu ikandu." 

41 Tell please all through which thou wentest for to me rescue from Ikandu." 

Kamasoxi uedi pf! 10 * 

Kamasoxi • not a word I 

O Fele Milanda inga utangela o makamba m£ ioso iabiti mu 

Fele Milanda then told friends his all that happened in 

mausuku mauana ni Fenda Madfa; inga utuma kuixana Fenda 

the nights four with Fenda Maria; and he ordered to call Fenda 

Madfa ku kitadi. 

Maria from the yard. 

Fenda Madfa inga uiza. Fele Milanda inga u mu binga o sabi 

Fenda Maria then came* Fele Milanda then (he) her asks for the key. 

Kuala Fenda Madfa : " Erne, ngana, kana nga i ijiami. Utokala 

Then Fenda Maria.; "I, master, not do it know. Whom it behooves 

ku i ijfa ngana Kamasoxi." Ni ku mu jijila kuala Fele Milanda 

to It know (is) mistress Kamasoxi." With being urged by Fele Milanda 

inga ukatula o sabi* inga u i telekala, 105 inga utanga kioso kiabitile 

then she takes out the key, and she it delivers,. and tells all that happened 

ni Kamasoxi, ni m'oso mu abitile, muene Fenda Madfa, pala 

with Kamasoxi, and what she went through, she Fenda Maria, to 

kukatuia Fele Milanda mu ikandu. 

rescue Fele Milanda from Ikandu* 

Mindele ioso muene, elelenu ! m Kamasoxi, sonii ja mu kuata. 

The white men all indeed, laugh ye 1 (applaud). Kamasoxi, shame her seized* 

Fele Milanda uixana an'a mala kiiadi. Azangula Kamasoxi, inga 

Fele Milanda called young men two. They lift Kamasoxi, and 

a mu ta mu pipa ia kalakatald, inga a i ta o tubia. Kamasoxi 

they her put into the barrel of coal-tar, and they it set on fire. Kamasoxi 

inga ubia, ujikata; 107 o kafuba kattika, katula Fenda Madfa. 

then burns, gets charred; a little bone *fliesup, alights on Fenda Maria. 

Fenda Madfa inga u di xisa-ku. 108 Fele Milanda inga ukazala 109 ni 

Fenda Maria then rubs herself with it Fele Milanda then married (with) 

Fenda Madfa; aia ku Putu kult ndandu j6, inga avutuka. Inga 

Fend* Maria; they went to Portugal to kinsmen his, and returned. And 

akal'a : " Adia nguingi, aseiala musolo." 

they lived on: "They eat cat-fish, they sup on musolo-fish." uo 

Ngateletele o kamusoso kami. Se kauaba inga kaiiba, ngazuba. 

I have told little story mine* Whether (it be) good or bad, I have finished. 1 " 

42 Folk- Tales of Angola. 

Version B. 

Erne ngateletele ahatu a mindele kitatu, jipange, atungile mu 
muxitu. Kiziia kimoxi, umoxi ua ndenge uexile in mu njanena mu 
kudia muenge, inga u di batula o mulembu. 

O mubidi 113 uexile mu kubita, inga o muhatu ua mundele u mu 
ambela : "Tala hanji, e' mubidi, o kima kizela kia di f angaria ni kiku- 
suka; o kikusuka kia di fangana ni kizela." "Kala ngana Vidiji 
Milanda ; mu konda dia kuuaba kuavulu, nganga m ja mu louela ku 
mbandu a palaia." 

O muhatu uebudixile o mubidi, uixi: "Pala kuenda lad ngana 
Vidiji Milanda, uenda iziia ikuxi?" " Uenda iztia nake. O kia 
kavua u&bixila bu ene ngana Vidiji Milanda. O muene pala kufu- 
ndumuka, udila kuinii dia masanga ni maiadi." 

O ngana Fenda Madfa inga uenda o iziia nake. O kia kavua, ki 
abixidile bua ngana Vidiji Milanda, inga ukuata mu dila o kuinii dia 
masanga ni maiadi. 

O ki abixidile mu kuinii dia masanga n* umoxi, uexile mu bita 
mutu, uexile mu sumbisa mubika mu disanga dia menia. Ngana 
Fenda Madfa inga u mu ixana ; usumba o mubika mu disanga dia 
masoxi, inga ukuata mu kudila o disanga di asumbile-mu o mubika 

O ki atenesene o kuinii dia masanga n' umoxi ni kaxaxi, inga 
uixana o mubika : " E' Kamaso^i ! iza, udidile 115 mu disang* omo. 
Ki dimateka o kuizala, ngi tonese, mukonda mesu molo ngi kata 

O mubika inga ukala mu dila. Kia mu kuatedid kima ni ioso ia 
mu ambelele ngana iL Uezalesele o disanga, ngana Vidiji Milanda 
inga upapumuka. 

O ki apapumukine, u mu ambela : "Ngi be ndandu, mukaji ami." 
O muene, ku mu ambela : " K' emiami mukaji 6 ; mukaji 6, 16 uazeka " 
ua mu ambelele : " Ngi be ndandu, munume 116 ami," inga a di 
ambata, 117 ni muene ngana Vidiji Milanda. 

Kamasoxi uabilukile 118 Fenda Madfa; o Fenda Madfa uabilukile 
mubika, inga u mu luka Kamadfa. Inga aia rau tunga o'nzo i&, ku 
akexile ku di tuma 119 kiambote. 

Kiziia kimoxi, ngana Vidiji Milanda uexanene abik' en'oso, inga 
u a ambela : " Erne ngoloia ku Putu. Enu, nu abik* ami, zuelenu 
ioso i nuamesena, pala, ki ngiza, 120 ku nu bekela." O umoxi 
uambele : "Ngamesena kolodd ni milele ia mbote." O uamukuA 

Ngana Fenda Maria. 43 


Version 2?. 

I often tell of three white ladies, sisters, who were living in the 
forest One day, one of them, the youngest, was at the window eat- 
ing sugar-cane, and she cut her finger. 

The shepherd 118 was passing by, and the white lady tells him: 
" Look, please, thou shepherd ! the white thing that looks like the 
red thing, the red thing that looks like the white thing." "Just 
like ngana Vidiji Milanda, because of (his) great beauty, wizards have 
bewitched him on the side of shore." 

The kdy asked the shepherd, saying, " To walk to the place where 
ngana Vidiji Milanda is, one walks days how many?" "One walks 
eight days. On the ninth day thou shalt arrive (at the place) where 
is ngana Vidiji Milanda. For him to revive, thou shalt weep (full) 
ten jugs and two." 

Ngana Fenda Maria then walks eight days. On the ninth, when 
she arrived (at the place) where (was) ngana Vidiji Milanda, then 
she began to weep (full) the ten jugs and two. 

When she reached the ten jugs and one, there came passing a 
person, who was selling a slave for a jug of water. Ngana Fenda 
Maria then calls him ; she buys the slave for a jug of tears, and 
begins to weep full the jug she had bought the slave with. 

When she had completed the ten jugs and one and a half, then 
she calls the slave : " O Kamasoxi ! come ! weep into this jug. 
When it begins to get full, wake me up, because my eyes are pain- 
ing me much." 

The slave then begins to weep. She cared nothing about all that 
her mistress had told her. She filled the jug; ngana Vidiji Milanda 
then wakes up. 

When he awoke, he said to her : " Embrace me, my wife/' She, 
instead of to him saying, " I am not thy wife ; thy wife is she yonder 
who is asleep," said : " Embrace me, my husband ; " and they go arm 
in arm (she) with him,, ngana Vidiji Milanda. 

Kamasoxi becanie Fenda Maria, (and) Fenda Maria became the 
slave, and she called her Kamaria. And they go to build their house 
where they lived in fine style. 

One day ngana Vidiji Milanda called all his slaves, and says to 
them : " I am going to Portugal. You, my slaves, speak out every- 
thing that you want, in order, when I come, 120 to bring (these things) 
to you." The one said : " I want a cord (necklace) and fine clothes/' 

44 Folk-Taks of Angola. 

uambele : "Ngamesena jingondo 121 ni jibixa." O uamukuS, ua mu 
ambelele : " Ngamesena jinela ni misanga ia mbote." 

ki exanene o Kamadfa, ua mu ibudixile : " Eie, uandala 'nii ? " 
Inga u mu ambela: "Erne, ngana, nguami 122 kuzuata; mukonda 
o m'bika kt k'atenS kuzuata ima ia mbote. Ngana, kima u ngi 
bekela: Kandeia Di-sende, navaia Di-zuike, tujola Di-batule, ni ditadi 
dia Muambi-a-kidi." 

O ngana Vidiji Milanda inga uambela o mukaji 6 : " Abik'etu, en' 
oso muene, abingi ima ia mbote ia kuzuata. O Kamadfa k'abingi& 
ima ia kuzuata, mu konda dia 'nii ? " Mukaji £ inga u mu tambujila : 
"Kamadfa munzenza. 123 Kt k'ejiS o ima ioso i abingi akul Eie, 
k'u mu bekele o ima i abingi muene ; mukonda muene k'ejid ioso i 
azuela. Munzenza ua mutu." 

O ngana Milanda u mu ambela: "Kana; en' oso ngi a bekela 
ioso i abingi; o Kamadfa ue ngu 124 mu bekela ioso i a mu. tumu 
muxima ud." 

O ngana Vidiji Milanda inga ui'6 ku Putu, ku akexile o iztia ioso 
i andalele. O ki exile pala kuiza, uia mu kuibudisa o ima ioso i a 
mu bingile Kamadfa. K'emueni£. 126 Inga uia ixi iamukui mu ku k 
sota o ima, i a mu tumine m'bik'd, inga u i mona. 

O ki ejile, en' oso aia ku mu tambulula : " Ngana ietu ueza ! tuo- 
ndokemba ! " O Kamadfa ua di xibidi L Ki k'endediS mu tambu- 
lula ngana ie. 

O ngana, ki amatekene o kuban' en* oso, ki a mu ibudixile: 
" Enu oso muene, mueza mu tambula o ima ienu i nga nu ambelele ; 
aba o Kamadfa, uebi ?" 

O ngana ia muhatu u mu ambela : " Kamadfa, kima kia munze- 
nza, k'u mu bane ng6 kima." O ngana Vidiji Milanda uambete : 
" Kamadfa mubika kala akul Ngu mu bana ioso i a ngi bingile, ia 
ng* endesa ndumba ia jixi." Uixana Kamadfa: "Za> utambule ioso 
i ua ngi bingile." O Kamadfa uexile mu kamulele kamoxi Jisonii 
ja mu kuatele, ja kubixila bu polo 126 ia ngana Vidiji Milanda. Ua 
di suekele ku dima dia dibitu. O ngana Vidijii Milanda uemanene, 
inga uia bu exile Kamadfa, u mu bana o ima i a mu bingile. 

En' oso muene, o abik* a ku bata, azuatele, inga abanga o jifesa, 
mukonda o ngana id uabixidile ni sauidi. 127 O Kamadfa ua di 
xibidi 6 mu kanzo m k£, mu exile ni kaveia. 

Okutula ni usuku — en' oso azeka kid — Kamadfa ki akatuile o 
ima i a mu bekelele ngana id, ubunda o kalubungu k£ boxi : Mu atu- 
ndile jivestidu ja mbote, ni ima ioso, i zuata muhatu ua mundele. 
Inga ukuata o ima ia Putu, u i ta ku tandu a meza, inga ukala mu 
kuzuela: "Eie, ngana Vidiji Milanda, uatambula o mubika; ua ngi 

Ngana Fenda Maria. 45 

Another said: "I want copper beads 121 and earrings." Another 
said to him : " I want finger-rings and fine beads." 

When he called Kamaria, he asked her: "Thou desirest what?" 
And she says to him : " I, master, want not clothing, for the slave 
cannot wear fine things. Master, these are the things that thou 
mayest bring me: lamp light-thyself, razor whet-thyself, scissors 
eut-yourselves, and stone the speaker-of-truth." 

Ngana Vidiji Milanda then tells his wife : " Our slaves, they all 
of them asked for fine things to wear. Kamaria asked not for things 
to wear, because of what ? " His wife then says to him : " Kamaria 
(is) a bush-slave. 123 She does not know all the things that the others 
asked. Thou, do not bring her the things that she asked ; for she 
does not know what she says. She is a bush-woman*" 

Ngana Milanda tells her : " No, they all, I will bring them all that 
they asked ; Kamaria, too, I will bring her everything that her heart 
told (ordered) her." 

Ngana Vidiji Milanda then goes to Portugal, where he stayed all 
the days that he wished. When he was about to come back, he 
goes to ask after all the things that Kamaria had asked him for. 
He did not find them. Then he went to another city to look there 
for the things that his slave had sent him for, and he finds them. 

When he came (back) they all go to receive him. " Our master 
has come ! we shall dress up ! " Kamaria she kept silent. She did 
not go to receive her master. 

The master, after beginning to give the things to them all, then 
for her he asked.: *f You all, indeed, have come to receive the things 
that I had promised you, but Kamaria, where (is she) ? " 

The mistress says to him : " Kamaria is a thing just from the 
bush ; do not give her anything," Ngana Vidiji Milanda said : " Ka- 
maria is a slave like the others. I will give her all that she disked 
me for, that made me go to many cities." He calls Kamaria: 
u Come ! receive all that thou hast asked me for." Kamaria was in 
one small loin-cloth. Shame seized her, to come in the presence 
of- ngana Vidiji Milanda. She hid herself behind the door. Ngana 
Vidiji Milanda stood up, and went where Kamaria was; he gives 
her the things she had asked him for. 

They all indeed, the slaves of the house, dressed up, and had a 
merriment, because their master had arrived with health. Kamaria 
held her peace in her little hut, where she stayed with an old wbman. 

The night arriving — they all were already asleep — Kamaria, after 
taking the things that her master had brought her, knocked her kalu- 
bungu on the ground. Out came dresses fine, and all things that a 
white lady wears. And she takes the things of Portugal she S&:s 
them on top of the table, and begins to speak : " Thou, ngana Vidiji 

46 Folk- Tales of Angola. 

xisa ; erne, nga ku endelele o izua nake mu solongo dia muxitu, mu 
enda mon' a njila, mon' a mutu k'a mu muena~mu. O kiztia kia kavua, 
ki ngabixidile ni paxi iami ni ngongo iami, inga ng' u didila o kuinii 
dia masanga n' umoxi ma masoxi, ki buabitile mutu, uexile mu su« 
mbisa o mubika mu menia, eme inga ngikuata o disanga dia masoxi ; 
ngisumba o m'bika pala ku ngi kuatesa mu paxi jami ni ngongo jamL 
Eie, ngana Vidiji Milanda, ni uatambula o m'bika, ni ua ngi xisa eme, 
ngi ngana, ng 6 muenene 129 o jipaxi ni jingongo. Eie, kandeia 
Di-sende ; eie, navaia Di-zuike ; eie, tujola Di-batule ; eie, ditadi dia 
Muambi-a-kidi, (s* eme ngazuela makutu), 130 ngi batujudienu." 181 

O kandeia ka di sendela; o navaia ia di zuika; o tujola tua di ba- 
tujula; o ditadi dia Muambi-a-kidi diolo di pangajala 132 boxi. O 
muene, Kamadfa, inga uamba : " Eie, Nzambi, ngi kudile ! " O ima 
ioso inga ibuika. 

O kaveia kexile mu kumona o ima ioso eii ; inga uzuela ni muxima 
u£ : "O una, uala ni ngana ietu, manii kf mueni& ngana ietu ia mu- 
hatu ? O ngana ietu ia muhatu manii i6, a mu bake kuma Kamadfa ? 
O Kamadfa muene, und, uala ni ngana ietu." Inga u di xiba ni mu- 
xima u&, pala kutala, se mosuku m moso muene, o Kamadfa ubiluka 
kala ki abiluka o usuku ua lelu. Fenda Madfa inga unanga. Kaveia 
ka di xiba ni muxima uL 

O kutula ni usuku, -n' oso azeka kid, o kaveia ka di bangesa m 
kala uazeka, manii uolotala. O Kamadfa ukatula o kalubungu k£ ; 
u ka bunda boxi : ima ioso muene pala kuzuata ieza. Uazuata, i6 
uate o ima ku tandu a meza ; uate navaia Di-zuike, ni kandeia Di- 
sende ; tujola Di-batule, ni tadi dia Muambi-a-kidi, inga ukala mu 
zuela : " S6 salavande ! m ngikale eme, 186 ngu muhatu, ngatundile 
ku bata dia ndandu jami, inga ngenda o iziia nake mu solongo dia 
muxitu ni paxi jami ni ngongo jami. Eie, ngana Vidiji Milanda, 
ngodidile o kuinii dia masanga ni sanga dimoxi ni kaxaxi, inga nga- 
mbela o m'bik' ami : ' Tenesa o kuinii dia masahga ni maiadi ; maji, 
ki dikala pala kuizala, ngi tonese pala eme ku di zubidisa.' m O 
mubik' ami, nga mu sumbile mu masoxi mami, kt k'a ki bangedi£, 
inga uehela o disanga ku di izalesa. O ki apapumukine ngana Vidiji 
Milanda, inga u mu ambela 'ngi be ndandu, mukaji ami;' muene, 
ku mu ambela 'k'emiami ngi mukaji &; mukaji 6 id uazeka;' ua 
mu ambelele < ngi be ndandu, mulume ami,* pala eme kubiluka ngi 
Kamadfa. Eie, ditadi dia Muambi-a-kidi ; eie, tujola Di-batule, eie, 
navaia Di-zuike; eie, kandeia Di-sende, (se ngazuela makutu) ngi 

Ngana Fenda Maria, 47 

Milanda, hast taken the slave, hast* left me ; me, who for thee walked 
eight days in the heart of the forest, ' where goes the child of Bird, 
the child of Man is not to be seen therein/ The ninth day, when 
I arrived with my trouble and pay misery, and I had wept for thee 
the ten jugs and one of tears, when there passed one who was sell- 
ing a slave for water, I then took a jug of tears ; I bought the slave 
to aid me in my trouble and my misery. Thou, ngana Vidiji 
Milanda, thou both didst take the slave, and leave me, me, the mis- 
tress, who for thee underwent hardships and misery. Thou lamp 
light-thyself ; thou razor whet-thyself ; thou scissors cut-yourselves ; 
thou stone speaker -of -truth, (if I have spoken lies) 180 cut me to 

The lamp lights itself; the razor whets itself; the scissors cut 
and cut themselves; the stone speaker-of-truth is knocking and 
knocking itself on the ground. She, Kamaria, then says: "Thou, 
God, succor me ! " And the things all disappear. 

The old woman was seeing all these things, and she speaks with 
her heart : " That one who is with our master, whether she indeed 
is not our mistress ? Our mistress, whether (she is) this one, whom 
they put down as Kamaria ? The true Kamaria is she who is with 
our master." And she holds her peace with her heart, to see 
whether all nights Kamaria will be changed as she was changed on 
the nigfyt of to-day, Fenda Maria then lives on. The old woman 
holds her peace with her heart. 

Arriving in the night, they are all asleep, the old woman makes 
herself as though asleep, but she is looking. Kamaria takes her 
kalubungu; she knocks it on the ground: all things indeed for 
dressing come out. She dresses and sets the things on the table ; 
she sets the razor whet-thyself, and the lamp light-thyself, the scis- 
sors cut-yourselves, and the stone speaker-of-truth, and she begins 
to speak : " So salavande ! 136 If it were not I, a woman ! I left 
the home of my family (kin), and walked eight days in the heart (Sf 
the forest, with my troubles and my miseries ! Thou, ngana Vidiji 
Milanda, for thee I wept the ten jugs and one and a half, and I said 
to my slave : ' Finish the ten jugs and two ; but, when it is going 
to be full, wake me up for me to finish it.' My slave, whom I had 
bought with my tears, she did not do it, but she allowed the jug 
to be filled. When ngana Vidiji Milanda awoke, and said to her : 
' Embrace me, my wife,' she, instead of saying to him, ' I am not 
thy wife ; thy wife is that one (yonder) asleep ; ' she said to him : 
'Embrace me, my husband/ for me to be turned into Kamaria. 
Thou stone, the speaker-of-truth ; you scissors cut-yourselves ; thou 
razor whet-thyself ; thou lamp light-thyself, (if I have spoken lies) 
cut me to pieces/' 

48 Folk- Tales of Angola. 

Kandeia ni ima ioso ia di sendela ; o ditadi diolo di pangajala ; o 
navaia iolo di zuika ; o tujola tuolo di batujula. O muene, bu 'axaxi 
bueniobo, inga uvutula : " Nzambi, ngi kudile ! " Ima ioso inga ibuika. 

Kaveia katale. O muhatit ua mundele uazula o ima i azuatele, 
paia ku2uata o kadikoza inga ubongolola o ima id, inga u i baka 
mu katutu 188 ka kaxa. Inga azek'&. 

Kiztia kiaxnuku&, o kaveia kaia mu f etela ngana id : u Eie, ngana, 
uadia 'nii ? 18d uanua 'nii ? se o 16, ua mu tambula kuma muene mu- 
kaji 6 Fenda Madia, ki muenid ? O Fenda Madfa una-ze, nua mu 
bake kuma Kamadfa." 

O ngana Vidiji Milanda inga u mu ambela: "Eie, u kaveia, 
uakambe ujitu ; uamba kuma mukaji ami o kahatu kand kabolo, kala 
ku 'itadi" "Eie, ngana, k'ufike makutu, mu 140 ngolo ku tangela. 
Loko, m'usuku, erne ngizekami m'o'nzo. Ngambela o kahatu : 
' Kazeke k'ubeka u6 ; erne ng&zeka bu kanga, bu a ngi kuvitala bu 
kizomba/ la Ngibanga dizungu bu dibitu. Eie, $gana, ni uambele 
mukaji € f kuma : ' Ngolotunda ni usuku. KI ngizami, kikala mako- 
lombolo/ Ni tua mu tale ioso i abanga m'o'nzo ni usuku." 

O ngana inga uambela mukaji 6: "Eme lelu ni usuku - ngoloia 
bama ; 142 ondo ngi banga ujitu." 143 Inga ananga* 

O ki azubile o kudia, o ngana Vidiji Milanda inga utunda makutu, 
inga u di sueka bu kididi, ki a mu dikixile o kaveia. 

Kutula ni usuku, o Fenda Madia uixana Kamadfa: "Kamadfa, 
zd, ngi bekele o menia; ngisukule o inama." Kamadfa uabeka o 
raenia pala kusukula Fenda Madia o inama. O ki azubile, inga u 
mu ambela : " E ! kahatu ! nd6 m'o'nzo, u&zeke. Kutula o mako- 
lombolo, uijukuila o dibitu ngana Vidiji Milanda." 

O Kamadfa uatambujila, inga ui'e mu zeka m'o'nzo id, Ujika ku 
dibitu, inga uzuela ni muxima ue : " Lelu ngala k'ubeka uami ; kia- 
beta 146 ku ngi uabela. Kana mutu u ngi mona." Ukuatao kalu- 
bungu ke; u ka bunda boxi: mu tunda abika; mu tunda seia; 146 
mu tunda jivestidu ja mbote ; ioso i zuata muhatu ua mundele. Inga 
u di longa 142 ? mu seia, u di sukula; abika a mu tukuta kiambote; a 
mu kondona, inga a mu zuika o vestidu ia mbote ia jitetembua. 

Muene uiza ku meza. O ngana Vidiji Milanda uolotala o ima ioso, 
i olobanga Kamadfa mu o'nzo. 

Kamadfa ukala mu zuela : " Kiakale eme ! Vidiji Milanda, nga ku 
endelete o iztia nake. Ngendele mu muxitu, eme ngu muhatu ua 
Nzambi, 148 ni paxi jami ni ngongo jami. O kia kavua, ki ngabixidile 

Ngana Fenda Maria. 49 

The lamp and things all light themselves ; the stone is knocking 
itself; the razor is whetting itself; the scissors are cutting them- 
selves. She, in the middle there, says again : " God, succor me ! " 
All the things then disappear (in darkness). 

The old woman saw it. The white lady takes off the things she 
had put on, to wear (again) the small rag; and $he gathers her 
things, and keeps them in her rotten little trunk. Then they sleep. 

The next day, the old woman went to whisper to her master: 
" Thou, master, why eatest thou ? 139 why drinkest thou ? if that one 
whom thou hast taken as thy wife, Fenda Maria, is not the same ? 
Fenda Maria is that one, whom you (both) put down as Kamaria." 

Ngana Vidiji Milanda then tells her: "Thou, old woman, lackest 
courtesy; thou sayest that my wife is the little woman yonder 
mean, that is in the yard?" "Thou, master, do not think it (to 
be) lies, what I am telling thee. Soon, at night, I shall not sleep 
in the house. I shall say to the little woman : * Sleep alone ; I will 
sleep outside, where they have invited me to the dance.' 141 I shall 
make a hole in the door. Thou, master, also tell thy wife, ' I. am 
going out at night. I shall not come, except at cock-crow,' that we 
may look at her, and all she does in the house at night." 

The master then tells his wife: "To-day, at night, I shall go 
somewhere ; 142 they will give me a party." And they live on. 

When he had finished eating, ngana Vidiji. Milanda then goes out 
falsely, 144 and hides himself in the place which the old woman had 
showed to him. 

The night coming, Fenda Maria calls Kamaria : " Kamaria, come, 
bring me water that I may wash my feet." Kamaria brought the 
water to wash Fenda Maria's feet. When she had finished, then 
she tells her, "O little woman ! go to the house to sleep. When it 
is cock-crow thou shalt go and open the door for ngana Vidiji Mi- 

Kamaria assents and goes to lie down in her hut. She shuts the 
door, and speaks with her heart : " To-day I am alone with myself ; 
it greatly pleases me. Nobody sees me." She takes her kalubungu ; 
she knocks it on the ground: out come slaves; out comes a bath-, 
tub ; out come splendid dresses ; everything that a white lady wears. 
And she lays herself in the tub ; she washes herself ; the slaves rub 
her well ; they wipe her ; and they put on her the beautiful dress of 

She comes to the table. Ngana Vidiji Milanda is looking at all 
the things that Kamaria is doing in the house. 

Kamaria begins to speak : " But for me ! Vidiji Milanda, I walked 
for thee for eight days. I walked in the forest, I, a woman of God, 148 
with my troubles and my miseries. On the ninth day, when I arrived 

50 Folk- Tales of Angola. 

mu palaia, 149 mu a ku louelele o jinganga, mu konda dia kuuaba 
kuavulu, erne ngexile mu ku didila o kuinii dia masanga ni maiadi, 
mu Jig' ambelele o mubidi ; inga ng* u didila o kuinii dia masanga 
n'umoxi. O ki ngatenesene kuinii dia masanga n'umoxi 180 ni 
kaxaxi, buexile 151 mu bita o mutu, uexile mu sumbisa mubika, inga 
ngu mu sumba mu sanga diami dia masoxi. Ngi mu luka Kamasoxi ; 
inga ngikala mu dila pala kutenesa o kuinii dia masanga ni maiadi. 
O ki ngabixidile mu kuinii dia masanga n'umoxi ni kaxaxi, ki ng&xa- 
nene Kamasoxi, o mubika, nga mu sumbile mu masoxi mami, mu 
ngexile mu didila ngana Vidiji Milanda:, inga ngu mu ambela: 'Te- 
nesa, mubik'ami, o kuinii dia masanga ni maiadi. Ki dikala pala 
kukala, eie ngi tonese ; mukonda ngana Vidiji Milanda uondotona. 
Eie, u m'bik* ami, se muene uatono, erne hanji ngazeka, ki a ku 
ambela : " Ngi be ndandu, mukaji ami " eie u mu ambela : " K'emi- 
ami ngi mukaji 6 ; mukaji 6 io uazeka." ' O Kamasoxi, ki atonene 
o ngana Vidiji Milanda, ua mu ambelele : ' Ngi be ndandu, mukaji 
ami;' o muene inga u mu tambujila: 'Ngi be ndandu, mulume 
ami.' Kiakale eme! Vidiji Milanda, nga ku endelele o jipaxi, ni 
jingongo, ni malamba , . . eie uatambuile o m'bika kuma mukaji 6, 
erne, ngi mukaji 6, nu ngi bange ngu m'bika. Eie, kandeia Di- 
sende; eie, navaia Di-zuike; eie, tujola Di-batule; eie, ndundulu 
Di-pangale; eie, ditadi dia Muambi-a-kidi ; eie, lumuenu Di-mutke, 
(se ngazuela makutu) ngi batujudienu ! " 

Iene ioso ia di sendela ; ndundulu iolo di pangajala ; tujola tuolo 
di batujula; o lumuenu luolo di muika; o navaia iolo di zuika; o 
ditadi dia muambi a kidi, diala mu zuela o kidi. O ki iexile pala 
kubuika, 1M ki abokuele Ngana Vidiji Milanda, inga u mu ambela: 
" Ngi be ndandu, mukaji ami" Muene, ki amuene ngana Vidiji 
Milanda uabokuele, inga ubana selende ; 156 ngana Vidiji Mildnda 
uia ku kiambu u&. O kaveia, kexile-bu, kabangele o milongo pala 
ngana Vidiji Milanda ni Fenda Madfa kutona, inga atona. 

Abanda, ni Fenda Madfa ni Vidiji Milanda, kusanga Kamasoxi, 
uazeka bu hama. O Kamasoxi, ki amuene Fenda Madfa uabokola 
mVnzo ni ngana Vidiji Milanda, uaxala uatukumuka. 

O Vidiji Milanda uexanene abika pala kukuata Kamasoxi, ni ku 
mu ta mu pipa ia kalakatald. O kifuba, kiatundile mu pipa ia kala- 
katald kiabangele o pemba, pala Fenda Madia ni Vidij ^Milanda ku 
di xisa. 

Ngateletele o kamusoso kami ; se kauaba inga kaiiba, ngazuba. 

Ngana Fenda Maria. 51 

on the shore, 149 where the wizards had bewitched thee, because of 
great beauty, I was weeping for thee the ten jugs and two, which 
the shepherd had told me ; and I for thee wept ten jugs and one. 
When I had finished ten jugs and one and a half, there was passing 
one, who was selling a slave, and I bought her for a jug of tears. I 
called her Kamasoxi, and I resumed weeping, to finish the ten jugs 
and two. When I had arrived at ten jugs and one and a half, then 
I called Kamasoxi, the slave whom I had bought with my tears, that 
I was weeping for ngana Vidiji Milanda, and I said to her : * Com- 
plete, slave mine, the ten jugs and two. When it is going to get 
full, thou, wake me up ; for ngana Vidiji Milanda will awake. Thou, 
my slave, if he awakes, I being still asleep, when he says to thee : 
" Embrace me, my wife ; " thou to him shalt say : "I am not thy 
wife. Thy wife is that one (yonder) who sleeps." Kamasoxi, when 
ngana Vidiji Milanda awoke, he said to her: 'Embrace me, my 
wife ; ' but she then answered him : ' Embrace me, my husband/ 
But for me ! Vidiji Milanda, who for thee went through the hard- 
ships, and trials and miseries, . . . thou tookest the slave as thy 
wife, that me, thy wife, you (both) might make a slave. Thou lamp 
light-thyself ; thou razor whet-thyself ; you scissors cut-yourselves ; 
thou pebble knock-thyself ; thou stone speaker-of-truth ; thou mir- 
ror look-thyself, (if I have spoken lias) cut me to pieces ! " 152 

They all light themselves, 153 the pebble knocks and knocks itself ; 
the scissors cut and cut themselves ; the mirror is looking at itself ; 
the razor is whetting itself ; the stone speaker-of -truth is speaking 
the truth. When they were going to disappear, 184 then entered 
ngana Vidiji Milanda, and says to her: "Embrace me, my wife." 
She, when she sees ngana Vidiji Milanda entering, then she faints ; 
ngana Vidiji Milanda also goes into a swoon. The old woman, 
who was" there, made a remedy for ngana Vidiji Milanda and Fenda 
Maria to awa^e ; and they awoke. 

They go up, both Fenda Maria and Vidiji Milanda, to find Kama- 
soxi, asleep in bed. Kamasoxi, when she saw Fenda Maria coming 
into the room with ngana Vidiji Milanda, she was appalled. 

Vidiji Milanda called slaves to catch Kamasoxi, and put her into 
a barrel of coal-tar. The bone, that came out of the barrel of coal- 
tar, made the white clay, for Fenda Maria and Vidiji Milanda to 
smear themselves. 

I have told my little story ; whether good or bad, I have finished. 

52 Folk- Tales of Angola. 


Eme ngateletele nga NzuA dia mon* a Kinoueza kia TumV a 
Ndala. 1 * 6 O pai & uaf u ; o manii A uaf u. A mu xila ni pange 6 
Fenda Madfa, mon' a Kinoueza kia Tumb' a Ndala. 

O ngana Fenda Madfa, manii & ua mu xila kahombo* Ki akexile 
mu kufua, manii & ua mu ambelele : " Mon' ami, kahombo k6 koka, 
nga ku xila, muene manii enu, muene pai enu." Manii A uafu ; 
afundu manii A. AkaTA, ni kota did nga NzuA. Adia nguingi; 
aseiala musoio. 

Kuala Fenda Madia uixi: "Kota diami, aku'enu asokana; eie 
k'usokani mu konda dia 'nii ? O kitadi kiki, ki a tu xila papaii ni 
mamanii. Eme ngu muhetu, dual* eie ; ki usokana, ki ngi uabela." 
O dikota dixi : " Di xibe 6, nga Madia." O ndenge ua di xib'd. 

Kizu' okio, nga NzuA uazuata ; ua di longo mu maxila ; 167 uaii mu 
paxiiu, 158 kat6 mu Luanda. Usanga nga Nzuana 159 dia mon* a ngu- 
vulu muA Ngola. 160 Ki amona nga NzuA, uatekuka, uixi: "Tunde 
ki a ngi vuaT ami, kiliia ngamono diiala uauaba o kuuaba kua nga 
NzuA dia mon' a Kinoueza kia Tumb' a Ndala. Ku lu dia mundu, 161 
kiltia ngasange diiala kala nga NzuA/' 

Nga NzuA uia ku bata did ku museke. 162 Usanga ndenge &, ngana 
Fenda Madfa dia mon' a Kinoueza kia Tumb' a Ndala, uixi : "Ndenge 
ami, o muhatu, nga mu mono, nga Nzuana dia mon' a nguvulu muA 
Ngola, ua ngi uabela kinene. Muene ua ng' ambela, uixi : ' Eie, 
nga NzuA, la 163 uamesena kukazala n' eme, o ndenge 6, ngana Fenda 
Madfa, ukala mubik* ami; u mu ta u£ mu kulemba.' 164 Ngejiami 
ioso i ngibanga." 

Ndenge-pe k'el£ 166 kima; ua di xib'6. Iii uazekedi L Kutula 
mu 'amenemene, kuala nga NzuA uixi: " O muhetu, ngA mu takana 
kiA." Uambatesa o ilembu, uia mu Luanda ; usanga ngana nguvulu ; 
u mu binga mon* 6 nga Nzuana. 

Pai A, ngana nguvulu, uaxikana, uixi : " Mon' ami, kikala ukazala 
ni nga NzuA ; manii o kulemba, nguamami-ku." 16e 

Aii mu ngeleja. Nga NzuA ni nga Nzuana akazala; abange o 
fesa. Mu izua iiadi fesa iabu. Aia ku bata dia nga NzuA. 

Nga Nzuana usanga ngana Fenda Madfa dia mon' a Kinoueza Ida 

Fenda Maria and her Elder Brother nga Nzua. 53 


I often tell of nga NzuA, son of Kinoueza kia. Tumb' a Ndala. 156 
His father died ; his mother died. They left him with his sister 
Fenda Maria, daughter of Kinoueza kia Tumb' a Ndala. 

Ngana penda Maria, her mother left her a kid. When she was 
dying, her mother told her : " My daughter, this thy goat, which I 
leave thee, it is thy mother, it is thy father." Her mother died. 
They buried her mother. They lived on, (she) and her elder (brother) 
nga NzuA. They breakfast on " bagre ; " they sup on catfish. 

Then Fenda Maria says : " Elder mine, the others get married. 
Why dost thou not marry ? The money is here, which our father 
and mother left I am a woman, thou art a man ; if thou marriest, 
it shall please me." The elder says : " Hold thy peace, nga Maria." 
The younger (sister) held her peace. 

One day nga NzuA dressed ; he placed himself in a maxila ; 167 he 
went for a tour, doWn to Loanda. He meets nga Nzuana, 169 daugh- 
ter of the Governor in Angola. 160 When she saw nga NzuA, she 
wondered, saying : " Since I was born, never saw I a man beautiful 
like the beauty of nga NzuA, son of Kinoueza kia Tumb' a Ndala. 
On the face of the earth, 161 not yet have I met a man like nga NzuA." 

Nga NzuA goes to his home, in the Muceque. 162 He finds his sis- 
ter, ngana Fenda Maria, daughter of Kinoueza kia Tumb' a Ndala, 
saying : " My sister, a girl whom I saw, nga Nzuana, daughter of 
the Governor in Angola, she pleased me much. She told me, say- 
ing : ' Thou, nga NzuA, if 'thou wantest to marry with me, thy sister, 
ngana Fenda Maria, shall be my slave; thou shalt put her also in 
the wooing-presents.* I don't know what I shall do." 

The sister; however, said nothing ; she was silent He went to 
sleep. Arriving in the morning, nga NzuA says : " The girl, I will 
fetch her at once ! " He gives to the carriers the wooing-presents, 
goes to Loanda ; he finds the Lord Governor ; he asks of him his 
daughter, nga Nzuana. 

Her father, the Lord Governor, assents, saying : " My daughter, 
it shall be that she marries with nga NzuA ; but the wooing-present, 
I will not (take) it" m 

They went to church. Nga NzuA and nga Nzuana are married ; 
they make the feast. In two days the feast is over. They go to 
the house of nga NzuA. 

Nga Nzuana finds ngana Fenda Maria, daughter of Kinoueza kia 

54 Folk- Tales of Angola. 

Tumb* a Ndala, uixi : " Eie, mVkulu uakexile u ngana Fenda Madfa ; 
akiki 167 uala eie Kamadfa." AkaT L 

Muene uxanga o jihuinii ; 168 muene utek' o menia. O kiztia ki- 
moxi: "E! Kamadfa." "Ngana." "Iza, uie mu sukula made." 
Uazanguia o ngamela ; m uaii bu tabu 17 ° mu sukula. Ubixila moxi a 
mulemba; 171 utula ngamela boxL Ukuata mu kudila, uixi: "Aiu6! 
aiu6 ! m tund' ami, 173 ki a ngi vuala pai etu ni manii etu . . . kala 174 
lelu a ngi tuma kusukula. Mu konda dia 'nii ? " 

Uevu o kahombo kd, kalokuiza ni kudila: "M661 m66l m£6l 
kiebi, ngan' ami? 176 Uadidila 'nii, ngan' ami ia ndenge?" "Ngi- 
dilami kiebi ? Tunde ki a ngi vuaT ami, kiMa ngasukuile o milele ; 
asukula akama 176 maid. 177 O kiztia kia lelo, 178 mukonda pai etu uafu, 
o manii etu uafu, o kota diami, nga Nzud — nga ku tumakusota o 
muhetu? — kiztia kia lelu, ngikala ngi m'bika. Ngixanga jihuinii; 
ni menia, ngitek' o menia." 

Kuala kahombo uixi : " Di xibe 6, ngan* ami. Kiztia umona 
ungana 179 u6; o umbanda ndenge." 18 ° Kahombo kakatula o milele 
mu ngamela; usukula jimbinza, jikalasa, jikazaku; uaneka. Usanga 
ngana iS, Fenda Madfa, uixi: "Ngan' ami, uadidila 'nii?" "Nga- 
didil* ami o ngongo iami." " Za, ngan' ami, ngu ku tala o jina." 181 
Ua mu tala o jina. Ki azuba ku mu tala o jina, uaii mu bunjika o 
izuatu. Uebunjika, uebana ngana id. 

Fenda Madfa uazanguia, utula ku bata. "E ! Kamadfa, eie uasu- 
kula o lopa 182 iiii ? " Uixi : " Erne ngesukula." 183 Uaii mu o'nzo ; 

Nga Nzuana ueza uemita ; uia mu vuala : mon'a diiala. Akuata 
mu sas* o mona. Mona uakulu ; uaii bu xikola ; uejfa kutanga ni 

Pai 4 ua mu ixana ku meza : " Za udie, mon* ami" " Nguamiami, 
pai etu." " Uandala 'nii ? uandala ngulu ? " u Ngua nami, papaii." 18 * 
"Inii i uandala?" "Ngandala hombo." "Hombo kuxi 185 uan- 
dala?" "Ngandala o hombo ia Kamadfa." 

Ejiba ; etale ; ekatula o midia ; ebana Kamadfa : " K&sukule midia 
iiii, ni dikutu." Uasukula mudia: uaii ni mbiji; 186 usukula mudia 
uamukud : uaii ue ; midia ioso iabu. O dikutu, a di ambata kuaJa 
nguingu Uixi : " Aiu6 ! aiu6 I ngibanga kiebi 6 ? " m Uakuata mu 

Ki aia mu tala bu tabu, se iamoneka o ngamela, o menia mambata 

Fenda Maria and her Elder Brother nga NzuA. 55 

Tumb* a Ndala, (and) says : " Thou, of old thou wast ngana Fenda 
Maria, but now art thou Kamaria." They live on. 

She fetches the fire-wood ; 168 she gets the water. One day : " O 
Kamaria 1 " " Mistress." " Come, go to wash the clothes." She 
lifted up the tub ; 169 she went to the landing 17 ° to wash. She arrives 
under the fig-tree ; 171 she sets the tub on the grouad. She begins 
to cry, saying : " Woe ! woe to me t 172 Since me, 178 since my father 
and mother gave me birth 174 . . . But to-day they send me to wash ! 
Because of what ? " 

She hears her little goat that is coming and crying : " Mey ! mey ! 
mey ! How (is it) mistress mine ? Why criest thou, my young 
mistress ? " " How shall I not cry ? Ever since I was born, never 
did I wash clothes. They who wash are always slave girls. 176 To- 
day, because my father is dead, (and) my mother is dead, my elder 
brother, nga Nzud . . . did I bid thee to seek that wife ? . . * this 
day of to-<lay, I must be a slave. I fetch the fire-wood ; also the 
water, I get the water." 

Then the goat said ; " Be quiet, mistress mine ! one day thou shalt 
see thy glory; 179 the medicine is inferior." 180 The goat takes the 
clothes out of the tub ; she washes the shirts, the trousers, the coats, 
she spreads (them) in the sun. She finds her mistress Fenda Maria, 
says : " My mistress, why dost thou cry ? " " I am crying over my 
misery." " Come, my mistress, I will louse thee." 181 She looks 
her (over) for lice. When she finished looking for her lice, she went 
to fold the clothes. She has folded them ; she gives them to her 

Fenda Maria lifts up (the tub), arrives at home. " Eh ! Kamaria, 
didst thou wash these clothes ? " She says : " 1 washed them." m 
She went to her room ; she lay down. 

Nga Nzuana comes to conceive ; she goes to be delivered ; (it is) a 
male child* They begin to bring up the child. The child grows up ; 
goes to school ; knows (how) to read and to write. 

His father calls him to the table : " Come (and) eat, my son ! " 
"I will not, my father," "What wishest thou? Desirest thou 
pork ? " "I will not, father." " What dost thou desire ? " " I want 
goat." " Which goat dost thou wish ? " " I want the goat of Ka- 

They kill it ; skin it; they take out (its) tripes ; give them to Ka- 
maria : " Go, wash these tripes and stomach." She washes one tripe ; 
it is gone with a fish ; 186 she washes another tripe ; it is gone, too ; 
all the tripes are gone. The stomach is carried away by a bagre. 
Says she : " Woe I woe to me ! What shall I do ? " She begins 
to cry« 
When she went to see at the landing, whether the tub appears (is 

56 Folk* Tales of Angola. 

o ngamela. Kamadfa u di ta mu menia; uazouo; ualembua. Uto- 
mboka boxi . . . kate ku bata 188 dia ngana Nzuana. Uixi: "Kama- 
dia, o midia iebi?" "A i ambata kua jimbiji." A mu kuata mu 
kibetu. 189 Azek' L 

Kutula mu 'amenemene, ki abalumukine, Kamadfa ualenge £. 
Ua di ta mu muxitu ; ukuata mu kuenda ; uend'£ ! Usanga kaveia 
ka Kinoueza kia Tumb' a Ndala. Tunde ki a mu vuala kua manii d 
ni tat* d, uabindamena mutu u mu kulala o kitanga. Kamadfa u mu 
kulala. Kuala kaveia : " Eie, u mulaur ami, tala." UjikuF o'nzo : 
fazenda ! ujikul* o'nzo : ualende ! ujikuF o'nzo : kobidi ! 19 ° ujikul* 
o'nzo: sela! 191 ujikul' o'nzo: maju a nzamba! 192 dikonge! 193 Azek' 
d; akal' d. Kuala Kamadfa uixi: "Kuku etu, ngalui' ami kid." 
"Nga Madfa, tata, 19 * tukal' etu hanji." Uixi : "Ngalui' ami." Ka- 
veia u mu bana kalubungu ka fazenda, kalubungu ka ualende, kalu- 
bungu ka abika, kalubungu ka jimaxu, 195 kalubungu ka masoladi, 196 
kalubungu ka mujika, 197 kalubungu ka kitadi, kalubungu ka jive- 
stidu. Kuala nga Madfa: "Xal' £, kuku etu." "Bixila kiambote 
&" VV& 

Q kizua ki avuala Fenda Madfa dia mon' a Kinoueza kia Tumb' a 
Ndala mu 'xi ia Ngola, o kiziia kieniokio ki avuala Ndunge dia mem* 
a makixi ma Lumba. 199 Buene bu atula nga Madfa. O makixi a 
Lumba endele mu kutomba. " Tenda ! uatendela 'nii ? " 20 ° " Nga- 
tendela muiii, uiza ku bata dietu." " Makutu me uazuela." " Ua- 
tendela *nii ? " " Mukongo ua Tumba, uejile mu kutomba. Usuku 
ualembe ; k'amone kididi kia kuzeka. Uixi : * NgazeV ami bu bata 
bana/" "Makutu m6; k'uatendete." Kuala mukud: "Tenda! uaten- 
dela 'nii?" "Ngatendela mufii. ,, "Makutu m£." "Ngatendela 
m'o'nzo ietu muiza ngana Fenda Madfa dia mon' a Kinoueza kia 
Tumb'a Ndala mu 'xi ia Ngola; iii ualuia kid ku 'xi id." Makixi 
moso mexi : " Kiauaba, kiauaba, kiauaba ! " Atula ku bata. 

Kuala Kixi a Lumba: "Nga Madfa, tukuluk' 6!" Nga Madfa 
uatukuluka. O kiziia ki avuala Fenda Madia, o kiziia ki avuala nga 
Kixi a Lumba. 201 Pai d uavua vua dia midi ia mitue : mutu umoxi 
mukua vua dia midi ia mitue. Uixi: "Nga Madfa, tua ku binda- 
mena; lelu tu ku mona." 

Avunda kalubungu boxi : mu tunda akama kiiadi ; mu tunda hama 
ia felu ; mu tunda papinid. A mu zalela. Makixi a Lumba akuata 
mu kutonoka . . . kat6 kuma kuaki. 202 

Nga Madfa uixi : "Ngalui' ami kid." Exi : "Kana, tuzek' etu 

Fenda Maria and her Elder Brother nga Nzua. 57 

there) the water had carried off the tub. Kamaria threw herself into 
the water ; she swam ; she gave in. She got out on land (and went) 
as far as the house of ngana Nzuana. Says she : " Kamaria, the 
tripes, where are they ? " " They were carried off by the fishes." 
They take her and beat ; they sleep. 

Arriving in the morning, when she got up, Kamaria ran away. 
She enters the forest, begins to walk ; walks and walks. She finds 
an old woman of Kinoueza kia Tumb* a Ndala. Since she was 
brought forth by her mother and her father, she needed somebody 
to attend to (her) leprosy. Kamaria nurses her. Then the old 
woman : " Thou, granddaughter mine, behold ! " She opens a room : 
cloth ! she opens a room : rum ! she opens a room : copper ! she 
opens a room : wax ! she opens a room : teeth of elephant ! 192 india- 
rubber ! They sleep ; they live. Then Kamaria says : " My grand- 
mother, I am going!" "Nga Maria, dear, let us stay together 
longer." She says: "I am going." The old woman gives her a 
box of cloth, a box of rum, a box of slaves, a box of mules, a box of 
soldiers, a box of music, 197 a box of money, a box of dresses. Then 
nga Maria : " Farewell ! my grandmother ! " " Get there well ! " 
She goes away. 

The day that was born Fenda Maria, daughter of Kinoueza kia 
Tumb* a Ndala, in the land of Angola, that same day w£s born 
Ndunge, son of the Ma-kjshi of Lumba. 199 There (it was) that nga 
Maria arrived. The Ma-kishi of Lumba had gone a-hunting : " Di- 
vine ! thou .divinest what ? " ^ "I divine a thief, who comes to our 
house." " Thy lies, that thou speakest." " Thou divinest what ? " 
" Hunter of Tumba, who came to hupt. Night darkens : he finds 
no place to sleep. He says ' I will go and sleep in yonder house.' " 
" Thy lies ; thou divinest not." Then another : " Divine ! what 
dost thou divine ? " " I divine a thief." " Thy untruth." " I divine 
that in our house there arrives ngana Fenda Maria, daughter of 
Kinoueza kia Tumb' a Ndala in the land of Angola ; she is going 
now to their land." The Ma-kishi all said : " Splendid, splendid, 
splendid ! " They arrive at home. 

Then Kishi a Lumba: "Nga Maria, appear!" Nga Maria ap- 
pears. The day when Fenda Maria was born (was) the same day 
when ngana Kishi a Lumba was born. His father owns nine thou- 
sand of heads : one person owns nine thousand of heads \ He says : 
" Nga Maria, we wanted thee much ; now we see thee." 

They knock a kalubungu on the ground : there come out two 
slave-women ; there comes out a bed of iron ; there comes out a mos- 
quito-bar. They prepare her (bed). The Ma-kishi of Lumba begin 
to dance (and dance on) until daybreak. 

Nga Maria says : " I am going now." They say : " No, we will 

58 Folk" Tales of Angola. 

hanji" " Henda ia ngi kuata ia kota diami, nga mu xisa, nga Nzud 
dia mon* a Kinoueza kia Tumb' a Ndala." Kuala makixi : " Kinga 
hanji kofele." Mai4-ku : kalubungu ka kudia, kalubungu kezuatu, 208 
kalubungu ka mujika. 

Nga Madfa ualui* £ kia. A mu xinjikila: " BixiT iV* "Xalenu 
kiambote 6 ! " Ubixila ku bata dia kota di£. Kuala ngana Nzua- 
na: "Eie, Kamadfa? tunde ki uajimbidila nuka tua ku monene; 
lelu umonek' d ? " A mu kuata, a mu bana ibetu. O dikota nguaie 
kuzuela ; ua di xib* & Azek* L Mungu kialumingu. 20 * Atula mu 
'amenemene, kuala nga Nzud : " E ! nga Nzuana, zuata, tuie mu 
ngeleja." 205 O nga Nzud, ki ata-ku o dima, kuala nga Madfa: "E! 
Katalaiu, 206 eme ngiz' <5. Ngaluf ami uami mu ngeleja." " Ngan* a 
ndenge, 207 tata, uzuata-nii ? " Uixi : " Ng' ambudi ami, m'bik' ami/' 

Uniungunuka ku dima dia 'nzo ; uvunda kalubungu boxi : mu iza 
vestidu, i abindamena ngenji; 208 uzuata, Uvunda kalubungu boxi: 
mu iza masoladi; 209 mu iza kaluaji; mu iza akama kiiadi ; mu iza. 
mujika. Nga Madfa u di longa mu kaluaji, mujika ku dima . . . 
kat6 mu ngeleja. Asanga mu ngeleja muezala, ni mindele ni ambu- 
ndu; ni ifofo ni inema. Oso muene a di uana: "Kihia tuamono 
ngan' a muhetu uauaba kala iti." Abange o misa, 210 atunda bu kanga. 

Uvunda kalubungu boxi : mu iza kialu, ki abindamena ngana ngu- 
vulu mud Ngola. Uaxikama bu kanga dia ngeleja. Mujika iakuata. 
Ngana nguvulu iii utala ufi, ni mon' 6, nga Nzuana, ni holome 6, nga 
Nzui ; id atala o muhatu a mundele 6. O Fenda Madfa, ki akatuka 
o kui' 6, id 211 a mu kaiela, ni mujika i£. Ki atula ku dima dia 'nzo, 
6mbamba m ioso iabokola mu kalubungu. 

Kuala Katalaiu : "Ngan' a ndenge 6 I uabixidile muene mu nge- 
leja ?" "Ngabixidile muene. Nga Nzuana, nga mu sange mu nge- 
leja, k' a ngi monuami." m 

O ki abanga katangana, nga Nzuana ubixila ni nga Nzud, " Andd, 
o lumoso iai kid bu meza? E! Kamadfa," "Ngana iami. ,, "Za, 
ngi zule o jisabatu eji" Ua mu zula ; ua mu bana o jixinelu. "El 
Kamadfa, tata, tuendele mu ngeleja ; tua di uana muhatu a mundele ; 
o kuuaba ku£, k'o lo dia mundu, kf tua mu muenietu." "A ! makutu 
m€ ! O kuuaba, ku uauab' eie, ngana iami, o muhetu ua mundele, ua 
mu tumbuV 6, ukala kota se 216 eie ? " Uixi : " Kidi muene, ki ngalu- 
zuela, Kamadfa." AkaT & Azek' 1 Kuma kuaki ; anange L Azeka 
dingi. 216 

Fenda Maria and her Elder Brother nga Nzud. 59 

still sleep (another night)." "Longing holds me after my elder 
brother, whom I left, nga Nzua, son of Kinoueza kia Tumb' a Ndala " 
Then the Ma-kishi ; " Wait yet a little." They go on : a box of 
food, a box of clothes, a box of music. 

Nga Maria is going now. They accompany her; "Get there 
(well)." " Fare ye well/' She arrives at the house of her eider 
(brother). Then ngana Nzuana: "Thou, Kamaria? Since that 
thou gottest lost, never we saw thee ; to-day thou appearest ? " They 
seize her \ they give her a flogging. The brother will not speak ; 
he is silent. They go to sleep ; to-morrow (is) Sunday. ** They 
arrive in the morning, then nga Nzud : " Eh ! nga Nzuana, dress up, 
that we go to church." Nga Nzud, as he turned his back, then nga 
Maria : " Eh ! Katalaiu, 206 I am coming directly. I am going also 
to church." "Young mistress, dear, what wilt thou wear?" She 
says : " Let me alone, my slave*" 

She goes around to the back of the house ; knocks a box on the 
ground : out comes a dress, such as a trader greatly desires ; ^ she 
puts it on. She knocks a box on the ground : out come soldiers ; 
out comes a carriage ; out come two slave-girls ; out comes a band. 
Nga Maria enters into the carriage, the (band of) music behind, they 
go up to church. They find the church is full, with both whites and 
blacks ; both blind and cripples. 210 All together wonder : " Not yet 
did we see a lady beautiful as this." They have done the mass ; 
they go outside. 

She knocks the box on the ground ; out comes a chair, such as 
greatly desires the Lord Governor in Angola. She sits outside of 
church. The band strikes. The Lord Governor looks, and his 
daughter, nga Nzuana, and his son-in-law, nga Nzud ; they look at 
the white lady there. Fenda Maria, when she started to go away, 
they followed her and also he- band. When she arrived behind the 
house, the things all entered into the box. 

Then Katalaiu : " Young mistress, didst thou arrive indeed in the 
church ? " ** I got there indeed. Nga Nzuana, whom I found in the 
church, did not see me." 

When they passed a moment, nga Nzuana arrives with nga Nzu&. 
" Well, then ! the breakfast, has it gone already on the table ? Eh ! 
Kamaria ! " " My mistress." " Come, take off these shoes." She 
takes them off. She gives her the slippers. " Eh ! Kamaria, why ! 
we went to church : we wondered at a white lady, her beauty, on the 
face of the earth we have not seen her like." " Oh t thy lies, 214 
The beauty (with) which thou art beautiful, my mistress, the white 
lady, whom thou mentionest, can she be superior to thee ? " She 
says : " Truth indeed, (is) what I am speaking, Kamaria." They live 
on. They sleep. Day breaks. They spend time. They sleep again. 

6o Folk- Tales of Angola. 

O ngana nguvulu mu& Ngola uabana ngonge w mu *xi : " Uoso u 
ngi monena o muhatu a mundele 6, uendele mu ngeleja ; uoso uka- 
tula ngo o sabatu i£ ku kinama, ng& mu bana saku 218 jiiadi." 

la akaV £. Aking' o kiziia, ki a mu mona, ki aia dingi mu ngeleja. 
Kutula kialumingu. Kuala nga Nzud : u E ! nga Nzuana, tuie mu 
ngeleja." Akatuka. Kuala nga Madfa : " Katalaiu € ! erne ngiz' 6. 
Ngalui* ami mu ngeleja. 1 * Uixi : "Ngan' ami; ndate." Uakatuka 
. . . kat6 mu ngeleja. Oso, asange mu ngeleja, exi : "Tua di uana, 
aba ; talenu, ualokuiza o muhatu a mundele 6." Ubixila mu ngeleja. 
Ngana nguvulu ua di uana. Abange o misa. 

Ngana Madfa, ki atundu bu kanga, uvunda kalubungu boxi : mua- 
tundu ialu iiadi. Uaxikama ni kadifele 219 k£. U mu ambela: " Ndoko, 
tui' etu kid." A di longa kia mu kaluaji ; mujika iala ku a kaiela 
ku dima . . . kat£ ku dima dia 'nzo. Ukatul* embamba, i azuatele, ueta 
mu kalubungu ; ubokola m' o'nzo. 220 

Mutu ua mu mono ; uai mu tangela ngana nguvulu. Ngana ngu- 
vulu uatula. Akuika nga Nzud dia holome a ngana nguvulu. Kuala 
ngana nguvulu : "Manii, eie uabaka itS, Kamadfa ? Inii i6 ? " Nga 
Nzud uixi: "Pange ami." Nga Madfa uixi: "Makutu mS, ngana 
nguvulu, ngakexile ngi pange £; akiki ngala mubika." "Kidi muene, 
Kamadfa, ki ualozuela kiki ? " " Kidi muene." "A ku banga o m'bika ! 
Manii, eie muene, uendele mu ngeleja kialumingu ? " " Ngana iami, 
ngana nguvulu, tata, erne, o vestidu, ngesanga kuebi, ngezuate, erne 
ngu m'bika ? " " Eie muene-pe uendele mu ngeleja ; uala ku ngi tela 
ng6 makutu." Uixi : " Kidi muene, ngana nguvulu, kf makutu S." 
Ngana nguvulu uixi : " Nga Madfa, nga ku mesena mungu uia ku 
bata diami ku ngi zuelesa." Ualui' § kid ku bata die. 

Kutula mu 'amenemene, ngana Fenda Madfa uvunda kalubungu 
boxi. Uzuata ; u di longa mu kaluaji . . . kat£ ku palaxu. O ma- 
soladi, ki a mu mono, akolo : "Azalma!" 221 Utuluka mu kaluaji; 
uabokola mu palaxu ; ubanda ku tandu. A di menekena ni nguvulu. 
A mu bana o kialu ; uxikama. Ngana Fenda Madfa uixi : " Kiebi ? 
ngana nguvulu, erne ua ngi bindamena ?" Nguvuju uixi : "Nga ku 
mono." A di mosala. Azuba ku di mosala ; anang* L 

Kutula mu ngoloxi, ngana Fenda Madfa uixi : " Ngalui' ami kid ; 
manii, tuma ku k'ijfa, 222 ngana nguvulu, mungu tuzuela." A di xalesa : 
" BixiT 6 ! " " Xala kiambote." 

Fenda Maria and her Elder Brother nga Nzua. 61 

The Lord Governor in Angola gave a proclamation 217 in the land : 
u Whoever shall let me see that white lady, who went into the church, 
whosoever shall take off only a shoe from her foot, I will give him 
two sacks." m 

People live on. They await the day, that they shall see her, when 
she goes again to church. Sunday arrives. Then nga Nzuana: 
"Eh! nga Nzud, let us go to church." They start. Then nga 
Maria: "O Katalaiu ! I am coming soon. I am going to church." 
He says : " My mistress, go." She starts (and goes) as far as the 
church. All who assembled in the church, say : " We wonder ! ah ! 
behold, she is coming, that white lady." She arrives in the church. 
The Lord Governor wonders. They have done the mass. 

Ngana Maria, when she has gone outside, she knocks the box on 
the ground : out come two chairs. She sits with her ensign. She 
tells him : "Come, let us go now." They get at once into the car- 
riage. The band is following them behind, as far as back of the 
house. She takes off the things she was wearing, puts them into 
the box ; enters into the housed 

Somebody has seen her ; goes to tell the Lord Governor. The 
Lord Governor arrives. They arrest nga Nzud, son-in-law of the 
Lord Governor. Then the Lord Governor : " Then thou keepest 
this one, Kamaria? What to thee (is she)?" Nga Nzud says: 
" My sister." Nga Maria says : " His lies, Lord Governor ; I was 
his sister, but now I am his slave." " Truth, indeed, Kamaria, what 
thou art telling here ? " " Truth itself." "They made thee a slave ! 
Is it thou indeed, who wentest to church on Sunday ? " " My Lord, 
Lord Governor, why ! the dress, where shall I find it, to wear it ? 
I who am a slave ? " " Thou indeed didst go to church ; thou art 
telling me only lies." She says : " Truth itself, Lord Governor, it is 
no lie." The Lord Governor says : " Nga Maria, I wish thee to- 
morrow to go to my house, to talk with me," He now goes to his 

Arriving in the morning, ngana Fenda Maria knocks a box on the 
ground. She dresses ; she gets into the carriage ; she goes up to 
the palace. The soldiers, when they see her, shout : " Present 
arms ! M She descends from carriage ; enters the palace ; goes up* 
stairs. They greet each other, she and the Governor. They give her 
a chair ; she sits down. Ngana Fenda Maria says : " How ? Lord 
Governor, me, thou didst want me ? " The Governor says : " I have 
seen thee." They breakfast. They finish breakfasting; they, pass 

Arriving in the evening, ngana Fenda Maria says : "lam going 
now ; but know thou well, Lord Governor, to-morrow we shall talk." 
They part : " Reach (home well)." " Farewell." 

62 Folk- Tales of Angola. 

Ua di longo mu kaluaji • mujika uala ku mu kaiela, kat£ ku bata 
did. Azeka. 

Kutula mu 'amenemene, atambula kafu& O kuinii, a di mosala 
Uzuba kudia, utunda ku meza, uzuata. Azuika o kaluaji ; u di longa 
mu kaluaji . . . kat£ ku palaxu. Utula; a di menekena. " Inii, ngana 
Fenda Madfa, ia ku beka ? " " Ngi bange favolo, 223 ngana nguvulu ; 
tuma kutakana kota diami ni mukaji fi" Uatumu ku a takana; abi- 
£ila. Kuala nga Madfa uibudisa nga Nzud : " Erne ngi inii 16 ? " Nga 
Nzud uixi : " Eie u ndenge ami." " Makutu m6, ki uazuela, nga Nzua. 
Ki ngakexile ngi pange 6 ; akiki ua ngi banga ngala ngu m'bika ? M 

Nga Nzud, a mu ta mu 'aleia. 224 Uazeka momo. U di zuelela ku 
muxima : " Eie, nga Nzua, kiabekesa a ku ta mu 'aleia, ndenge 6. 
Pala ku mu lemba, muhetu ua ngi nganala. 225 Kiabekesa ndenge ami, 
nga Madfa, ku mu ta k' ubika, muhetu ; muhetu ua ngi nganala. 
Tuma ku k'ijfa, nga Nzud, kikala a ku folokala; 228 kikala u6 nga 
Nzuana a mu beta mixinga ku mataku. Mukonda ' ki zuela o mu- 
hetu, diiala k'a di tunfi;' mukonda 'etu, tu ahetu, tuata, mu konda 
dia uenji uetu.' Ngana Fenda Madfa, kiabekesa kota di£ pala eie 
ukala m'bika a huedi 6, kiazuela o muhetu." Kutula mu 'amene- 
mene a mu jit Una. 

Mu palaxu, ngana Fenda Madfa uamba kala kiki : " Eie, u ngana 
nguvulu mu 'xi ia Ngola, kikala kik? : o kota diami ni erne, tukal* 
etu ku bata dietu. O mon' £, mu bane diiala diengi." Ngana ngu- 
vulu uixi : " Uala kuebi ? " 228 

Akatuka. Ki atula ku bata dia, ngana Fenda Madfa uvunda kalu- 
bungu boxi : mu atundu sabalalu, i abindamena ngenji, k'emond. 
" Kota diami, sabalalu ifii pal* eie." Uvunda kalubungu boxi : mu 
atundu abika, ni jihombo, ni jingombe. Uvunda dingi kalubungu 
boxi : mu atundu jimama jiiadi : " Pal* eie, u kota diami, ku di tuma 
n f §l" Uvunda kalubungu boxi: mu atundu alumaz^ 229 ia fazenda, 
alumaz6 ia kitadi kia ngondo, ni kitadi kia palata, ni kitadi kia ulu, 
ni kitadi kia s^dula 

AkaT a, ngana Fenda Madfa ni kota did, nga Nzua. A di mosala 
ikusu, 380 aseiala musolo. 

Ngana jami ja ahatu, ni ngana jami ja mala, eme ngateletele o 
kamusoso kami, se kaiiba anga kauaba. 

Fenda Maria and her Elder Brother nga Nzu&. 63 

She gets into the carriage ; the band is following her, as far as her 
house. They sleep. 

Arriving in the morning, they take coffee. At ten, they break- 
fast Having done eating, she leaves the table, dresses. They pre- 
pare the carriage ; she gets into the carriage, as far as the palace. 
She arrives ; they greet each other. " What, ngana Fenda Maria, 
brings thee ? " " Do me a favor, Lord Governor, send to fetch my 
elder (brother) and his wife." He ordered to fetch them; they 
arrive. Then nga Maria asks nga NzuA : " What am I to thee ? " 
Nga NzuA says : " Thou art my sister." " Thy lies ! what thou say- 
est, nga NzuA ! If I was thy sister ; now hast thou made me to be 
a slave ? " 

Nga NzuA they put him in jail. 224 There he sleeps. He talks to 
himself in (his) heart : " Thou, nga NzuA, what caused (them) to put 
thee in jail, was thy sister. In order to woo her, a woman has be- 
guiled me. What caused my sister, ng$ Maria, to be put in slavery, 
(was) a woman ; a woman has beguiled me. Consider thou well, 
nga NzuA, maybe they will hang thee ; maybe nga Nzuana also* they 
beat her (with) floggings on the buttocks. For 'what the woman 
speaks, the man refuses not;' for 'we, women, are costly, because 
of our merchandise/ m Ngana Fenda Maria, what made thy brother 
cause thee to be slave of thy sister-in-law, (is) what a woman spoke." 
Arriving in the morning, they set him free. 

In the palace, ngana Fenda Maria speaks like this : " Thou, Lord 
Governor, in the land of Angola, let it be thus : my elder and I, we 
shall live in our house. Thy daughter, give her another man." The 
Lord Governor says: "Where is he?" 228 

They start. When they arrive at their house, ngana Fenda Maria 
knocks a box on the ground : out comes a two-storied house, which a 
trader wants, but does not get. " My elder, this house (is) for thee." 
She knocks a box on the ground : out come slaves, and goats, and 
cattle. She knocks again the box on the ground : out come two 
nurses: "For thee, my elder, to keep house with them." She 
knocks a box on the ground : out comes a warehouse of cloth, a 
warehouse of money of copper, and money of silver, and money of 
gold, and money of bank-notes. 

They live on, ngana Fenda Maria and her elder, nga NzuA* They 
breakfast on i-kusu, they sup on catfish. 

My ladies and my gentlemen, I have told my little story, whether 
bad or good. 

64 Folk" Tales of Angola. 



Tuateletele na Nzud dia Kimanaueze kia Tumb* a Ndala, kilundu 
kia makamba. 231 Na Kimanaueze uatunga, uasoma. 282 Na mvuale 
je 288 uemita. K'adi xitu ; k'adi kudia kuoso; umesena mbiji ia me- 
nia. 234 Na Kimanaueze u£ne mu tuma Katumua 235 k£, uxi r 236 "Nd£ 
katambe jimbiji mu Lukala 23 * pala mvuale jami, k'adi xitu." Katu- 
mua uazangula uanda; uaii ku Lukala. Uatambe 238 jimbiji; uabe- 
kela na mvuale. Na mvuale uateleka jimbiji ; uadi. Azekele. 

Kimenemene, uxi : "Ngidia-hi P 289 Katumua, zangula uanda, ua- 
tambe." Katumua uazangula; ubixila ku Lukala; uatambe jimbiji. 
Ueza najiu; uabana na mvuale. Ua ji di joso kiztia kimoxi. Ka- 
tumua uxi: "Jimbiji, ji ngala mu tamba, uala mu ji dia kiziia ki- 
moxi." Uaii dingi mu tamba ; u mu bekela dingi. Iziia ioso kid ; 
k'adi kudia kuengi. Mbeji joso, kiene. 

Kizu' eki 24 ° mbanza ail uxi : " Katumua, k&tambe," Uazangula 
uanda ; ubixila ^ ku Lukala. Uazaie uanda ; unanga katangana. 
Usunga uanda ; uanda uaneme. U u sunga dingi luamukuS. ; kt 
uxikina kuiza. Katumua uxi : " Eie, uakuata o uanda koxi m a 
menia, ha 3 ** u kiximbi, 246 ha u ngandu, ng' ehele o uanda uami. 
Erne a ngi tumu ; k'eme nga d'ijila." 246 Usunga o uanda ; uanda to 

Ki atala mu uanda, kima kiala-mu ; uoma ua mu kuata ; uanda, 
uotakula boxi. Umateka kulenga. O kima, kiala mu uanda, kixi : 
" K* ulenge ; imana ! " 24r Uemana. Uasungu o uanda ; uotakula ku 
kanga. 248 Kima kiatula ku kanga. Katumua, uoma ua mu kuata 
dingi ; iu uteketa. 

O kima kixi : " Erne muene, ngu mukua'xi, ngeza. Nd6 ku bata, 
k&takane na Kimanaueze kia Tumb' a Ndala ni mvuale j£, &ne mu 
ku tuma kukuata o jimbiji." 

Katumua uakatuka ni lusolo: ubixila ku bata. Mulele, uoxi ku 
menia. Ki abi*ila ku bata, mundu ^ uxi : " Eie, Katumt a, ihi i 
ku endesa o tuxi ? uasaluka ? " Katumua uxi : " Ng' ehe-enu hanji, 
ngi di jimbule ku mbanza." 

Ubfcila ku mbanza. Uxikama boxi ; uate-bu o dikunda ; uxi 
muezu-bu. 250 Na Kimanaueze uxi: "Di jimbule." Katumua uxi: 
"Kalunga, 251 ki nga mi 252 xi, ngabixila ku Lukala. Ngatakula uanda 
mu menia; nganange katangana. Ngisunga uanda; uanda uaneme. 
Ngixi : ' Eie, uakuata o uanda, ha u kiximbi, ha u ngandu, ng' ehele 

Na Nzua dia Kimanaueze. 65 


We often tell of na Nzua of Kimanaueze kia Tumb* a Ndala, 
favorite of friends. 281 Na Kimanaueze built, dwelt. 232 His head- 
wife 283 conceived. She eats no meat ; she eats no food ; she wants 
fish of the water. 234 Na Kimanaueze is wont to send his Katu- 
mua, 235 saying : " Go and catch fish in the Lukala, for my head-wife, 
who eats no meat." The Katumua takes up the net ; goes to the 
Lukala. 237 He catches fish ; aw brings (them) to the head-wife. The 
head-wife cooks the fish ; eats. They sleep. 

At morning she says : " What shall I eat ? Katumua, take up the 
net, go to fish." Katumua starts; arrives at the Lukala; catches 
fish. He comes with them ; gives them to the head-wife. She 
eats them all in one day. Katumua says : " The fishes which I am 
always catching, thou eatest them in one day ! " He goes again 
a-fishing ; he brings her (fish) again. Thus every day, she eats no 
other food. Every month the same. 

One day, the chief 241 said : " Katumua, go fishing ! " He took up 
the net ; arrived at the Lukala. He casts the net ; he waits a 
while. He pulls the net; the net is heavy. He pulls it again, 
another time; it refuses to come". Katumua says: "Thou who 
holdest the net under the water, whether thou be the river-genius, 245 
or a crocodile, let go my net ! They sent me ; I have not come of 
myself." He pulls the net ; the net, here it comes. 

When he looks into the net, a thing is in it ; fear possesses him ; 
the net, he throws it down. He begins to run. The thing that is 
in the net says : " Do not run ; stand ! " He stood. He pulled out 
the net ; he threw it on land. 248 The thing lands on dry land The 
Katumua, fear again takes him ; he is trembling. 

The thing says : " I myself, I, the Lord of the land, I have come. 
Go home, and fetch na Kimanaueze kia TumV a Ndala and his 
head-wife, who always send thee to catch fish." 

Katumua starts off in haste ; he arrives at home. The loin-cloth, 
he left it by the water. When he arrives at home, the crowd said : 
" Thou, Katumua, what causes thee to walk naked ? art thou crazy?" 
Katumua said : " Let me alone, please ; let me explain myself to the 

He arrives at the court. He sits on the ground ; he lies down on 
his back ; he sets down the chin. 250 Na Kimanaueze says : "Explain 
thyself ! " Katumua says : " Lord, 251 when I left you, I arrived at 
the Lukala. I threw the net into the water ; I waited a while, I 
pull the net ; the net is heavy. I say : <Thou who holdest the net. 

66 Folk-Tales of Angola. 

uanda uami. A ngi tumu ; k'eme nga d'ijila.' Ngisunga uanda ; o 
ngiji iene iatomboka : Lukala muene. Ngimateka kulenga Uxi : 
' K'ulenge ; imana hanji. Nd6 kdtakane soba ienu ni mvuale j6, 6ne 
mu ku tuma o kutamba jimbiji. Eze kunu, 253 ngizuele kioso kia 
ngi kala ku muxima* Eme, Katumua, kiene kia ngi beka o lusolo. 
Kalunga, mahezu." ** 

Na Kimanaueze uxi : " Kiauaba Eie, na mvuale, uzuata Tuie 
ku a tu tumu." Na mvuala uazuata kiambote. O na Kimanaueze 
u£, uakembe kiambote. 

Akatuka ni ngolambole 25 * i£, ni muene, Katumua. Abixilaku Lu- 
kala. A mu sange, i6, uaxikama ku kialu. 256 Ene, uoma u a kuata 

Muene, Lukala, uxi : " Kt mukale ni uoma. Zukamenu boba ; ngi- 
zuele ki ngamesena" Axikama boxi. Lukala uxi : " Eie, na Kima- 
naueze kia Tumb' a Ndala, kilundu kia makamba, o ki ueza mu tunga 
mVxi, 367 ua ngi kana, eme ngi ngiji. Uatungu mVxi iami. O 
lelu, muhetu 6 uemita ; k'adi kudia kuengi ; uamesena mbiji ngoho. 
Izda ioso kid, udia jimbiji. Kikala, ukala mu zuba o mundu uami 
Palahi? 258 Eie, ngolambole jS, ueza n'£, o divumu di emita na 
mvuale ia Kimanaueze, diala mu zubila o mundu uami. Hinu, ki 
avuala o mona, ha mon* a muhatu, mukaji ami; mu ngi bekela n£; ha 
mon' a diiala, kamba diami, ba sandu iami. Eme, Lukala, ngazuba ; 
ngii'ami." Na Kimanaueze kia Tumb' a Ndala uxi : " Kalunga, kia- 
uaba. Tubanga dingi kiebi?" Ki azuba o kutaia, atala buakexile 
o kiximbi : ku kiaii, manif. 25 ® 

Abalumuka ; abixila ku bata. Akal' 4 ku iztia. Katumua, iu mu 
tamba o jimbiji. 

Kizu* eki, na mvuale, kiziia ki£ kieza-bu, kia kuvuala; id hoxi, 
ifi bulu. 260 Uavuala mona. Aii mu tula ku mbanza, exi: "Na 
mvuale uavuala mon' a diiala." Uxi : " Kiauaba." Uazangula ho- 
inbo ; uabana o mundu, avualesa na mvuale. 261 AkaTft ku iztia. 
Ene mu sasa o mona 

Mona uakulu; ueza kid mu 'itala 262 kia kusakana O Lukala, iu 
ubeka jinzoji ku kilu, uxi : " Ngi bekelienu kamba diami ; ngikala n'fi 
kunu. Ha kl mu mu beka, ngu mu jiba ; ufua" Atukumuka nzoji, 
ki azuela Lukala 

Na Kimanaueze uxi : "Eie, na mvuale, tubanga kiebi ? Eie, 
mon'ami, na Nzud, ki azuela o ngiji, ia ku mesena" Na Nzui, ki 
Svu kiki, uortia ua mu kuata Uxi : "Ngibanga kiebi ? Eraci N«ua 

Na Nzua dia Kimanaueze. 67 

whether thou art the river-genius, or a crocodile, let go my net. 
They sent me ; I came not of myself/ I pull the net ; the river 
itself comes ashore : Lukala himself. I begin to run. He says : * Do 
not run ; stand, please. Go and fetch your King and his Queen, 
who are wont to send thee to catch fish. Let them come here, that 
I speak all that is on my heart/ I, Katumua, that is what brought 
me in haste. Lord, I have said." ** 

Na Kimanaueze says: "Very well. Thou, queen, shalt dress. 
Let us go where we are sent for/* The queen dressed herself well. 
Na Kimanaueze, too, decked himself well. 

They start with their prime-minister, 255 and Katumua himself. 
They arrive at Lukala's. They find him there, sitting on a chair. 25 * 
They, fear seized them. 

He, Lukala, said : " Be not with fear. Approach here ; that I 
may speak what I want/' They sat on the ground. Lukala said : 
"Thou, na Kimanaueze kia Tumb* a Ndala, favorite of friends, when 
thou earnest to build in the land, thou earnest to see me, the river. 
Thou didst settle in my land. Now thy wife is pregnant ; she eats 
no other food ; she wants fish only. All days, indeed, she eats fishes. 
It will be that she will consume my people. Why? Thou, his 
prime minister, who earnest with him, the pregnancy that conceived 
the queen of Kimanaueze, is finishing my people. Soon, when she 
gives birth to the child, if it is a girl (she is) my wife ; you bring 
her to me ; if a boy, (he is) my friend, or my namesake. I, Lukala, 
have finished ; I go," Na Kimanaueze kia Tumb' a Ndala says : 
" Lord, very well. How shall we further do ? " When he finished 
to assent, they look (to see) where was the genius ; where he went, 
they don't know. 

They get up ; arrive at home. They live on some days. Katu- 
mua, he goes on catching fish. 

One day, the queen, her day has come to give birth ; she is down, 
she is up. 260 She gives birth to the child. They go to announce to 
the King, saying : " The queen has born a male child." He says ; 
"Very well." He takes up a goat ; he gives (it) to the people, who 
have assisted the queen. 281 They live on some days. They bring 
up the child. 

The child grew up ; he has come now to the age of marrying. 
Lukala, he brings dreams in sleep, saying : " Bring me my friend, 
I will stay with him here. If you do not bring him, I shall kill 
him ; he shall die/' They start from dreams, after that Lukala has 

Na Kimanaueze says : " Thou, head-wife, how shall we do ? Thou, 
my son, na Nzud, what the river said (means that) it wants thee/' 
Na Nzud, when he heard this, fear took him. H& says : "How shall 

68 Folk- Tales af Angola. 

dia Kimanaueze kia Tumb* a Ndala, ngilengela kuebi?" U£xana 
kahatu : *' Ngi tele menia bu ngamela." Kahatu kate menia bu 
ngamela. Na Nzua uazeka bu ngamela ; unanga-bu katangana. Uala 
niu xingeneka ku a di tela. Uzangumuka-bu, uxi : " Ngibanga kiebi, 
papaii ? " Pai 3, uxi : " Eme ki ngimona kioso ki ngibanga. Za ; 
ngu 'u bana o ima i<§, ia ku tokala ; kuabu. U di tele kuosokuoso." 

Na Kimanaueze uazangula abika aiadi a mala, ua mu bana, uxi : 
"Aba 263 abika aiadi a mala." Uanomona monde 264 jiiadi. Uakatula 
mama jiiaui ja hombo, ni mama jiiadi ja ngulu. Uxi : "O huta i£, 
ia kudila mu njila, kuoso ku u di tela. Hinu, ki tu di mona dingi. 
O kuoso ku u di tela, k'uzauke ngiji. Ngiji joso, ubande najiu ; u ji 
kondoloka bu o to." Mona uataia. 

Uazangula ni ima i£, i a mu bana. Umondala ku monde ; abika 
ala mu kaiela ku ema. 265 Ala mu bita ngoho mu iangu, mu kaxi ka 
ditutu. Kiziia moxi, kiziia kadi, kiziia tatu, kiziia kauana ; §ne mu 
kondoloka o jingiji. 

Mu kukuata kiziia kia katanu, abixila mu kaxi ka ditutu ; na Nzua 
uamondala ku monde ie. Ki atukuluka bu kota dia muxi j 266 ki atdla 
o mesu : xitu, 267 xitu joso j'abanga Nzambi ; kana xitu ia kiama, 267 
iaxala mu ngongo. 268 Ni ibamba 267 io£o, i abanga Nzambi, ia di 
bongolola beniaba, ni bene takitakL Ni iama ia menia, ni jinjila 
joso j'abanga Nzambi. 269 O kia a bongolue&a o kididi kimoxi, ajiba 
mbambi; kana mutu uatena ku i uana, iama iene ioso ni itena. 

O ki amono na Nzud, exi : " Tuazediua." O na Nzua, ki abixila-bu^ 
noma ua mu kuata. O iama ixi : " Enda ! tuabindemena u tu uanena 
o mbambi ietu. Kiki tuazediua." Na Nzua uxi : " Uau£ ! Eme 
ngibanga kiebi ? Eme, Nzua dia Kimanaueze kia Tumb' a Ndala, 
kilundu kia makamba?" O iama ixi: "K'ukale ni uoma. Tuluka 
ku monde." Uatuluka. " Fomona poko 16 mu mbunda." 27 ° Muku' 
etu uafomona poko. Ixi: "Tu uanene o xitu ifii." Muene uxi: 
" O mundu uoso, mbambi imoxi ; ngi i uana kiebi ? " Ixi : " Uana 
kiambote ni tutene." Ukuata mu batujula; uala mu uana; mMmbi 
iabu. O mundu ua iama ni ku mbandu k! ueza-ku. Iama ixi : " Hanji 
tuala mu kutala. Uana kiambote, tusoke." Muene uxi: *' MMmbi 
iabu. Ngibanga kiebi ? " 

Muene uakexile ni imbua ie ia ndumbe. Uekuata ; uejiba ; ueuana. 
Hanji k'atena ; ni ku mbandu k'eza-ku. Uajiba o monde i6 ; uauana : 
k'atena. Ujiba mubik* 6 ; uauana : k'atena. Uajiba mubika ua kaiadi ; 

Na Nzud dia Kimanaueze. 69 

I do ? I, Nzud dia Kimanaueze kia Tumb' a Ndala, where shall 
I flee ? " He called a girl : " Put for me water in the trough." The 
woman put water in the trough. Na Nzud lies down in the trough ; 
he stays there a while. He is thinking where to go. He gets up 
from it, says: "How shall I do, father?" His father says: "I do 
not see what I shall do. Come ; I will give thee thy things that 
belong to thee ; enough. Go thou anywhere." 

Na Kimanaueze took up two slave-men; he gave them to him, 
saying: "Take two male slaves." He took two riding-bulls. He 
took two mothers of goats, and two mothers of swine. He says : 
"Thy food, to eat on the road, wherever thou goest. Soon, we shall 
see each other no more. Wherever thou goest, do not cross a river. 
All rivers, follow them up ; thou shalt go round by their springs." 
The son assents. 

He sets out with his things, that they gave him. He mounts the 
riding-bull ; the slaves are following behind. They are passing 
through the grass, in the midst of the bush. First day, second day, 
third day, fourth day ; they always go round the rivers. 

On the beginning of the fifth day they arrive in the midst of the 
bush ; na Nzud riding his bull. When he appears in the open circle 
of a tree, 266 when he looks with eyes : game %1 all the game that 
God made ; there is no ferocious beast that is left in the world. 
Also all insects, that God made, have gathered there; and there 
they are thick. Also the beasts of the water, and all the birds that' 
God made. What brought them together in one place (is) that they 
killed a deer ; nobody is able to divide it, so that all the beasts get 
a share. 

When they saw na Nzud, they said: "We are fortunate/' Na 
Nzud, when he arrived there, fear held him. The beasts say : " Go 
on! We needed (one) to divide for us our deer. Now we are 
lucky." Na Nzud says: "Alas! How shall I do? I, Nzud dia 
Kimanaueze kia Tumb' a Ndala, the favorite of friends?" The 
beasts say : " Be not with fear ! Get down from (thy) bull." He 
gets down. "Unsheathe thy knife from waist." Our friend un- 
sheathes the knife. They say: "Divide us this meat." He says: 
'<A11 this crowd, one deer; how can I divide it?" They say: 
"Divide (it) well, so that all eat." He begins to cut it in bits; he 
is distributing ; the deer is finished. The crowd of beasts, not even 
in part has come to it. The beasts say : " Still we are looking. 
Divide (it) well, that we be equal." He says : "The deer is finished. 
What shall I do?" 

He had his male dog. He took it ; killed it ; divided it. Still 
not complete ; even in part they have not come to it He kills his 
bull ; divides ; not complete. He kills his slave ; divides ; not com- 

70 Folk- Tales of Angola. 

uauana : k'atena. lama ixi : " Eie, na Nzud, uana, tusokele. Kt busu- 
buke kiama kimoxi." Uakuata o monde i& iamukud ; uejiba O jixi- 
kihia, u ji bana ngoho jindemba ; o iama ia makota, u i bana ngoho 
kakifuba kofelefele. Hanji k'atena. Iama ixi : " Uana, tusoke." Uxi : 
" Ngibanga kiebi ? " Abik' e ni ngombe j6 jabu ni kuuana K'axala 
dingi ni kima ; muene ngoho, kuabu. Iama ixi : " Tata, uauane ; tua- 
tena kid ; uaxala ubeka u£." 

O hoji ixi : " Iza baba ; ngi zukame. K'ukale ni uoma." Na Nzud 
uazukama bojL Hoji ixi: "Bana mu kanu." Na Nzud uabana mu 
kanu. Hoji ua mu tutuina mate mu dikana did, uxi : " Eie, na Nzud, 
kiziia kia ku'u konda o ngongo, kdkele, 271 uxi : ' Teleji ! m kandumba 
ka kidia-makongo.' " 

O kimbungu u£ uxi : " Za baba." Nzud uabixila ; uafukama boxi 
Kimbungu uxi : " Bana mu kanu." Nzud uabana mu kanu. Ua mu 
tutuifia mate mu kanu, uxi : " Kiziia kia ku'u konda o paxi, kdkele 
uxi: * Teleji! ngudi 273 a ngumba, ku tutu kud mahamba.'" Nzud 

Njinji 274 uxi: "Iza baba." Ueza, uafukama boxi. Uxi: "Bana 
mu kanu." 275 Uabane dikanu. Njinji iixi : " Kiziia kia ku konda o 
ngongo, kdkele uxi: 4 Teleji ! njinji a 'ngo.' " 

Xixikinia uxi: "Za baba." Nzud ua mu sueta, uaxikama boxi. 
Uxi : " Bana mu kanu. Kiziia ki udbindama, kdkele uxi : ' Teleji ! 
kaluxixikinia.' " 

Ingo u6 uxi : " Za baba." Ueza. Uxi : " Bana mu kanu." Uabane. 
" Kiziia kia ku kuata malamba, kikele uxi : * Teleji ! ingo.' " 

Mukenge uxi: "Zababa." Uazukama. Uxi: "Bana mu kanu." 
Uabane dikanu. " Kiziia kia ku konda ngongo, kdkele uxi : 'Teleji ! 
mukenge a mbulu/ " 

Kikuambi uxi : " Sueta baba." Uasueta ; uabane mu kanu. U mu 
tutuina mate mu kanu, uxi : " Kiziia, ki udmona hadi, 277 kdkele uxi : 
* Teleji! kikuatfzomba, 278 njlla iakuatele ndenge; dikamba diakuata 
kutonoka.' " 

Kikuambi ki kiazuba o kuzuela, holokoko uxi : " Za baba." Nzud 
ueza. Holokoko uxi : " Kiziia kia ku kuata o ngongo, kdkele uxi : 
'Teleji 1 holokoko njlla ia kabungu \ m uasua mbambe ni diulu/ " 

Iama ioso kiene ; ibamba ioso kiene ki abange. Exi : " Ndaii." 

Uazangula mbangala it ; u di tela mu kaxi ka ditutu, ngoho. Uende, 
uende ; inama ia mu kata. Uxi : " Ngibanga kiebi ? M Uxi : " Teleji t 

Na Nzua dia Kimanatteze. 71 

plete. He lolls the second slave ; divides ; not complete. The beasts 
say : " Thou, ha NzuA, divide so that we be equal. Let not one 
beast be left." He takes his other bull ; he kills it. The ants, he 
gives them only the hairs ; the large beasts, he gives them only a 
little bone, tiny, small. Still some are left. The beasts say : " Di- 
vide to us equally." He says : " How shall I do ? " His slaves 
and his bulls are used up distributing. He remains with nothing 
more ; himself alone, that is all. The beasts say : " Sir, thou hast 
divided ; we are satisfied ; thou alone remainest." 

The lion said : " Come here ; approach me. Be not with fear." 
Na NzuA approached the lion. The lion said : " Open thy mouth ! " 
Na NzuA opened his mouth. The lion spat spittle in his mouth, 
saying : " Thou, na NzuA, on the day of thy pressing distress, thou 
shalt speak, saying : ' Teleji ! small heap of having debts/ " M 

The wolf, too, says : " Come here ! " NzuA arrives ; kneels on 
ground. The wolf says : " Open thy mouth ! " NzuA opens his 
mouth. He spits spittle in his mouth, saying : " Day of thy press- 
ing need, speak, saying : ' Teleji ! wolf of assegay, in the bush of 
the spirits/ " NzuA stood up hence. 

The njinji 274 said: "Come here!" He came, kneeled down. 
Said he : " Open thy mouth ! " He opened his mouth. The njinji 
said: "The day that hardship presses thee, speak, saying : * Teleji! 
njinji of leopard/" 

The ant says: "Come here!" NzuA approaches it; he sits on 
the ground. Says : " Open thy mouth ! The day that thou be in 
need, speak, saying : ' Teleji ! little ant/ " 

The leopard, too, said : " Come here ! " He came. Said : " Opei* 
thy mouth ! " He opened. "The day that misfortune grasps thee, 
speak, saying : 'Teleji! leopard/" 

The mukenge 278 says: "Come here!" He approaches. Says: 
"Open thy mouth." He opens (his) mouth. "The day that dis- 
tress holds thee, speak, saying : 'Teleji ! mukenge of jackal/ " 

The hawk said : " Approach here ! " He approached ; he opened 
his mouth. He spat spittle in his mouth, saying: "The day that 
thou seest hardship, speak, saying: 'Teleji! hawk, 278 the bird who 
caught a child ; the friend began to play/ " 

The hawk, when he has finished speaking, the eagle says : "Come 
here I" NzuA comes. Eagle says: "The day that distress grasps 
thee, speak, saying: 'Teleji ! eagle, bird without a tail, the neighbor 
to the sky/ " 

All the beasts the same; all the insects did the same. They 
say: "Go/' 

He took up his staff; he went into the midst of the bush, alone* 
He walked, walked; his feet hurt him. He says: "How shall I 

72 Folk- Tales of Angola. 

kikuanzomba, njila, iakiiatele ndenge ; kamba diakuata kutonoka." 
Uakituka kikuambi. Iti bulu ; uala mu kuendela bulu. Nzala ia mu 
kuata. Uabi&ila bu jifundu. Uxi : " Teleji ! mutu alubila-suku." 
Uakituka mutu ; uatula bu f undu. Uxi : " Ngidia-hi ? " Uxi : " Teleji ! 
njinji a 'ngo." Uakituka njinji. Uai ku mbandu a bata, diakexile 
kadikanga. Uabetemena o jisanji. Sanji jeza mu dia mu iangu. 
Uakuata makolombolo aiadi. 

Atu, ki evu o sanji ja di kola, abalumuka ni lusolo. Abixila bu 
kididi, bu akuatela ; exi : " Njinji ! kaienu-iu." A i kaia ; a i lembua. 

Muene ubixila koko, uxi: "Teleji! mutu alubila-suku." 280 Uaki- 
tuka mutu. Uakutile o makolombolo aiadi ku moxi ; uanienge ku 

Ubi±ila bu fundu. Uasange-bu jingenji ; uaxikama boxi. Jingenji 
jixi: "Eie, mon'a mundele, 281 tata, uatundu kuebi?" Muene uxi; 
" Ngala mu ia kua pange ami. Nga mu ambetela makolombolo aiadi; 
afila mu njila. O nzala ia ngi kuata ; o ua ngi telekela-u, ki ngi mu 
mono." Jingenji jixi: "Beka, a ku telekele-u." A a tambula; a a 
vuza. A a lambe ; a mu bana. Uadi ; uazekele. Kuma kuaki ; uaka- 
tuka; uende. Muania 282 uatu. Nzala ia mu kuata, uxi : "Ngibanga 
kiebi ? " Uxi : "Teleji ! ngudi a ngumba, ku tutu ku& mahamba/* 

Uakituka kimbungu. Uai mu iangu ; uabetemena boxi ; ua di xib'£. 
Usuku ueza ; uai mu sanzala ; uabokona mu kaxi ka sanzala. Uasange 
kibanga kia jingulu kiki ; uakuata-mu maletA 283 maiadi. Jingulu jadi 
kola. Atu atukumuka. Exi : " Kimbungu kiala mu kuata jingulu ; 
kaienu-kiu." A ki kaie ; a mu lembua. Uai mu iangu ; uazeka. 

Kuma kuaki, uxi : " Teleji ! mutu alubila-suku." Uabiluka mutu. 
Uakutu o maletd bu muhamba, 284 ua u idikila mu iangu ; uazangula. 
Ubixila bu jifundu; usanga jingenji Exi: "Eie, mon'a mundele, 
uejila kuebi ? " Utambujila, uxi : " Ngala mu ia kua pange ami, nga 
mu ambetele maletd maiadi. Afila mu njila ni muania O uk ngi 
lambele-u, 286 ki ngi mu mono." 286 Jingenji jixi: "Mutambulienu-u, 
mu a kulule." A a tambula; a a kulula. A mu telekela o xitu imoxi. 
Uadi; uazekele. 

Kimenemene, uxi: "Lelu ki ngitena kuenda; inama iala mu ngi 
kata; nginanga." O jingenji u£ jixi: "Tunanga uetu; mungu tuia." 
Akuata ku minangu. 287 Atubula o xitu ia ngulu bu kanga; a i aneka 

Na Nzud dia Kimanaueze. 73 

do?" Says: "Teleji! the bird who caught a child, the friend 
began to play." He becomes a hawk. He is in the sky; he is 
moving on in sky. Hunger grasps him. He arrives at a camp. 
Says: " Teleji] man, who is the last" 280 He becomes a man; he 
comes to the camp. Says : " What shall I eat ? " Says : " Teleji ! 
njinji of leopard." He becomes a njinji. He goes to one side of a 
village, that was (at) a small distance. He lurks for the fowls. The 
fowls come to eat in the grass. He catches two cocks. 

The people, when they heard the fowls shrieking, they arose in 
haste. They arrive at the place, where he caught (them) ; they say : 
" It is a njinji ! chase him ! " They chased him ; they gave him up. 

He arrived there, said: " Teleji! man, who was the last." He 
became a man* He tied the two cocks together; he hung (them) 
on (his) staff. 

He arrived at a camp. He found there travellers ; he sat on the 
ground. The travellers said : " Thou, gentleman, 281 please, hast come 
whence ? " He said : "lam going to my brother. I was bringing 
him two cocks ; they died on the road. Hunger grasped me ; one 
to cook them for me, I do not see." The travellers said : " Give 
here ; they will cook them for thee/' They take them ; they pluck 
them. They cook «.hem ; they give him. He ate ; slept Day shone ; 
he started ; walked ; the noon-heat set in. Hunger grasped him ; 
he said: "What shall I do?" Says: "Teleji! wolf of assegay, in 
the land of the spirits." 

He becomes a wolf. He goes into the grass ; squats down ; keeps 
quiet Night comes; he goes into the village; enters into the centre 
of the village. Here he finds a sty of pigs ; he takes out two suck- 
lings. The pigs cry out The people are startled. They say: "A 
wolf is catching pigs ! chase him ! " They chased him ; they gave 
him up. He went into the grass ; he slept. 

Morning shone. He said : " Teleji ! man, who was the last" He 
became a man. He bound the sucklings in the basket, 284 which he 
had made in the grass; he starts. He arrives at a camp; finds 
travellers. They say: "Thou, gentleman, hast come whence?" 
He answers, saying: "I am going to my brother, that I (may) 
bring him two sucklings. They died on the road from heat. He 
who will cook them for me, I see him not" The travellers say: 
"Take them for him, that you scrape them." They take them; 
they scrape them. They cook for him the meat (of) one. He ate ; 
he slept. 

At morning, he says : " To-day I cannot walk ; the feet are hurt- 
ing me; I will rest." The travellers say, too : "We will rest, too ; 
to-morrow we shall go." They begin to pass the time. They take 
the meat of the hog outside ; they spread it on the roof of a camp- 

74 Folk-Tales of Angola. 

bu hongo ia f undu. Ahatu a akua *xi eza mu sumbisa makudia ku 
jingenji. Asange xitu ia ngulu ku hongo, exi: "Jingenji, tu sumbise 
enu kaxitu ka ngulu." O jingenji jixi : "Kt xitu ietu; ia ngene; 
ia mon' a mundele, uazeka bobo," Ahatu a di xib* & ; amuangana. 
Ab&ila ku bata ; asange mala, A a tangela : " Tuele aw bu jifundu. 
Tuasange-bu xitu ia ngulu, Etu tuafika tuxi 'o ngulu jetu, imbungu 
ia ji kuata m'usuku/ Manii, o mon' a diiala uaniana o ngulu jetu ? " 
O mala exi : "Tui'enu ; mu tu londekese 289 nS." 

O mala azangula o mat a, ni jimbangala, ni jingumba, ni jingaia, 
exi: "Tud mu beta." Abi£ila bu fundu, exi : "Uebi, uaniana o ngulu 
jetu ? " Ahatu exi : " Muen'iti." Muene uxi : " Erne nginiana o ngulu 
jenu ? " Ene exi : "O xitu ifii, ua i sange kuebi ? " 

Akuata n£ mvunda ia ku di beta. Nzud uatolola. Aii ku bata; 
akola aku&, ita muene ia muvimba. 290 Abixila dingi bu fundu, exi: 
"Tubuka." O mundu uxi: "Eie ua di muene uialaj kiki tubuka." 

Nzud uatundu. Akuata mu kuzoka. Maku a mu suku. Uxi : " Te- 
leji ! kandumba ka kidia-makongo." Mueza munzangala ua hoji ; uxi 
mbirabinu. Mundu ua ita uamuangana ni lusolo. Amoxi, mata a a 
takula mu iangu ; amoxi, ku di balela 291 mu njila, mukonda ni uoma 
ua hoji, Hoji iakuata mu dila ; ni jingenji u6 jamuangana. Uaxala 
ubeka uL Uxi : " Teleji ! mutu alubila-suku." Uakituka mutu. Uxi : 
" Ngibanga kiebi ? Ngii' ami kid," 

Ukatuka mu njila; utula mu ka£i ka ditutu. Uxingeneka, uxi: 
" Ku ngala mu ia, ku Luanda, eme kiliia ngiia-ku. Kuene kt kuala 
ndandu iami; kt kuala kamba diami. Ngibanga kiebi? Ngdtula 
bata dia nanii?" Uemana; uala mu xingeneka. Uxi: "Ngabi- 
ndama, eme Nzud dia Kimanaueze kia Tumb' a Ndala ; ku ngiia, kt 
ngimono-ko." Uxi: "Teleji! kikuanzomba; njila, iakuatele ndenge ; 
kamba dikuata o kutonoka." 

Uakituka dingi kikuambi Id bulu; u^bixila mu sanzala ia 
Luanda; uakondoloka o sanzala ioso bulu. Uxi: "Teleji! kanjtla 
mu ngongo." Uakituka kanjtla. O kanjil' aka, o mabab* 6 kala ulu, 
ni muzungu u£. Ixi ioso, kana-mu njtla kala ifii. 

Ueza ku tandu a 'nzo ia na Nguvulu ; uala mu zunga bulu. Na 
Madfa, mpn' a na Nguvulu, uala mu bela dia 'nzo, mu tunga izuatu- 
Utala boxi; utala kilembeketa kia kanjtla. Kiamu uabela; usakitla 
mesu bulu ; utala kanjtla kanl 

Na Nzua dia Kimanaueze. 75 

hut. A "(few) women of the villagers came to sell eatables to the 
travellers* They found hog's meat on the roof ; they said : " Travel- 
lers, sell us a little hog's meat." The travellers said : " It is apt 
our meat ; it is the meat of another ; of the gentleman who is asleep 
there." The women said nothing; they separated. They arrived 
at home ; found the men. They tell them : " We went to the camp,. , 
We found there hog's meat. We thought saying : * Our pigs, the 
wolves caught them in the night.' Maybe, that young man has 
stolen our hogs?" The men say: "Let us go; you show us 

The men take up their guns, and staves, and spears, and lances, 
saying : " We will beat him ! " They arrive in camp, saying ; 
"Where is he, who stole our hogs?" The women say: "He is 
here!" He says: "I, steal your hogs?" They say: "This meat, 
thou foundest it where ? " 

They begin with him a quarrel of fighting, Nzud conquers. 
They go home ; call the others ; an army indeed complete. They 
arrive again in camp, saying: "Come out!" The crowd says: 
"Thou hast (already) seen victory; now come out." 

Nzud comes out. They begin to fight. (His) arms are tired. He 
says: "Teleji! small heap of having debts." He becomes a youth 
of a lion ; he utters a roar. The crowd of war scatters with haste. 
Some, they throw their guns into the grass ; some fail on the path ; 
because they are with fear of the lion. The lion begins to roar ; 
even the travellers, too, scatter. He remains alone. He says: 
" Teleji ! man, who was the last." He becomes a man. He says : 
" How shall I do ? I will go, now ! " 

He enters the path ; arrives in the midst of the bush. He thinks, 
saying : " Where I am going, to Loanda, I have not yet gone there. 
There, there is no kinsman of mine, there is no friend of mine. 
How shall I do ? At whose house shall I stop ? " He stands ; he 
is thinking. He says : " I am perplexed, I, Nzud dia Kimanaueze 
kia Tumb' a Ndala, where I am going, I have not seen that place." 
Says he: "Teleji! hawk, a bird who caught a child; the friend 
began to play." 

He becomes again a hawk. He is in the sky ; he arrives in the 
city of Loanda ; he circles round the whole tdwn in the sky. Says : 
"Teleji ! a little bird in the world." He becomes a little bird. This 
little bird, its wings (are) like gold ; so (is) its bill. In all the coun- 
try there is not a bird like this. 

He comes over the house of the Lord Governor ; he is circling in 
the sky. Na Maria, the daughter of the Lord Governor, is in the 
verandah of the house sewing clothes. She looks on the ground ; 
she sees the shadow of a little bird. It pleases her ; she turns her 
eyes upward ; she sees the little bird (is) there. 

76 Folk- Tales of Angola* 

Uxi: "Ua! kanjila kaka, ngi ka kuata kiebi? kanjila kauaba 
kiosueki." Uzangula dilesu did dizela; u di zala boxi. Ufukama 
puna imoxi ; ua ka tangela misa. Kanjila kaka katuluka ; kabixila 
bu dilesu. Ua ka kuata, uxi : " Kanjil' aka, ngi ka baka kuebi, pala 
ki kafue ? " Uatumu ngaielu M ia ulu ; ieza. Ua ka bokuesa-mu ; 
uabake m* o 'nzo id. Uate-mu loso ; uate-mu menia. Uatumu 
kuambela pai a, na Nguvulu, ku tandu, uxi ; " Erne, kunu, ngala ni 
kanjila* Eie, pai etu, kiliia u ka mona ; ni ku Putu ki kala-ku, ni ku 
Kimbundu ki kala-ku. Manii, ku katundu." 

Pai d ua mu tumu, uxi : " Zd ni kanjila k6 ; ngi ka tale." Uabande 
ku tandu ni kanjila. Pai 4 utala kanjila, uxi : " Kidi; kanjil' aka, mu 
ngongo ki kala-mu." Na Madfa dia na Nguvulu uabalumuk' d; 
uakulumuka boxi. 

O kanjila ki kaxikina kudia. Uabake-mu kudia kuengi, kua Putu. 
Kanjila nguaid kudia. Uxi: "Kanjil' aka, ngi ka banga kiebi? 
Kandala kufua." 

O muene, na Madia dia na Nguvulu, uene ni kif ua kid kia kudia 
mu muania ni mu dikolomboio didianga. 293 Azala meza m'o'nzo id. 
Kudia, a ku baka ku tandu a meza ; o tuhatu tukala mu langa. 

Kizu' eki, ate kudia ku meza. O kanjila kakala mueniomo. Mu 
kaxi kosuku, kanjila kexi: "Teleji! kaluxixikinia." Njila iakituka 
luxixikinia. Luala mu zanzala boxi; lubonga tufufuta tua kudia, 
tuasonokene boxi; luadi. Luavutuka mu ngaielu, luxi: "Teleji! 
kanjila." Uakituka dingi kanjila. Iziia ioso kiene. 

Kiziia kiamukua, uxi: "Teleji! kaluxixikinia." Uakituka luxixi- 
kinia ; uatuluka boxi, uxi : " Teleji ! mutu alubila-suku." 

Uabiluka mutu uazuata kiambote. Uaxikama ku meza; uadi o 
kudia. Uabalumuka, uxi: "Teleji! luxixikinia." Uakituka luxixi- 
kinia. Uasambela mu ngaielu id, uxi : "Teleji ! kanjila." Uakituka 
kanjila; uazek'd. 

Mu dikolomboio didianga, na Madfa uabalumuka ; uiza ku meza. 
Kudia ki kuala-ku. Uxi : " Enu, tuhatu, kudia kuai kuebi ? " Tu- 
hatu tuxi : " Ngana, manii." Ua tu beta, uxi : " Enu muene, mua 
ku di." 

Kuma kuaki; usuku uamukua ueza. Tuhatu tuxi: "Etu, lelu 
tutona, ni tukuate mufii, mazd ua tu betesa." Mu kaxi ka usu- 
ku, kanjila kexi: "Teleji! kaluxixikinia," Kakituka; luatuluka 

Na Nzu& dia Kimanaueze. 77 

She says : " Oh ! this dear little bird, how shall I catch it ? the 
little bird is beautiful altogether ! " She takes her white handker- 
chief ; she spreads it on the ground. She kneels on one knee ; she 
recites the mass to it. This little bird descends ; it arrives on the 
handkerchief. She has caught it ; says : " This little bird, where 
shall I keep it, that it may not die ? " She ordered a cage of gold ; 
it comes. She put it in, she kept (it) in her room. She put in rice ; 
she put in water. She sent to tell her father, the Lord Governor 
upstairs, saying : " I, here, have a little bird. Thou my father, sawest 
it never yet ; neither in Europe is it there, nor in Negro-land is it 
there. I do not know whence it came." 

Her father sends her (word) saying: "Come with thy little bird, 
that I see it" She went upstairs with the little bird. Her father 
looks at the little bird, says : "Truth, this little bird, it is not (to be 
seen) in the land." Na Maria of the Lord Governor arose; she 
went downstairs. 

The little bird refused to eat. She put in different food, from 
Europe. The little bird will not eat. She says: "This little bird, 
how shall I treat it ? It will die." 

She, na Maria of the Lord Governor, had her own habit of eating 
at noon and at the first cock-crow. 293 They would spread the table 
in her room. The food, they set it on the table, (and) the girls were 

This day they put the food on the table. The little bird is in 
that same (room). In the middle of the night the little bird 
said: "Teleji! little ant!" The bird became an ant. It is crawl- 
ing down ; it picks up the crumbs of food that had fallen to the 
ground ; it has eaten. It returns to its cage, says : " Teleji ! little 
bird ! " He became again the little bird. Every day the same. 

Another day he says: "Teleji ! little ant." He becomes an ant; 
he gets down on ground, says : "Teleji ! man, who is the last." 

He becomes a man elegantly dressed. He sits at the table; eats 
the food. He arises, saying : "Teleji! an ant." He becomes an ant. 
Having climbed into his cage, he says: "Teleji! little bird." He 
becomes a little bird ; he sleeps. 

At the first cock-crow na Maria gets up ; she comes to the table. 
Food, there is none. She says: "You girls, where is the food 
gone?" The girls said: "Mistress, we don't know!" She beat 
them, saying : " You yourselves, you have eaten it," 

Day comes, another night has come. The girls say: "We, to-day 
we*U wake; that we may catch the thief, (who) yesterday caused us 
the beating." At the middle of night the little bird says : " Teleji ! 
little ant" It is transformed; it (ant) gets down on the ground. 

78 Folk* Tales of Angola. 

Luxi: "Teleji! mutu." Uakituka diiala dia mbote. Uaxikamaku 
meza; uala mu dia Tuhatu tua mu mono. Uoma ua a kuata ku 
mu zuelesa. Uazuba o kudia; uabalumuka. Uxi: "Teleji I kalu- 
xixikinia." Luasambela mu ngaielu; luakituka kanjila. Ua di 

Dikolombolo didila; na Madfa uabalumuka. Ueza ku meza; 
kudia kl kuala-ku. Uxi: " Tuhatu, kudia kuaikuebi?" Umatekaku 
tu beta. 

Tuhatu tuxi : " Ngana, k'u tu betele ngoho. Kinga, tu ku ambele. 
Etu, m' usuku, tuamono mundele ua diiala uaxikama ku meza ; uala 
mu dia. Ki tutena ku mu ibula, mukonda uoma ua tu kuata. 
K'ukuate pata. Mungu tuia mu ku balumuna, eie u6 umone." Na 
Madfa uaxikina. Azekele. Kumakuaki. Anangc dikumbl Usuku 
uatuluka. Azale meza. 

Mu kaxi kosuku, kanjfla kexi: "Teleji! kaluxixikinia." Uakitu- 
ka luxixikinia. Luakulumuka boxi, luxi : " Teleji ! mutu." Mueza 291 
mutu, uazuata muene kiambote ni boxi ni bulu. 295 Uaxikama ku 
meza ; uala mu dia. Tuhatu tua mu mono. Tuabalumuka ; tuaii mu 
kuambela ngana Madfa : " Ngana, zd, utale mundele uala ku meza." 

Na Madfa uabalumuka ; uaii ku meza ; u mu kuata mu lukuaku. 
Na Nzud dia Kimanaueze kia Tumb* a Ndala, kilundu kia makamba, 
ni na Madia, a di mono, a di bubala. Axikama ku meza ; a di taia 
ngoho kienieki. 

Kuma kuaki ; na Nzud uasoneka mukanda. Mukanda uaii kui na 
Nguvulu. Na Nguvulu ufutumuna o mukand?. Mukanda uxi: 
"Eme, na Nzud dia Kimanaueze kia Tumb* a Ndala, kilundu kia 
makamba, ngamesena kusakana ni na Madfa dia na Nguvulu." 

Na Nguvulu uvutula mukanda kuma : " Kiauaba. Muene, kl ngu 
mu ijfa Ida o polo. Mungu eze ni mon'ami muene ; ngijfa o diiala." 

Mukanda uabixila kud na Nzud. Ua u futumuna; ua u tange. 
Uxi: "Kiauaba. Ngizeka; mungu nituie." Azekele. Kumakuaki. 
Na Nzud uxi : " Na Madfa, zuata, tuie kud pai enu." Azuata, kiiadi 
kia ; abixila ku tandu. A a bana ialu ; axikama. 

Na Nguvulu utala na Nzud ; utala mon' 6, na Madfa. U mu ibula : 
" Na Madfa, usakana ni iu ? " Na Madfa uaxikina. Uibula dingi o 
diiala, uxi : * Eie, na Nzud, uamesena kusakana ni mon' ami ? Ha 
usakana n£, u ngi bangela ikalakalu. Ha uebange, i ngamesena, ki 
ngi tzabela." Na Nzud uxi : " Kikalakalu kiahi ? " Na Nguvulu uxi : 
* Ud ngi takena 296 mon' ami ku Putu. A mu ambata ku Putu ; kana 

Na Nzua dia Kimanaueze, 79 

It says : " Teleji ! man ! " It becomes a handsome man. He sat 
to table ; he is eating. The girls saw him. Fear held them from 
addressing him. He has finished eating ; gets up. Says : " Teleji ! 
little ant." It climbed into the cage ; it became the little bird. He 
kept quiet. 

The cock crows ; na Maria gets up. She comes to the table ; the 
food is not there. She says : " Girls, where is the food gone ? " 
She begins to beat them. 

The girls say : " Mistress, do not beat us unjustly. Wait, that we 
tell thee (all). We, in the night, have seen a gentleman sitting at 
table ; he was eating. We could not question him, because fear held 
us. Do not have doubts. To-morrow we will go to awake thee, 
(that) thou, too, mayest see." Na Maria assented. They slept. The 
day shone. They passed the day. Night came down. They spread 
the table. 

In the middle of the night the little bird says: "Teleji! little 
ant.'* It becomes an ant It gets down on the ground; says: 
" Teleji ! man." He becomes a man, dressed indeed elegantly both 
below and above. 295 He sat to the table ; he is eating. The girls 
saw him. They arose ; went to tell ngana Maria : " Mistress, come, 
see the gentleman who is at table ! w 

Na Maria arose ; she went to the table ; she takes him by the 
arm. Na NzuA dia Kimanaueze kia Tumb' a Ndala, favorite of 
friends, and na Maria, they see each other, each other embrace. 
They sit at the table ; they only look at one another like this. 

Day dawned ; na NzuA wrote a letter. The letter went to the 
Lord Governor. The Lord Governor opened the letter. The letter 
said : " I, na NzuA dia Kimanaueze kia Tumb' a Ndala, favorite of 
friends, I want to marry with na Maria of the Lord Governor." 

The Lord Governor returned a letter, saying : " Very well. He, 
I do not yet know his face. To-morrow let him come with my 
daughter herself ; I must know the man." 

The letter arrived at na NzuA's. He opened it ; he read it. He 
says: "Very well. I will sleep; to-morrow we shall go." They 
slept The morning dawned. Na NzuA said: "Na Maria, dress, 
that we (may) go to your father." They dress, both of them ; they 
arrive upstairs. They give then* chairs ; they sit down. 

The Lord Governor looks at na NzuA ; he looks at his daughter 
na Maria. He asks her: "Na Maria, wilt thou marry with this 
(man) ? " Na Maria consents. He asks again the man, saying : 
" Thou, na NzuA, wantest thou to marry with my daughter ? If thou 
many with her, thou shalt do me service. If thou do it, what I 
want, it will please me." Na NzuA says : "Which service ? " The 
Lord Governor says: "Thou shalt fetch me my daughter from 

80 Folk-Taks of Angola. 

mutu utena ku 4 mu sanga-ku. Ha ueza ne, o kifutu kid, uiza 
k'unguvulu." Na Nzud uaSikina. Na Nguvulu u mu ambela, uxi: 
"Ki uak^bixila ku Putu, ha umona mon* a muhatu, uala mu texi 
utoka 2 ^ bu dixita, muene mon* ami." 

Na Nzud uakatuka : ualekela muhatu 6, uxi : " Xala kiambote." 
Na Madfa uila : " Ndai' oko." 298 Ki azuba o kukatuka, na Nzud uxi : 
"Teleji! kikuanzomba." Uakituka kikuambi; id bulu, Uxi: 
"Teleji! holokoko, njila ia kabungu, iasua mbambe ni diulu." 
Uakituka holokoko. 

Uabixila ku Putu. Utala mon'a muhatu uala mu tubuka mVnzo ; 
uala mu kuiza bu xita mu texi utoka. Mon'a muhatu uxi : " Ami ! 
hadi iahi, i ngitala." 

Na Nzua, uala bulu, uevu ; uejfa kid, uxi : " Muene, a ngi tumu 
n&" Uxi: "Teleji! kikuanzomba." Uakituka kikuambi. Uabutu 
kitala ; uazangula mon'a muhatu. Exi : " Talenu ! njila iambata mutu." 
Uxi : " Teleji ! holokoko, njfla ia kabungu." Uakituka holokoko. 
Uai ni mon'a muhatu dikanga dionene bulu. Uabixila mu Luanda. 
Uxi: "Teleji! mutu alubila-suku." Uakituka mutu. 

Uabokona m'o'nzo ia ngana Nguvulu ; uasange mukaji 6, na Madfa, 
uxi : " Ki muene pange 6 hi, a ngi tumu n6 ? " Na Madfa uaxikina, 
uxi : " Muene." Azekele. 

Ki kuaki, uxi: "Ngiia ku4 na Nguvulu mu mu bana mon' &" 
Aia, na Nzud ni mon'a muhatu; abixila ku tandu. A mu sange 
hi. Na NzuA uxi : " Mon* 6 hi, ua ngi tumine n£." Na Ngu- 
vulu uxi : " Kiauaba. O ungana ua u kalakela. 299 Zd k'unguvulu ; 
tambula ungana ue, ua ku fuama." 

Ha akal'S, na Nzud dia Kimanaueze kia Tumb' a Nclala, ni na 
Madfa dia mon' a Nguvulu. 

Bene bu tua u ivila. Ha tuamesena, tuta dingi ; ha ki tuamesena, 
tuzeke-etu. Mahezu. 

Na Nzu& diet Kimanaueze. 81 

Portugal. They carried her off to Portugal ; nobody can find her 
there. If thou comest with her, thy payment, thou shalt come to 
the governorship." Na NzuA agreed to it. The Lord Governor tells 
him, saying : " After arriving in Portugal, if thou seest a young 
woman, who is throwing out ashes on the refuse heap, she is my 

Na Nzui starts ; he bids adieu to his wife, saying : " Stay thou 
well." Na Maria says: "Go there." When he had started, na 
Nzud said: "Teleji! hawk." He became a hawk; there he is in 
the sky. He says : "Teleji ! eagle, bird without a tail, that is neigh- 
bor to the sky." He becomes an eagle. 

He arrives in Portugal. He perceives a young woman, who is 
coming out of a house ; she is coming to the refuse heap to throw 
out ashes. The young woman says: "Alas! what misery I have 
to see ! " 

Na Nzu£, who is in the sky, hears ; he knows now, says : " (It is) 
she, they sent me for her." He says: "Teleji! hawk." He be- 
comes a hawk. He lowers his height ; . he lifts up the young 
woman. They say : " Look t a bird carries off a person ! " He 
says: "Teleji! eagle, the bird without a tail." He becomes an 
eagle. He went with the young woman a great distance in the sky. 
He arrived in Loanda. Says: "Teleji! man who is the last." He 
became a man. 

He enters the house of the Lord Governor; he finds his wife, 
na Maria, says: "Is not this thy sister, for whom they sent me?" 
Na Maria assents, saying : " She is." They slept. 

When it dawned, he said : " I will go to the Lord Governor to 
hand him his daughter. They go, na Nzud and the young woman ; 
they arrive upstairs. They find him present. Na NzuA says : " Thy 
daughter (is) here, thou hadst sent me for her." The Lord Governor 
says : " Well done. Thou hast earned the dominion. Come to the 
governorship ; take thy glory, which befits thee." 

And they lived together, na Nzud dia Kimanaueze kia Tumb' a 
Ndala and na Maria, the daughter of the Governor. 

Thus far we heard it. If we want, we will tell more ; if we will 
not, let us go to sleep ! Finished. 

8a Folk- Tales of Angola. 


Erne ngateletele ngana Kimalauezu kia Tumb* a Ndala, uakexidi 
6 ni mukaji 6, ku dima dia kukala ; m anga akaF 1 Mukaji 6 .anga 
uiza uimita. Kana k'adi£ xitu; usema 301 ng6 mbiji. 

O diiala, ki aia mu tamba, ubeka ndumba dia jimbiji ; o jimbiji anga 
jilengela mu ngiji iengi. Kiziia kimoxi, o diiala uambela o muhatu, 
uixi: "Ngi didikile 802 huta, 808 ngiie mu tamba." Anga o muhatu 
udidika huta, O diiala anga diia bu ngiji, bu alengelele o jimbiji ; 
anga ubanga-bu o f undu i6, anga udia. 

Ki azubile, uixi: "Ngiia mu tamba/' anga utakula o uanda. 
Luadianga k'akuatedie kima; lua kaiadi kiomuene. O lua katatu 
anga uivua 80 * uaneme. 805 Moxi a menia anga muixi : " King* anji ; ** 
mukonda muku'enu 307 mukua-mona." Ki azubile o kukinga, anga 
uivua dingi muixi: "Sunga kid," Muene anga usunga kimbiji 
kionene ; anga u ki ta bu muhamba ; anga umateka o kuenda. Maji 
o jimbiji joso jakexile mu kaiela o kimbiji eki ; o diiala anga divua- 
jinga ng<5 mu iangu : ualald ! ualala ! 808 

Ki akexile kia mu bixila ku bata, o muhatu £ uendele ku mu kaui- 
dila n' akua-diembu did. Ki abixidile ku bata, o diiala anga ubana o 
mbiji pala ku i banga. O muhatu anga uambela o diiala, uixi : " Eie, 
banga-iu." O diiala uixi : " Nguami ,, O muhatu anga umateka o 
ku i banga. Maji o mbiji iakexile mu kuimbila, ixi: 

" Ki u ngi banga, ngi bange ami kiambote. 
Ki u ngi banga, ngi bange ami kiambote." 

Ki azubile anga u i ta mu 'mbia ; maji o mbiji iakexidi £ hanji mu 
kuimba. O mbiji ki iabile, o muhatu anga udidika malonga matanu 
anga ukuvitala ** o diiala n' akua-diembu di£. Ene anga a di tun'i. 
Muene anga udia k' ubeka ue. 

Ki azubile, anga ukatula pexi i6 ni dixisa; anga u di zala mu 
kanga. 810 Ki axikamene, anga uivua mu divumu muixi : " Ngitundila 
ku6 ? " O muhatu uixi : " Tundila ku makanda menama." O mbiji 
ia mu kumbuluile: "Ku inama i£, ku ueniodiatela matuji, kuene ku 
ngitundila ? " O muhatu uixi : " Tundila mu kanu." " Mu kanu, mu 
ua ngi minima, mu ene mu ngitundila ? " O muhatu uixi : " Sota 
buoso bu uandala." O mbiji ixi : " Eme-ze ngitund' 6." Anga o 
muhatu ubaza bu 'axaxi. O mbiji anga ui'e. 

The Woman who Longed for Fish. 83 


I will tell of ngana Kimalauezu kia Tumb* a Ndala, who was 
staying with his wife, a long time back; and they lived. His wife 
then came to conceive. She ate no meat ; she longed only for fish. 

The man, when he went fishing, brought a lot of fish ; the fishes 
then fled to another river. One day the man tells the woman, say- 
ing: "Prepare me food, that I go fishing." And the woman pre- 
pared the food. The man then went to the river, where the fish 
had fled ; and he made there his camping-hut, and ate. 

When he finished, he said : " I will go to fish," and he cast the 
net The first time he caught nothing ; the second time the same. 
The third time he feels ** it is heavy. Under the water then it says: 
" Wait, please ; because thy friend is the father of a child." When 
he finished waiting, then he hears again there saying : " Pull now ! " 
He then pulled (out) a big fish, very large ; and he put it into (his) 
basket, and began to walk, But the fishes all were following this 
big fish ; the man heard always in the grass only : ualalA ! ualali ! ^ 

When he was already about to arrive at home, his woman went 
to meet him with her neighbors. When they arrived at home, the 
man then gave the fish to be scaled. The woman, however, then 
told the man, saying : " Thou, scale it ! " The marl said : " I won't." 
The woman then began to scale it. But the fish was (all the time) 
singing, saying : 

" When thou me scalest, scale me well t 
When thou me scalest, scale me well ! n 

When she had finished, then she put it in the pot ; but the fish 
was still singing. When the fish was done, the woman then pre- 
pared five plates, and invited the man with her neighbors. But they 
refused. She then ate alone by herself. 

When she had finished, then she took her pipe and the mat ; and 
she spread it in the open. When she was seated, then she heard in 
her belly, saying: "Where shall I get out?" The woman said: 
"Get out by the soles of (my) feet" The fish answered her: "By 
thy feet, wherewith thou art wont to tread on dirt, there shall I get 
out?" The woman said: "Get out by the mouth." "By (thy) 
mouth, where thou didst swallow me, there shall I get out ? ' The 
woman said : " Seek wherever thou wishest." The fish said : "Then 
I get out here ! " and the woman burst m the middle. The fish then 
went away. 

84 Folk- Tales of Angola. 


Tuateletele ngana Kimanaueze kia Tumba a Ndala, kilundu kia 
makamba ; uavuala mon* 6, dijina die na Nzud dia Kimanaueze. 

Na Kimanaueze uxi : " Eie, mon' ami, na Nzud, nd£ mu Luanda, 
uak&te uenji." O mona uxi : " Kindaula 312 ngabenga o muhatu." O 
pai uxi: "Nd£; eme nga ku tumu." Uazangula; uab&ila mu 
Luanda; uate uenji. 

O pai &, ku ema, ku axala, o makixi alu o dibata di£, dia na Kima- 
naueze, dioso. O moaa, uendele mu Luanda, ubiiila ku bata dia pai 
4; usanga kana-bu atu. O nzala ia mu kuata, uxi: "Ngibanga 
kiebi?" Uxi: "Ngiia mu mabia." Ki abixila mu mabia, utala 
kahatu kani. U mu ixana. Ki a mu tala, muhetu 6, ua mu xile, 
uxi : " Eie uejila kuebi ? " O diiala uxi : " Ihi ia mi bange kiki ? " 
O muhatu uxi : " Makixi a tu lua." AkaT4. O muhatu u£mita. 
KiztSa kiab&ila kia kuvuala ; uivua mu mala : 

*♦ Mamanii, o xibata w * iami ii iza. 
Mamanii, o poko iami ii iza. 
Mamanii, o kilembe W6 kiami, ki kiz'okio. 816 
Mamanii, o mbamba iami ii iza. 
Mamanii, di idike kid kiambote ; eme ngiz 1 6." 

O mona uatundu, uxi : 

"Jina diami, eme Sudika-mb&mbi. 
Boxi ngita mbamba ; 
Bulu ngisudika mb&mbi." 

O muhatu uivua dingi mu mala o ndenge, iaxala-mu, uxi : 

u Mamanii, o xibata iami ii iza ; 
O poko iami ii iza ; 
O mbamba iami ii iza ; 
O kilembe kiami ki kiza. 
Mamanii, xikama kiambote ; eme ngiz' 6" 

Mona uatundu ; mona uxi : 

" O jina diami, 
Eme Kabundungulu 
Ka muxi ua lukula. 817 
Mbua iami idia ndende ; 
O kimbundu kiami kikambula ngombe." 8W 

O mon* a dikota, Sudika-mbdmbi, uxi : " O kilembe kiami, kuna- 
kiu ku xilu dia 'nzo." Uxi dingi : " Mamanii, ihi ia mi bake boba ? " 

Sudika-Mbatnbi. 85 


Let us tell of ngana Kimanaueze kia Tumba a Ndala, favorite of 
friends, who begat a son, his name (was) na Nzua of Kimanaueze. 

Na Kimanaueze says : " Thou, my son, na Nzud, go to Loanda to 
do business there" The son says : " Just now only I brought home 
a wife." The father says: "Go, I have commanded thee/' He 
started ; arrived in Loanda, did business. 

His father, behind, where he remained, the Ma-kishi sacked his 
home, of na Kimanaueze, all. The son, who had gone to Loanda, 
arrives at the house of his father; he finds there are no people. 
Hunger, it grasps him, he says : " How shall I do ? " He says : 
" I will go to the fields." When he arrives in the fields, he sees a 
little woman yonder. He calls her. When she sees him, his wife 
whom he had left, she says : " Thou hast come whence ? " 318 The 
man says : " What has done this to you ? " The wife says : " The 
Ma-kishi have destroyed us." They live together. The woman is 
urith child. The day has come to give birth ; she hears in belly : 

M Mother, my sword, here it comes. 
Mother, my knife, here it comes. 
Mother, my kilembe,* 16 here it comes. 
Mother, my staff, here it comes. 
Mother, place thyself well now ; I am coming here." 31 ^ 

The son is out, he says : 

" My name, I (am) Sudika-mbambL 
On the ground I set (my) staff; 
In the sky I set up (an) antelope." 

The woman hears again in belly the younger, that remained there, 
saying : 

u Mother, my sword, here it comes 5 
My knife, here it comes ; 
My staff, here it comes ; 
My kilembe, here it comes. 
Mother, sit well ; I am coming here." 

The son is out ; the son says : 

u My name, 
I (am) Kabundungulu 
Of the tree of lukula.* 1 * 
My dog eats palm-nuts ; 
My kimbundu swallows a bull." * w 

The elder son, Sudika-mbambi, says : " My kilembe, plant it at 
the back of the house." Says again : " Mother, what has placed you 

86 Folk- Tales of Angola. 

O manii d uxi : " Ngi di nana, o mon' a uisu, nga mu vuala kindaula, 
uala mu zuela." O mona uxi : " K'u di uane ; enu nuanda 819 kumona 
i ngandala kubanga." O mona uxi dingi: "Tuie mu sua masoko, 
tutungile adi 820 etu ojinzo." 

Azangula o jixibata, ni ndenge t\ abixila mu iangu. Sudika- 
mbdmbi uabatula soko dimoxi : masoko ene oso a di su. Ni ndenge 
u£, kiene ki abange dikota, ni muene kiene. O kota ni ndenge 
akutu o masoko ; eza ; atula bu kanga. Avutukila mu sua o iangu ; 
eza, atula bu kanga. 

O kota ni ndenge eza mu kub' o'nzo. Sudika-mbdmbi uakubu 
soko dimoxi ; o'nzo ioso ia di kubu kid. Uatate ngoji imoxi*: ngoji 
joso ja di tate. Uazambela kiangu kimoxi : o'nzo ioso ia di za- 
mbela. 821 

Kuala Sudika-mbdmbi uxi : " Mamanii, ni papaii, bokonenu ; 
ngatungu kid." Uxi luamukud : " Erne ngiia mu lua makixi. Eie, 
ndenge ami Kabundungulu, xala n' adi etu. Manii, ha uamono o 
kilembe kiami kiakukuta, erne, ku ngaii, ngafu." 

O Sudika-mbambi uakatuka. Ubixila mu kaxi ka njUa ; uivua mu 
iangu, f otof oto ! Uxi : " Nanii ? " O *mutu uxi : " Eme Kipalende 
kia kuba 'nzo ku ditadi." 332 O Sudika-mbambi uxi : " Zd, tuie." 

Enda. Uivua dingi mu iangu, f otofoto ! Uxi : " Nanii ? " O 
mutu utaia: "Eme Kipalende kia kusonga kuinii dia hunia ku 
kumbi." » Kuala . Sudika-mbambi uxi : " Zd ; tuie." Ubixila dingi 
mu njila; uivua mu iangu, fotof oto ! Uxi: "Nanii?" O mutu 
utaia: "Eme Kipalende kia kukula isaxi ku 'alunga." O Sudika- 
mbdmbi uxi : " Zd, tuie." 

Akuata mu njila. Uivua dingi mu iangu, fotofoto ! Uxi : 
"Nanii?" Utaia, uxi: "Eme Kipalende, kiazenzemesa 824 muezu 
ku *alunga." O Sudika-mbdmbi uxi : u Zd ; tuie." 

Abiiila mu njila. O Sudika-mbdmbi utaia mutu, uala mu kuiza 
mu sambua dia ngiji. Ua mu ibula : " Eie nanii ? " Uxi : " Eme 
Kijandala-midi, 825 hama ngasake mu kanu." O Sudika-mbdmbi 
uxi: "Eme Sudika-mbdmbi, boxi ngita mbamba; bulu ngisudika 
mbdmbi" O Kijandala-midi, ki evile kiki, ualenge. 

Ab&ila mu kaxi ka ditutu. 826 O Sudika-mbdmbi uambela o 
Ipalende iuana: " Tutunge-enu beniaba pala kulua makixi." Aiku 
masoko. O Sudika-mbdmbi uabatula soko dimoxi : ene oso a di su. 
Uakutu soko dimoxi : ene oso a di kutu. 

Eza mu kuba. O Sudika-mbdmbi uazangula o disoko ; ua di bana 
Kipalende kia kuba 'nzo ku ditadi, uxi : " Oba." O Kipalende 

SudikarMbambL 87 

here ? " His mother says : *' I wonder, the child baby, I gave it 
birth just now, it is speaking ! " The child says : " Do not wonder ; 
you are going to see what I will do." The child says further ; " Let 
us go to cut poles, that we build for our parents houses/' 

They take up the swords (he) and his younger ; they arrive in the 
Dush. Sudika-mbambi has cut one pole : the poles they all cut 
themselves. And the younger too, just as the elder has done, he 
also (does) the same. The elder and the yoanger bound the poles ; 
they come ; they set (them) down outside. They return to cut the 
grass ; they come ; they set (it) down outside. 

The elder and the younger come to erect the house. Sudika- 
mbambi erected one pole ; all the house erected itself at once. He 
tied one cord ; all the cords have tied themselves. He thatched one 
grass-stalk ; the house all thatched itself. 821 

Then Sudika-mbambi says : " Mother and father, enter ; I have 
built already." He say a another time : " I go to fight the Ma-kishir 
Thou, my younger, Kabundungulu, stay with our parents. But, if 
thou seest my kilembe withered, I, where I went, I died." 

Sudika-mbambi set out. He arrives in midst of road ; he hears 
in the grass a rustling. He says : " Who ? " The person says : 
"I (am) Kipalende, who erects a house on a rock." 322 Sudika- 
mbambi says : " Come, let us go ! " 

They walk. He hears again in the grass a rustling. He says : 
" Who ? " The person answers : " I (am) Kipalende, who carves ten 
clubs per day." Then Sudika-mbambi says : " Come ; let us go ! " 
He arrives again on road ; he hears in grass a rustling. He says : 
" Wh6 ? " The person answers : " I am Kipalende, who gathers corn- 
leaves in Kalunga" Sudika-mbambi says : " Come ; let us go ! " 

They take to the road. He hears again in the grass a rustling. 
He says : *' Who ? " He answers, saying : " I (am) Kipalende, who 
bends down the beard to Kalunga." 324 Sudika-mbambi says: 
u Come, let us go ! " 

They arrive on road. Sudika-mbambi perceives some one, that is 
coming on the other side of the river. He asks him : " Thou (art) 
who ? " He says : " I (am) Kijandala-midi, 326 (with a) hundred I 
rinse (my) mouth." Sudika-mbambi says: "I (am) Sudika-mbambi; 
on earth I set staff; in sky I set up antelope." Kijandala-midi, 
when he heard this, ran away. 

They arrive in midst of bush. 826 Sudika-mbambi tells the four 
Kipalendes : " Let us build here in order to fight the Ma-kishi." 
They go. for the poles. Sudika-mbambi cut one pole : they all cut 
themselves. He tied one pole : they all tied themselves. 

They come to erecting. Sudika-mbambi takes up a pole ; he 
gives it Kipalende, who erects house on rock, saying : "Take." The 

88 Folk- Tales of Angola. 

uatambula o disoko ; u di kuba ku ditadi : kt di xikina. Ua di kubu 
dingi : k! dixikina. O Sudika-mbambi uxi : " Eie uambele kiki, uxi 
' ngikuba 'nzo ku ditadi ; * ua i lembua? " 

O Sudika-mMmbi uatungu o jinzo. Jinzo jabu. Azekele. 

Kuaki mu kimgne, w o Sudika-mb&mbi uxi : " Tui'enu mu lua o 
makixi." Buaxala Kipalende kimoxi, kia kusdiiga kuinii dia hunia ; 
uambata Ipalende itatu. Abixila ku makixi. Ala mu loza. 

O ku bata, ku axala Kipalende kimoxi, kueza kakulakaji ka muhatu 
ni mulaul'6 ua muhatu. Uasange Kipalende, uxi : " Tu di Sine. Ha 
ua ngi Sini, 328 usakana ni mulauT ami." A di kuata. Kipalende a 
mu xini. O kakulakaji uazangula ditadi; ua di jika 82 * Kipalende, 
Kakulakaji uai'£. 

O Sudika-mMmbi uamono kuma Kipalende a mu jika. Uambela 
o Ipalende itatu, uxi : " O muku'enu a mu jika." O Ipalende exi : 
" Sudika-mMmbi, uazuela makutu. Etu tuala dikanga ; eie uamono 
kiebi kuma a mu jika ? " Kuala Sudika-mMmbi uxi : " Kidi muene " 

Azumbuka mu loza. Exi : " Tui' enu ku bata." Abixila ; asanga 
Kipalende a mu jika. O Sudika-mbambi uxi : " Nga mi tangela 
kiebi ? " O Ipalende ixi : " Kidi." 

A mu jikula o ditadi, exi : " Ihi ia ku bange kiki ? " O Kipalende 
uxi : "O kakulakaji ka muhatu kejile ni mulaur 6, uxi : 'Tu di Sine. 
Eie, ha ua ngi Sini, usakana ni mulaur ami/ Erne nga di kuatele 
n*S. Muene ua ngi xini." Aku' & a mu olela, exi : " O muhatu, 
muene ua ku xini ? " Azekele. 

Kimenemene, Sudika-mbambi uxi : " Tui' enu ku ita." Buaxala 
Kipalende kiengi. Abixila ku ita. Ala mu loza. O ku bata, ku 
axala o Kipalende, kakulakaji keza ni mulaur 6, uxi : " Tu di Sine." 
O Kipalende uxi : " Kiauaba." A di kuata. O kakulakaji uaSini o 
Kipalende. Ua mu jika ku ditadi. 

Sudika-mMmbi uejfa kid kuma Kipalende a mu jika. Uambela 
aku&: "O mukuenu a mu jika." "Tui*. enu ku bata." Abixila; a 
mu jikula o ditadi, exi : " Ihi ia ku bange kiki ? " Uxi : " Mazd, kaku- 
lakaji, ki abange mukuetu, n* eme u£ kiene." Azekele. 

Kuaki mu kimenemene, azangula ; aia ku ita. Buaxala Kipalende 
kiengi. Ala mu loza. Kunu, ku axala Kipalende, o kakulakaji 
keza. Uasange Kipalende, uxi : "Tu di kuate. Eie, ha ua ngi xini, 
usakana ni mulaul* ami." A di kuata. O kakulakaji uaSini Kipa- 

Sudika-Mbambu 89 

Kipalende takes the pole ; he erects it on the rock : it will not 
(stand). He erects it again : it will not (stand). Sudika-mbambi 
says : "Thou didst speak thus, saying : f I erect a house on rock ; " 
thou givest it up ? " 

Sudika-mbambi built the houses. The houses are finished. They 

It dawns in morning, Sudika-mbambi says : " Let us go to fight 
the Ma-kishi ! " There remained one Kipalende, (he) of carving ten 
clubs ; he takes along three Kipalendes. They arrive at the Ma- 
kishi's. They are firing. 

At home, where remained one Kipalende, there came an old woman 
with her granddaughter. She found Kipalende, says: "Let us 
fight ! If thou beatest me, thou sh^lt marry with my granddaugh- 
ter." They fight Kipalende is beaten. The old woman lifted a 
stone ; she laid it upon m Kipalende. The old woman went away. 

Sudika-mbambi saw that Kipalende was under stone. 880 He tells 
the three Kipalendes, saying: "Your companion is under stone." 
The Kipalendes say: "Sudika-mbambi, thou tellest untruth. We 
are far off ; thou sawest how, that he was under stone ? " Then 
Sudika-mbambi says; "Truth indeed." 

They stop firing. They say : " Let us go horns ! " They arrive ; 
they find Kipalende under stone. Sudika-mbambi says : " I told 
you how ? " The Kipalendes say : " Truth." 

They remove the stone from him ; they say : " What has done 
this to thee ? " Kipalende says : "An old woman came with her 
granddaughter, saying : * Let us fight Thou, if thou beatest me, 
thou shalt marry with my granddaughter/ I fought with her. She 
has beaten me." The others laugh at him, saying : " A woman, she 
has beaten thee ? " They slept. 

Morning, Sudika-mbambi says : " Let us go to the war ! " There 
remained another Kipalende. They arrive at the war. They are 
firing. At home, where the Kipalende stayed, the old woman came 
with her granddaughter, saying: "Let us fight ! " Kipalende. says : 
11 Well." They struggle. The old woman has beaten the Kipalende. 
She weights him down with a stone. 

Sudika-mbambi knows already that Kipalende is under stone. He 
tells the others : " Your companion is under stone," " Let us go 
home!" They arrive; they lift the stone off him, saying: "What 
has done thee this ? " He says : " Yesterday, the old woman, as she 
did to our comrade, so to me also the same." They slept. 

It dawns in morning, they start, go to the war. There remained 
another Kipalende. They are firing. Here, where a Kipalende 
stayed, the old woman comes. She found Kipalende, said : " Let us 
fight ! Thou, if thou beatest me, thou shalt marry with my grand- 

go Folk- Tales of Angola. 

iende ; ua mu jika ku ditadi. UaF L 

O Sudika-mb&mbi ua k'ijfa kid. Uambela aku&: "Ttii'enu ku 
bata.. Muku'enu a mu jika." Abixila ku bata. A mu jikula o ditadi, 
exi : " Ihi ia ku bange kikl ? " Uxi : " O kakulakaji, ki abange aku' 
etu, n'eme kiene." Azekele. 

Kimenemene, Sudika-mb&mbi uxi: "Tui'enu ku ita." Buaxala 
Kipalende kimoxi. Abixila ku makixi. Ala mu loza. 

O ku bata, ku axala Kipalende, o kakulakaji keza, uxi : /' Tu di 
kuate. Eie, ha ua ngi xini, usakana ni mulaul' ami." A di kuata. 
Kakulakaji uafcini Kipalende ; ua mu jika. 

O Sudika-mMmbi, ku ai, uejia kid. Uxi: "Tui'enu ku bata. 
Muku'enu a mu jika." Azumbuka mu loza. Ku makixi kuaxala 
sanzala imoxi. Abixila ku bata. Ajikula o Kipalende. Azekele. 

Kuaki, o Sudika-mb&mbi uxi: "Mazd, kuaxala sanzala imoxi. 
Enu, Ipalende iuana, ndenu kdlozienu. Eme, lelu, ngixala." Ai mu 

O ku bata, ku axala Sudika-mb&mbi, kakulakaji keza, uxi : " Tu di 
xine. Eie, ha ua ngi xini, usakana ni mulaul' ami." A di xina; 
kakulakaji a mu xini. O Sudika-mb&mbi uajib* o kakulakaji ; uaxala 
ni mulaul' L 

O mon'a muhatu uxi: "Lelu ngabana mueniu; 831 mukonda o 
kuku etu ua ngi jikidile mVnzo ia ditadi, ki ngizunge. Lelu 
tuanda kusakana kid ni Sudika-mMmbi." Iii uaxikina. O Ipalende 
ieza, ixi : " Makixi lelu abu." O Sudika-mbdmbi uxi : " Kiauaba." 
AkaF L 

O Ipalende iuana iala mu ta pungi ia kujiba Sudika-mb&mbi, exi : 
44 Mon' a ndenge ua tu tundu. Tu mu jiba kiebi ? " Akandele 
dikungu boxi. Azale-bu o ngandu 332 ni dixisa. A mu ixana. Exi : 
" Xikama boba." Uaxikama ; uakuzuka mu dikungu ; a mu vumbika. 
Ene axala ni muhatu. 

O ku bata, ku atundile, kuaxala ndenge £ Kabundungulu. Uako- 
ndoloka ku xilu dia 'nzo ; utala o kjlembe kia kota di£ : kialela. ^ 
Uxi : " O kota diami, ku aii, uandala kufua." Ua-ki tabela o menia ; 

O dikota, Sudika-mMmbi, ki akuzukautiu dikungu, koko uakutuka 
mu njila ; uala mu kuenda. 

Ubixila mu kaxi ka njila; uasange kakulakaji, kala mu dima ni 
mutue; o tnbunda uebake mu kilembeketa. m - O Sudika-mblmbi 

Sudika-Mbambi. 91 

daughter." They fight. The old woman has beaten Kipalende; 
she weights him down with a stone. She goes away, 

Sudika-mbambi, he knows it at once. He tells the others : " Let 
us go home ! Your comrade is shut down." They arrive at home. 
They lift the stone off him, saying : " What has done this to thee ? " 
He says : " The old woman, what she did to our comrades, (she did) 
to me the same." They slept. 

Morning, Sudika-mbambi says : " Let us go to the war ! " There 
stayed one Kipalende. They arrive at the Ma-kishi's. They are 

At home, where Kipalende stayed, the old woman comes, says : 
" Let us fight ! Thou, if thou beatest me, shalt marry with my 
granddaughter." They fight. The old woman beats Kipalende; 
she weights him down. 

Sudika-mbambi, where he went, knows at once. Says : " Let us 
go home ! Your comrade is weighted down." They stop firing. At 
the Ma-kishi's there was left one village. They arrive at home. 
They free Kipalende. They slept. 

It dawns, Sudika-mbambi says: "Yesterday, there was left one 
village. You, four Kipalendes, go ye to fire (guns). I, to-day, shall 
stay behind." They went to fire. 

At home, where stayed Sudika-mbambi, the old woman comes, 
says : " Let us fight ! Thou, if thou beatest me, shalt marry with 
my granddaughter." They fight ; the old woman is beaten. Sudika- 
mbambi killed the old woman ; he remained with her granddaughter. 

The young woman says : " To-day I got life ; for my grandmother 
used to shut me up in house of stone, that I (should) not go about. 
To-day, we will marry now with Sudika-mbambi ! " He assented. 
The Kipalendes come, say: "The Ma-kishi to-day are finished/* 
Sudika-mbambi says : " Well." They live on. 

The four Kipalendes are making a plot for killing Sudika-mbambi, 
saying : " A child has surpassed us. We shall kill him how ? " 
They dug a hole in the ground. They spread on a mat and a 
mat. 332 They call him. They say: "Sit down here." He sat 
down ; dropped into the hole ; they covered him up. They stayed 
with the woman. 

At home whence he came, there stayed his younger, Kabundu- 
ngulu. He goes round to the back of the house ; looks at the life- 
tree of his elder ; it is withered. Says : " My elder, where he went, 
is going to die." He pours water on it ; it grows green. 

The elder, Sudika-mbambi, when he dropped into the hole, there 
he found a road ; he is walking. 

He arrives in midst of road ; he finds an old woman, who is hoeing 
with -the head (part); the lower (extremity), she kept it in the 

92 Folk- Tales of Angola. 

uabele o kakulakaji o muania : " Kuku etu, muani' 6 ! " O kakulakaji 
uataia: " Muania iii, mulaul' ami." O Sudika-mtambi uxi : "Ngi 
dikise o njila." O kakulakaji uxi : " Mulaul' ami, tata, ngi dimine- 
ku hanji, ngu ku dikise o njila/' Sudika-mb&mbi utambula o ditemu ; 
ua mu dimina. Kakulakaji uxi : " Ngasakidila. Z% ngu ku idike ** 
o njila. Di tele njila ifii iofele, k' u di tele njila ionene ; ujimbi- 
dila. m Manii ki uanda kubixila bu kanga dia na Kalunga-ngombe, 
uambata mudingi ua ndungu 387 ni mudingi ua ndunge " 

O Sudika-mb&mbi uasdkina ; uakuata mu njila ; uabixila bu kanga 
dia na Kalunga-ngombe. O imbua ia na 'Alunga-ngombe ia mu 
bozela. Muene uebazela; iabokona mu o'nzo il Muene a mu 
zalela mu kijima. Kumbi diafu. A mu kundu. 889 Uxi: "Ngeza 
mu sakana ni mon' a na 'Alunga-ngombe." Kalunga-ngombe uxi : 
"Kiauaba. Eie usakana mon' ami, uila mudingi ua ndungu ni 
mudingi ua ndunge." 

O Sudika-mb£mbi a mu telekela kudia mu ngoloxi. Muene uavu- 
ngunuine, utala : dikolombolo dia sanji ni ngalu m ia funji. Uaza- 
ngula o dikolombolo ; uabake moxi a hama. 841 Uanomona xitu i£ ; 
iene i adila o funji. Ubixila mu kaxi ka usuku ; uivua mu sanzala : 
"Nanii uajibao dikolombolo dia ngene? dia na ' Alunga-ngombe ? " 
O dikolombolo ditaia moxi a hama : kokolokud ! 

Kuma kuaki O Sudika-mb&mbi uxi i " Na 'Alunga-ngombe, ngi 
bane kid mon* 6 ua muhatu." Na 'Alunga-ngombe uxi : " Mon* ami 
a mu ambata kuala Kinioka kia Tumba. T$d6 kh mu tambule-ku." 

O Sudika-mb&mbi uazangula ; ubixila bu kanga dia Kinioka, uxi : 
" O Kinioka uai kuebi ? " O muhatu ua Kinioka uxi : " Uai mu 
loza." Sudika-mb&mbi ukinga katangana kofele. Utala jinzeu 813 
ji jiza. Sudika-mbUmbi ua ji beta. Kueza kisonde; ua ki beta. 
Kueza jiniuki; 343 ua ji beta, Kueza madimbuende; ua a beta. 
Kueza mutue ua Kinioka ; uobatula. Kueza mutue uengi ; uobatula 
ufi. Kueza mutue uengi/ tiabatula o hdende ia Kinioka ; uabatula o 
mutue. KuSza mutue uengi ; uabatula o mutue ua 'mbua ia Kinioka ; 
uabatula o mutue ua Kinioka. Kufea mutue uengi; uabatula a 
dihonjo dia Kinioka ; uabatula o mutue. Kinioka uafu. 

O Sudika-mb&mbi uabokona m' o'nzo ia Kinioka. Uasange o mon* 
a Kalunga-ngombe, uxi : " Tui'enu. Pai enu ua ku tumu. ,f Abftila 
bu kanga dia na 'Alunga-ngombe, uxi : "Mon* 6 iii." 

Na 'Alunga-ngombe uxi : " Ngi jibile Kimbiji kia malenda a 
ngandu, 344 uala ku ngi kuatela o jihombo ni jingulu." O Sudika- 
mbimbi uxi : "Beka diletd m dia ngulu." A mu bana-diu. Ua di te 

Sudika-Mbambi. 93 

shade. 884 Sudika-mbambi gave the old woman the day : " My grand- 
mother, warm thereJ " The old woman responds : " Heat of day (is) 
here, my grandson." Sudika-mbambi says : " Show me the road." 
The old woman says : " My grandson, sir, hoe for me a little, please, 
that I show thee the way." Sudika-mbambi takes the hoe ; he hoed 
for her. The old woman says : " I thank. Come, let me show thee 
the way. Take this narrow path, do not take the wide path ; thou 
wouldst gQ, astray. 886 But when thou art going to arrive outside of 
na Kalunga-ngombe's, thou shalt carry a jug of red-pepper 887 and a 
jug of wisdom." 

Sudika-mbambi assents ; he takes the road; he arrives outside of 
na Kalunga-ngombe's. The dog 838 of na Kalunga-ngombe barks at 
him. He scolds it ; it enters their house. They spread for him 838 in 
guest-house. The sun is set. They have saluted him. 889 He says : 
" I came to marry with the daughter of na Kalunga-ngombe." Ka- 
lunga-ngombe says : " Well. Thou shalt marry my daughter, (if) 
thou hast a jug of red-pepper and a jug of wisdom." 

Sudika-mbambi, they cook for him food in the evening. He un- 
covered (it), looked ; a cock and a basket m of mush. He took out 
the cock ; he kept (it) under bed. He takes his own meat ; that he 
eats with the mush. He arrives in midst of night ; he hears in the 
village: "Who has killed the cock of another? of na Kalunga- 
ngombe ? " The cock answers under the bed : " Kokoloku6 ! " 

Day breaks. Sudika-mbambi says: "Na Kalunga-ngombe, give 
me now thy daughter." Na Kalunga-ngombe says: "My daughter 
was carried away by Kinioka kia Tumba. Go and rescue her ! " 

Sudika-mbambi starts ; he arrives outside of Kinioka's, says : 
"Kinioka is gone where?" The wife of Kinioka says: "He has 
gone shooting." Sudika-mbambi waits a while. He sees driver- 
ants; 812 here they come. Sudika-mbambi he beats them. There 
comes the red-ant ; he beats them. There come the bees ; he beats 
them. There come the wasps ; he beats them. There comes a head of 
Kinioka ; he cuts it off. There comes another head ; he cuts it, too. 
There comes another head ; he cuts the palm-tree of Kinioka ; cuts 
the head. There comes another head ; he cuts the head of the dog of 
Kinioka ; cuts the head of Kinioka. There comes another hea*d ; he 
cuts the banana-tree of Kinioka; he cuts the head. Kinioka is dead. 

Sudika-mbambi enters into the house of Kinioka. He finds the 
daughter of Kalunga-ngombe, says : " Let us go ! Thy father sent 
for thee." They arrive outside of na Kalunga-ngombe's, says : " Thy 
daughter is here." 

Na Kalunga-ngombe says: "Kill me Kimbiji kia Malenda a 
Ngandu, 844 who keeps catching my goats and pigs." Sudika-mbambi 
says: "Bring a suckling of pig," They give him it He puts it 

94 Folk- Tales of Angola, 

mu nzolo; 346 uatakula mu menia. O Kimbiji uiza* mu tambula; 
uaminia o ngulu. Sudika-mb&mbi umateka o kusunga ; ua di bale 
mu menia. O Kimbiji kia malenda a ngandu ua mu minia. 

O ku bat a, ku axala ndenge 6 Kabundungulu, ujinguluka ku xilu 
dia 'nzo mu tala o kilembe. O kilembe kiakukuta ;. uxi : " Kota uafu* 
Ngikaiela ku ai kota diami." 

Uakutuka mu njila, mu aii kota die. Ubixila ku bata dia kota did ; 
usanga o Ipalende ; uxi : " Kota diami uai kuebi ? " O Ipalende 
ixi: "Manii." O Kabundungulu uxi: "Enu nua mu jiba. Fuku- 
nunenu o mbila. ,, A i fukununa. 

Kabundungulu uakuzuka ; uakutuka mu njila, mu abitile kota did. 
Usanga o kakulakaji, kala mu dima ni mutue, mbunda iala mu 
kilembeketa. Uxi: "Eie, kakulakaji, ngi dikise o njila, i endela 
kota diami." O kakulakaji ua mu londekesa o njila. 

Ubixila bu kanga dia na 'Alunga-ngombe, uxi : " Kota diami 
uebi ? " O na 'Alunga-ngombe uxi : " Kimbiji kia mu minia." Uxi : 
" Ngi bane ngulu." A mu bana-iu. Ua i te ku nzolo. Uatakula mu 
menia. Kimbiji uaminia o nzolo. Kabundungulu uexana o mundu 
pala kusunga o Kimbiji. A mu sungu ; ueza ku kanga. 

Kabundungulu uanomona poko id ; uatandula Kimbiji. Usanga o 
ifuba ia kota dig ; ua i bongolola. Uxi : (( Kota diami, balumuka." 
Sudika-mMmbi uabalumuka. Ndenge uxi: "Tui'etu kid, kota 
diami." O Sudika-mbAmbi, na 'Alunga-ngombe ua mu bana mon' 6. 

Akutuka mu njila. Abixila bu dikungu, bu afila Sudika-mbimbi. 
Mavu ala mu budijika. 347 Atubuka ku kanga. Asanga o Ipalende 
iuana. A i kaia. AkaF L O ndenge uxi : " Kota diami, ngi bane 
muhatu umoxi; mukonda uala ni kiiadi" O dikota uxi: "Kana; 
mukaji ami, eie u pange ami, k* uten<§ ku mu sakana." 

O dikota, ki aia mu nianga, o ndenge uiza mu o'nzo ia kota did ni 
kuzuelesa ahatu a kota did. O dikota uatundu mu nianga, ubixila 
m* o'nzo. O muhatu ud ua mu tangela : " O ndenge 6 uala rnu 
kuiza mumu mu tu zuelesa." 

O dikota, ki evile kiki, kia mu ibila. A di kuata jimvunda, o 
dikota ni ndenge d. A di beta ; amesena ku di jiba. Kana mutu 
uatena kujiba muku& A di tela o jifalanji ; kana jatu. Kia a kurau. 
O dikota, Sudika-mbdmbi, boxi uta o mbamba, bulu usudika mb&mbi, 
uia mu tunda. Ndenge d, Kabundungulu ka muxi ua lukula, mbua 
id idia ndende, o kimbundu kid kikambula ngombe, uia mu luiji. 

Kiene, kota ni ndenge a di kuatelele ahatu; id amuangana. 

SudikfrMbambi. 95 

on hook; 813 he casts into the water. Kimbiji comes to take; he 
swallows the pig. Sudika-mbambi begins to pull ; he tumbles into 
the water. Kimbiji kia Malenda a Ngandu swallows him. 

At home, where his younger Kabundungulu stayed, he goes 
around to back of house to see the kilembe. The kilembe is dry ; 
he says : u (My) elder is dead. I will follow where my elder went." 
He enters the road, where his elder went. He arrives at house 
of his elder ; he finds the Kipalendes ; says : " My elder, he went 
where ? " The Kipalendes say : " We don't know." Kabundungulu 
says : "You have killed him. Uncover the grave." They uncover it. 
Kabundungulu gets in ; he strikes the road, on which his elder 
passed. He finds the old woman, who is hoeing with the upper 
body, the lower is in the shade. He says: "Thou, old woman, 
show me the way, which my elder walked." The old woman shows 
him the way. 

He arrives outside of na Kalunga-ngombe' s, says: "My elder, 
where (is he) ?" Na Kalunga-ngombe says : " Kimbiji has swallowed 
him." He says: "Give me a pig." They give him it. He put it 
on hook. He casts into the water. Kimbiji swallows the hook. 
Kabundungulu calls the people to pull (out) Kimbiji They pull 
him ; he comes on dry land. 

Kabundungulu takes his knife ; he cuts open Kimbiji He finds 
the bones of his elder ; he gathers them. Says : " My elder, arise ! " 
Sudika-mbambi arises. The younger says: "Let us go now, my 
elder." Sudika-mbambi, na Kalunga-ngombe gives him his daughter. 
They take the path. They arrive at the hole where Sudika- 
mbambi died. The ground is crackling. They get out on earth. 
They find the four Kipalendes. They drive them away. They live 
on. The younger says : " My elder, give me one woman, for thou 
hast two." The elder says : " No. My wife, thou my brother, canst 
not marry her." N 

The elder, when he went hunting, the younger comes into the 
house of his elder to entertain the wives of his elder. The elder 
left the hunting, arrives in the house. His wife tells him : " Thy 
younger keeps coming here to make love to us." 

The elder, when be heard this, it displeased him. They begin to 
quarrel, the elder and his younger. They strike each other ; they 
want to kill each other. No one can kill the other. They thrust 
(at) each other their swords ; they don't cut. They get tired of it. 
The elder, Sudika-mbambi, on ground he sets the staff, in sky he 
sets up antelope, goes to the East. His younger, Kabundungulu of 
wood of lukula, his dog eats palm-nuts, his kimbundu devours a buil, 
goes to the West. 
Thus the elder and the younger quarrelled about women; then 

96 Folk- Tales of Angola. 

Kiaxalela kala kiki : o mvula ki inuma, o dikota, uaia mu tunda; o 
mvula iamukuA, itaia, ndenge S, iaia mu luiji. 

Tuateletele o musoso uetu. Mahezu. 



Tuateletele kasabu. 8 * 8 Atu atunga, asoma. Kixibu 840 kieza; &ri: 
" Tuie mu ximika kitumba." m Ahetu ni mala a di bongolola. 
O mala ajiba jixitu ; o ahetu ala mu kanda jipuku, 861 O mundu 
uene uoso uai kid ku bata. Mu kitumba rauaxala kahatu kamoxi ; 
ualanduka ni kukanda o puku ia dixinji. 852 

O ki ala mu kanda, dikixi di diza ; dia mu sange. O dikixi ha u 
mu ambela, uxi : " Eie, kahatu, ua ngi uabela." Muene, ki amona 
o dikixi, uoma ua mu kuata ; mukonda makixi adia atu. O dikixi ua 
mu ibula : " Jina di6, nanii ? " O kahatu uxi : " Erne Samba." O 
dikixi uxi: M Z4; tuie ku bata, Ueza ni nanii?" O kahatu ha 
uimba o kamuimbu : 

" Tuakandele kazenze — ku mulenga ; 
Tuakandele kazenze — ku mulenga. 
Baku'etu bakuata kuinii — ku mulenga; 
Erne ngakuata kamue — ku mulenga, 
Ku muleng'e' ! — ku muleng'e" ! **• 

O dikixi uolela, uxi : " O kamuimbu, ku uembi, ka ngi uabela. 
Zd, tuie ku bata." Akutuka mu njila. 

O kahatu, ku bata, ku atundu, aku'& a mu sotele ; k* amoneka. 
Exi: " Samba uajimbidila." 

O dikixi, ki abixila n'S ku bata di£, uatangele o makixi n* aku' 
fi: 86 * "Erne ngeza ni kahatu, uala mukuimba kamuimbu kambote" 
Aku'4 exi : "A k' embe hanji." Muene ua mu ixanene : " Samba, 
zd ; imba o kamuimbu ketu." Uxi : 

" Tuakandele kazenze — ku mfalenga ; 
Tuakandele kazenze — ku mulenga. 
Baku'etu bakuata kuinii — ku mulenga; 
Erne ngakuata kamue — ku mulenga; 
Ku muleng'e' ! — ku muleng'e* ! 

Aku'4 olela ; exi : " Kauaba." Akal' &. 

Ki abange kitangana, makixi n'aku& ala mu longesa o mukua-ka- 
hatu; &ri: "Tu mu die; kiziia uleng*£." O muene, dikixi, uxi: 
" Nguami ; ngu mu sakana." 

Ngana Samba and the Mctrkishi. 97 

parted. It remained like this : The storm when it thunders (is) the 
elder, who went to the East : the other thunder, that responds, (is) 
his younger, who went to the West. 
We have told our story. The end. 


We often tell a little story. People built, dwelt. The dry season 
came, they said : " Let us go to burn the prairie." Women and 
men gather themselves. The men kill the game ; the women are 
digging (after) rats. 851 The people indeed all have already gone 
home. In the prairie there remained one little woman; she tarried 
in digging for a dixinji-rat. 352 

While she was digging, a Di-kishi came (that way) ; he found her. 
The Di-kishi then tells her, saying: "Thou, little woman, thou 
pleasest me." She, when she saw the Di-kishi, fear took her ; be- 
cause the Ma-kishi eat men. The Di-kishi asks her : " Thy name, 
which ? " The little woman says : "I am Samba." The Di-kishi 
says : " Come, let us go home. Thou earnest with whom ? " The 
little woman then sings the little song : 

" We dug crickets — in plantation; 
We dug crickets — in plantation. 
The others caught ten — in plantation; 
I caught one — in plantation. 
In plantation ! — in plantation ! " M8 

The Di-kishi laughed, said: "The little song, which thou hast 
sung, it pleases me. Come, let us go home I " They take the road. 

The girl, at home, whence she came, the others sought her ; she 
appeared not. They said : " Samba is lost." 

The Di-kishi, when he arrived with her at his home, he told the 
other Ma-kishi : " I have come with, a girl, who is singing a good 
little song." The others say : " Let her sing it again." He called 
her. " Samba, come ; sing our little song." She sings : 

" We dug crickets — in plantation ; 
We dug crickets — in plantation. 
Our people caught ten — in plantation; 
I caught one — in plantation. 
In plantation ! — in plantation ! " 

The others laughed, saying : " It is nice." They lived on. 

After spending a time, the other Ma-kishi begin to persuade the 
man of the woman, saying : " Let us eat her ; one day she will run 
away." He, the Di-kishi, said : " I will not ; I will marry her." 

98 Folk- Tales of Angola. 

Ua mu tungila inzo ; uabokona. Ki abanga ku mivu, uavuala n'£ 
ana atatu a mala. Kizu' eki, o makixi a di ongolola 355 bti kanga; 
ala mu ta pungi, exi : " Mungu tudia kana kamoxi." O tuana tuevu ; 
tuai, tuatangela manii A, tuxi : " Ala mu tu ta kikutu kia ku tu jiba." 
O tuana, majina m£: o dikota, Ngunda; o kadi, 356 Kadingu; o 
katatu, Papa. Azekele. 

Mu kimenemene o muhatu uxi : " Ngala mu kata ; kl ngitena kuia 
mu mabia mu dima." O munume £ ua mu ambelele : " Xala ; lelu ^ 
ngu 'u sanga." Mundu uoso uai mu mabia. 

O Samba ki atale bu bata kana-bu mutu, buaxala tuana tua ndenge, 
ualongele o imbamba i6 ni jimbutu je joso ; uazangula. Uatuame- 
kesa 858 o tuana tu£ tuiadi ; o ndenge u mu ambata ku ema. Akutuka 
mu njila. 

O tuana tua makixi tuala mu ia mu kuixana munume a Samba, 
tuxi : " Samba, iii ualenge." O munume a Samba uazumbukile 
lusolo ; ubixila m' o'nzo : Samba uai. 

Uakuata mu njila, mu abiti Samba. U mu mona uala mu bita 
dikanga. Ukala mu mu ixana, uxi ni kuimba : 

" Ngi xile Ngunda ; 
Kadingu, nde* n'6. 
Ngi xile Ngunda ; 
Kadingu, nde* n'L 
Ngi xile Ngunda; 
Kadingu, ndS n'e\" •» 

O muhatu uembile ue : 

" Ngunda mona ; 
Kadingu mona ; 
Papa, Ngunda, 
Kadingu, tui' etu." 

O Samba uazangula kitutu kia mbala; ua ki takula boxi. O 
munume 6 uabi&ila-bu ; uasange o mbala boxi. Uala mu nona ni 
kuimba : 

" Nonon'd J Kidima, kelekexi." m (Luiadi.) 

O mbala iabu. Uzanguka ni kuimba dingi : 

" Ngi xile Ngunda; 
Kadingu, nde* n'eV' (Luiadi.) 

O rauhata uavutuile ni kuimba u£ : 

" Ngunda mona ; 
Kadingu mona. 
Papa, Ngunda, 
Kadingu, tui' etu. Ji 

Ngana Samba and the Ma-kishu 99 

He built her a house ; she entered. After some years had passed, 
she had begotten with him three male children. One day the Ma- 
kishi gather themselves outside ; they are making a plot, saying : 
"To-morrow we will eat one child." The children heard; went, 
told their mother, saying : " They are making a plot to kill us/' The 
children, their names: the eldest, Ngunda; the second, Kadingu; 
the third, Papa. They slept. 

In the morning, the woman said : "lam sick ; I cannot go to the 
fields to hoe*" Her husband said to her : " Stay (here) ; .to-day I '11 
find thee (again)." The people all went to the fields. 

Samba, when she saw (that) in the village there was nobody; there 
are (only) little children, she packed all her things and all her seeds ; 
she started. She makes go ahead her two children, the baby she 
carries it on back. They enter the road. 

The children of the Ma-kishi are going to call the husband of 
Samba, saying : u Samba, she has run away." The husband of Samba 
left work quickly ; he arrived at the house : Samba is gone. 

He takes the path, where Samba passed. He sees her passing 
afar off. He begins to call her, saying and singing : 

" Me leave Ngunda; 
Kadingu, go with him. 
Me leave Ngunda ; 
Kadingu, go with him. 
Me leave Ngunda ; 
Kadingu, go with him." 8W 

The woman sang too : 

" Ngunda (is) a child ; 
Kadingu is a child ; 
Papa, Ngunda, 
Kadingu, let us go." 

Samba took up a cracked calabash of millet; she threw it on the 
ground. Her husband arrived there; he found the millet on the 
ground. He is picking up and singing : 

u Pick, pick up ! A fruit, don't waste it." (Repeat twice.) 

The millet is finished. He starts, singing again : 

"Me leave Ngunda; 
Kadingu, go with him." (Repeat twice.) 

The woman replied singing also : 

" Ngunda is a child ; : ; { '/«• t\'\ 

Kadingu is a child. 
Papa, Ngunda, 
Kadingu, let us go ! " 

ioo Folk- Tales of Angola. 

Samba utakula boxi kitutu kia ukoto. 861 O munume £ uabixila-bu ; 
uala mu nona ni kuimba : 

" Nonon'6 ! Kidima, kelekexi." (Luiadi.) 
O ukoto uabu. Ukuata mu kaiela ni kuimba : 

" Ngi xile Ngunda; 
Kadingu, nd£ n'S." (Luiadi.) 

O muhatu utambujila, uxi : 

"Ngunda mona; 
Kadingu mona. 
Papa, Ngunda, 
Kadingu, tui' etu." 

Uatakula boxi kitutu kia luku. O dikixi uabixila-bu ; ukuata mu 
nona ni kuimba : 

" Nonon'6 ! Kidima, kelekexi." (Luiadi.) 

O luku Iiiabu. Ukuata mu kaiela. O Samba uabixila ku ngiji 
ia dikota. Uazauka n'an' £ kitatu. O dikixi ki abixila ku ngiji, 
uasange o ngiji iezala ; k'atena kuzauka. 

O muhatu uabixila ku bata, ku atundUe. Ki a mu mona bu 
bata, exi : " Samba ueza. Tuafikile, tuxi * uafu.' Uendelc kuebi ? M 
Muene uazuelele, uxi : " Dikixi dia ngf ambetele. Muene ngavuala 
n'S ana atatu : o iii Ngunda ; o iii Kadingu ; o ndenge Papa. Erne 
ngalenge ami." O ndandu j6 ja mu tambuluile, ha a mu jibila 

O dikixi, ki avutukile ku bata diS, aku'4 a mu olela, exi : "Tua ku 
ambelele, kuma 'tu mu die; kiziia uleng'6;' eie uxi: 'nguami/ O 
kiki mukaji 6 ualenge 6 n' an' enu." O muene uavutuile: "Aba, 
erne ngibanga kiebi ? " 

Sabu iabu. Mahezu. 

Ngana Samba and the Ma-kishL 101 

Samba throws down a calabash of sesamum. Her husband arrives 
there; he is picking up and singing : 

** Pick, pick up ! A fruit, don't waste it." (Repeat twice.) 
The sesamum is finished. He resumes pursuing and singing : 

" Me leave Ngunda ; 
Kadingu, go with him. w (Repeat twice.) 

The woman answers, saying : 

" Ngunda is a, child ; 
Kadingu is a child. 
Papa, Ngunda, 
Kadingu, let us go ! * 

She throws down a calabash of Eleusine. The Di-ki$hi arrives 
there ; begins to pick up, singing : 

" Pick, pick up ! A fruit, don't waste it." (Repeat twice.) 

The Eleusine is finished. He begins to pursue. Samba arrives 
at a large river. She crosses with her three children. The Di-kishi, 
ivhen he arrived at the river, he found the river full ; he could not 
cross over. 

The woman arrived at home, whence she had come. When they 
saw her in the village, they said : " Samba has come ! We thought, 
saying, 'she is dead/ — Where wentest thou?" She spoke, saying: 
"A Di-kishi carried me away. He, I begat with him three chil- 
dren : this one (is) Ngunda; this one (is) Kadingu; the youngest (is) 
Papa. I ran away.*' Her kindred received her, and for her killed a 

The Di-kishi, when he returned to their home, the others laughed 
at him, saying: "We had told thee, saying: 'Let us eat her; one 
day she will run away; 1 thou didst say, 'I will not.' Now thy wife 
has run away with your children !" He returned : " Well, what shall 
I do?" 

The story is finished. The end. 

102 Folk- Tales of Angola* 


Ngateletele minzangala ia an' a ahetu kitatu, atonokene ukamba 
ni makixi. 

Ahetu 6ne mu ia ku rqakamb' & a makixi iziia ioso. Bu kaxi kia 
sanzala i* an' a ahetu ni ia makixi bala dikanga. 

Kizu* eki, an' a ahetu exi : " Ku makamb* etu, ki tu£ne mu ia-ku, 
mungu tuia-ku." Azekele. Kuaki, exi: "TuT eriu." A di ongola 
kitatu kia. Bala muku'a umoxi, uala ni kandenge ke ka muhatu, 
kexi: "Uami ngiia; ku mu&ie mu i* enu, iziia ioso, kuene-hi?" 
Makota exi : " Nguetuetu." M Kandenge uxi : " Uami ngiia." 
Makot* &ri: "Bu kaxi bala ngiji ia dikota; k'utena kuzauka." 
Kandenge uxi : " Kat6 ngaii." 363 Makota aiadi ambela muku'S, 
uavu ndenge £, exi : " Etu nguetuetu kuia ni mon'a ndenge." Kota 
di£ ua mu kuata ; ua mu beta* uxi : " Aku'etu a di tunu fi." Asu- 
luka. Kandenge uala mu ku a kaiela ni malusolo. Abixila mu 
njila ; kandenge ua a kuata Makota asakuka ku etna ; a mu tala 
iu uiza. I?xi : " Eie, mon' a kimi, uajijila-hi ? A ku beta kid ; hanji 
uiza? Tui' etu kid." 

Akuata mu njila ; abixila ku ngiji ; azauka. Enda dikanga ; abi- 
xila bu sanzala ia makamb'd a makixi. Makamb'S, a a zalela, Ngo- 
loxi ieza ; a a telekela kudia ; adi. 

O makixi lelu ate pungi ia kujiba an'a ahetu pala ku a dia. Eza 
mu kusungidisa 96 * o an' a ahetu; asungila; atubuka. An* a ahetu 
axala kiuana ki4 mVnzo. Mundu uoso uazeka kid; an'a ahetu azeka, 
o makota atatu. O kandenge, mu mesu mua mu kala xixi. 

Kitangana, uivua bu kanga bu muelu ua 'nzo, i a a zalela, makixi 
atula. Muene ua di xiba hudi ; uoma ua mu kuata. Uivua dingi, 
makixi ala mu kuibula mVnzo: "Ngingi, ngingi, muazeka kadia?" 
Kana ka muhetu kala mu xingeneka ni mu&ima, uxi: "Baba ngi- 
banga kiebi ? Ngimba muimbu uahi ? " Dikixi dixi dingi : " Ngingi, 
ngingi, muazeka kadia ? " m Kana ka muhetu kajimi tubia bu jiku ; 
kakala mu tambujila : 

"Tuazeka; tuazekele-ku ; 
Muxiroa ku 'inganga 
Kia ngang' a njila, 
Mbambi 6 ! kuma nguiii. 

The Girls and the Markishu 103 


I will tell of youths, young women, three, who played (at) friend* 
ship with the Ma-kishi 

The girls used to go to their friends, the Ma-kishi, all days. In 
the middle (between) the village of the young women and that of the 
Ma-kishi there is distance. 

One day, the young women say: "To our friends, as we are 
wont to go, to-morrow we will go." They slept. It dawned, they 
say : " Let us go." They gather, the three of them. There is one 
of them, who has a little sister, a girl, who says : " I, too, will go ; 
where >ou always go, all days, what is there ?" The elders said: 
"We won't" m The child said: "I, too, will go." The elders 
said: "In middle there is a large river; thou canst not cross over/' 
The child said: "Until I have gone." 868 The two elders said to 
the other, who owned the young sister : " We will not go with a 
child." Her elder caught her; she beat her, saying: "The others 
have refused." They go away. The child is following them in 
haste. They stop on the road; the child overtakes them. The 
elders turn back ; they see it is coming. They say : " Thou, child, 
thou art obstinate, why ? They have beaten thee already ; yet thou 
comest ? Let us go now," 

They take the path ; arrive at the river ; cross it They walk far ; 
arrive at the village of their friends, the Ma-kishi. Their friends 
spread (mats) for them. The evening comes ; they cook for them 
food ; they eat. 

The Ma-kishi to-day had made a plot to kill the young women, 
to eat them. They come to have a chat 864 with the girls; having 
chatted, they go out. The girls remain, the four of them, in the 
house. All the people are already asleep ; the girls are asleep, the 
three elders. The child, in her eyes there is wakefulness. 

A while, she hears outside, at the door of the house, where they 
stayed, the Ma-kishi have come. She keeps quiet, hush ! fear has 
taken her. She hears again the Ma-kishi are asking into the house : 
" You, you, are you asleep now ? " ** The little girl is thinking in 
her heart, saying : " How shall I do now ? I shall sing what song ? " 
A Di-kishi said agaiii : " You, you, are you asleep now ? " The little 
girl put out the fire in fire-place ; she begins to sing in response : 

" We are in bed ; are not asleep ; 
The heart to the great wizard 
Of the wizard of the road. 
Cold, oh ! outside red ! 

X04 Folk* Tales of Angola. 

Nzala ue* I kuma nguiii. 
Huina ue* 1 kuma nguiii. 
Jimue u6 1 kuma nguiii." SM 

Makixi amuangana bu kanga ; aii mu takana o makudia n'abane 
a di tende 867 o nzala. Kitangana, atula ni mbinda ia ualua, ni 
f unji. Abana o kana ; kana katambuila bu mbandu a muelu. Ma- 
kixi exi : " O ki adia n'ekuta o mona, uia ku kilu ; etu ni tuij/a ku 
ajiba." Kana katambula imbamba; ka i bake. Kitangana, uivua 
dingi : 

u Ngingi, ngingi, muazeka kadia?" 

Kana kexi : 

" Tuazeka, tuazekele-ku ; 
Maxima ku 'inganga 
Kia ngang' a njila, 
Mbambi 6 ! kuma nguiii. 
Nzala u£ ! kuma nguiii. 
Huina u£ ! kuma nguiii. 
Jimue ue" ! kuma nguiii." 

Makixi amuangana dingi. O ki ala mu banga o kandenge ni 
makixi, o makota k'a k' ijfa; azek'l 

Kitangana, makixi atula dingi. Eza ni mbinda ia maluvu, ni 
mulele manii 368 ku di futa o kana. A mu bana ; uatambula ; uabake 
koko. Kana kexi ni muxima u6 : " Nguami kuzeka ; ha ngazeka, 
lolxi a tu jiba." Makixi amuangana bu kanga Makolombolo adidi ; 
makixi k'atena dingi kuvutuka. 

Kuma kuaki mundu uoso uabalumuka. Kana katangela makot* 
6, kexi: "Enu, makot' ami, ki muala mu zeka kiambote, o ima lelu 
iejile bu kanga, enu mua i ivua-jinga?" Makot' exi : "Eie, kana ka 
kimi ? u ndololo ; m kiene mazd ki tua ku vutuila. Etu, iziia ioso i 
tu£ne mu kuiza kunu, kf tu&ne mu i ivua ; lelu, eie ua i ivu ? " A 
inu bana kingodi. Kandenge uxi: "Kiauaba ki muazuela; usuku 
uamukud ki uiza, ki muzeke, enu muivua." Makota axikina ; anange. 
Kumbi diaf u ; a a telekela makudia ; adi Akuata ku sungi ni ma- 
karhb'£ a makixi. Mundu uoso uazeka kid. Makixi a a lekela, 370 
Sxi: "Zekenu kiambote." Ahetu ataia; azeka bu jihama. Kiziia 
kifcza mu kaii, 871 evua bu kanga : 

" Ngingi, ngingi, muazeka kadia? 
Ngingi, ngingi, muazeka kadia? " 

Kandenge katuama kutambujila, kexi : 

The Girls and the Ma-kishL 105 

Hunger, too ! outside red ! 
Thirst, too ! outside red ! 
Mosquitoes, too ! outside red ! " 86e 

The Ma-kishi scatter outside ; they go to fetch victuals, to give to 
those that complained of hunger. A while, they come with a gourd 
of beer and mush. They give to the child ; the child receives (it) 
at the side of the door. The Ma-kishi say : " When the child has 
taken, and is full, it will go to sleep ; we then shall know (how) to 
kill them." The child received the things; she put them aside. 
A while, she hears again : 

u You, you, are you asleep now ? " 

The child says : 

" We are in bed, are not asleep ; 
The heart to the great wizard 
Of the wizard of the road. 
Cold, oh ! outside red ! 
Hunger, too I outside red ! 
Thirst, too ! outside red ! 
Mosquitoes, too ! outside red ! " 

The Ma-kishi separate again. What the child and the Ma-kishi 
are doing, the elders do not know it ; they are asleep. 

A while, the Ma-kishi come again. They come with a gourd of 
palm-wine, and a cloth for the child to cover itself. They give her ; 
she received : put (them) aside there. The child said in her heart : 
" I will not sleep ; if I fall asleep, forthwith they will kill us." The 
Ma-kishi separate outside. The cocks crow; the Ma-kishi cannot 
come back any more. 

Day dawns, the people all get up. The child tells her elders, say- 
ing : "You, my elders, when you were well asleep, the things to-night 
that came outside, did you ever hear them?" The elders said: 
" Thou, child, art naughty ; therefore yesterday we sent thee back. 
We, all days that we have been coming here, we did not hear them ; 
now thou hast heard them ? " They give her a snap. The child 
said : " (It is) well, what you said ; another night, when it comes, do 
not sleep, that you may hear." The others assented ; they passed 
the time. The sun set ; they cook them food ; they eat. They 
begin night-chatting with their friends, the Ma-kishi. All people 
are asleep now; the Ma-kishi leave them saying: " Sleep ye well." 
The women respond ; they lie down on the beds. The day (night) 
has come (to be) in the middle, 371 they hear outside : 

" You, you, are you asleep now ? 
You, you, are you asleep now ? " 

The child was first in answering, saying : 

io6 Folk- Tales of Angola* 

" Tuazeka, tuazekele-ku ; 
Muxima ku 'inganga 
Kia ngang' a njila ; 
Mbambi € \ kuma nguiii. 
Nzala u€ I kuma nguiii. 
Huina u6 ! kuma nguiii. 
Jimue ue* ! kuma nguiii." 

Makixi atnuangana. Ku ema ku axala ahetu, kandenge ututa 
makota, uxi : rt Mua k'ivu ? " Makot* exi : " Tuevu ; k'ukole dingi." 
A d'ibula mu di&, exi: "O kiki, tubanga kiebi?" Muku'4 uxi: 
"Tulenge-enu n'usuku." Aku'& exi : " Ha tualenge mu kumbi umu, 
tutakanesa ni iama. O kiki tubanga kiebi?" Exi: "Tuzeke ki£, 
mungu tuijfe kioso ki tubanga." A di xiba. 

Makixi atula dingi ; ala mu kuibula : 

" Ngingi, ngingi, muazeka kadia?" 

Kandenge kala mu tambujila, kexi : 

" Tuazeka, tuazekele-ku ; 
Muxima ku 'inganga 
Kia ngang'a njila ; 
la' 872 mu buabua ixoto." 

Makixi atnuangana. Atakana jimbinda ja ualua ni maluvu, ni 
funji, ni milele. Eza dingi ; ebula bu kanga : 

" Ngingi, ngingi, muazeka kadia? " 
Kandenge katambujila : 

" Tuazeka, tuazekele-ku; 
Muxima ku 'inganga 
Kia ngang' a njila ; 
la' mu buabua ixoto." 

Makixi abana o ima, i eza naiu. Kana katambula ; kabake koko. 
Makixi aii ; azuela, exi : " O kan' aka k'akolela-hi mu mesu ? " Ma- 
kolombolo adidi ; k'atena dingi kuiza. 

Kuma kuaki ; makixi eza mu menekena makamb'A a ahetu. Ahetu 
exi : " Lelu k! tuazekele ; tuala mu kata " Makixi exi : " Mutu umoxi 
ukata, i enu oso muala mu kata?" 373 Ahetu exi: "Etu ene oso 
tuala mu kata." Ala mu nang'4 ; kiziia kia katatu. 

Kumbi diafu ; ngoloxi iatoloka. A a bana makudia ; adi. Ahetu 
ala mu d'ibula, exi: "Tuenda kiebi?" Exi: "Tutuama kusungila 
n'A; o ki amuangana, etu ni tulenge." A di taia kitatu kia, exi: 
"Kiene ki tubanga/' Makixi eza mu sungila; ala mu sungila. 
Mundu uoso uazeka; 8 ** makixi alekela ahetu, exi: "Zekenu kia- 
mbote." Ahetu ataia. Makixi atubuka. 

The Girls and the Morkishu 107 

u We are in bed, are not asleep; 
The heart to the great wizard 
Of the wizard of the road. 
Cold, oh ! outside red ! 
Hunger, too ! outside red ! 
Thirst, too! outside red! 
Mosquitoes, too ! outside red ! " 

The Ma-kishi separated. Behind, where the girls stayed, the child 
taunts her elders : " Have you heard it ? " The elders said : " We 
heard ; don't talk loud again." They ask each other, saying : " Now, 
how shall we do? " Another said : " Let us run away in the night." 
The others said : " If we run away at this hour, we shall meet with 
wild beasts. Thus, how shall we do ? " They said : " Let us sleep 
now ; to-morrow we may know what to do." They kept quiet. 

The Ma-kishi come again ; they begin to ask : 
" You, you, are you asleep now? " 

The child is responding, saying : 

" We are in bed, are not asleep ; 
The heart to the great wizard 
Of the wizard of the road ; 
They are breaking wind." 

The Ma-kishi separate. They fetch gourds of beer and palm- 
wine, and mush, and cloths. They come again ; they ask outside : 
"You, you, are you asleep now?" 

The child answered : 

" We are in bed, are not asleep ; 
The heart to the great wizard 
Of the wizard of the road ; 
They are breaking wind." 

The Ma-kishi gave the things that they came with. The child 
received; put aside there. The Ma-kishi went; they speak, say- 
ing : " This child, why is it awake as to (its) eyes ? " The cocks 
have crowed ; they cannot come again. 

Day breaks ; the Ma-kishi come to greet their girl friends. The 
girls said : "To-day we slept not (well), we are sick." The Ma-kishi 
said : " Is one person sick, or are you all sick ? " 878 The women 
said : i€ We indeed are all sick." They are passing time ; the third 

The sun sets ; the evening comes. They give them food ; they 
eat. The girls are asking each other, saying : " How shall we go ? " 
They say : " We will first chat with them ; when they separate, we 
may flee." They agree, the three of them, saying : " So we shall- 
do." The Ma-kishi came to chat ; they are chatting. The people 
all have retired; 874 the Ma-kishi take leave of the girls, saying: 
" Sleep ye well." The girls respond. The Ma-kishi go out. 

io8 Folk* Tales of Angola. 

Ahetu ku ema ku axala, anomona tumk tu&; a tu fuxika mu 
jihomba. 876 Atundu bu kanga ; atuamekesa o kandenge kH Dieji 
diatu. Ala mu kuenda ni nguzu mu njila. Abb&la ku ngiji ; asange 
ngiji iezala; k'atena kuzauka ni usuku. Exi : " Kiki, tubanga kiebi ?'* 
Ku mbandu a ngiji, kuala kimuxi ; asambela ene oso ku mu&i ueni- 
uku. O makota atatu, ene asukila ku pondo ia muxi ; o kandenge 
kasukila boxi. A di xib'd. 

O ku ema, ku sanzala ku atundu, makixi eza k'o'nzo mu kui- 
bitfa : 

" Ngingi, ngingi, muazeka kadia ? 
Ngingi, ngingi, muazeka kadia ? " 

M'o'nzo muedi hudi. Makixi afik* exi : " Azeka." Anomona 
makongolo a tubia ; akondoluesa inzo ioso : inzo iauama. O jimbi- 
nda ja maualua, jala mVnzo, jala mu baza ni tubia. O makixi, ki 
Svu o jimbinda jala mu baza exi : " Ene atu ala mu jokota." Ala 
mu kuolela : " Hahd ! hahd ! hamene tudia mbunda, mbunda ia make- 
nia." m Inzo iabuila ; eza mu tala bu utoka ; asanda-bu : jimbinda 
jala-bu ; atu k'amueneka. Kia a iibila ; ala mu zuela, exi : " Mbunda 
iaia ! mbunda iaia ! " 

Akutuka mu njila ; atala manianiu *rt mu njila. 14 u4 ai'4 ; ala mu 
kaiela n'usuku ueniii. Abixila ku ngiji, ku ala ahetu. 

Kuma kuaki ; atala mu muxi : id. Makixi exi : " Mbunda iiii ; 
mbunda iiii." An* a ahetu exi : " Uaud ! tuabulukile ; o kiki ki a 
tu landula, tuandala kufua." Makixi akuata makila ; ala mu koka 
o mu*i ni kimene. An* a ahetu ala mu kuimbila bu lu dia muxi, 

"A! ngimbu! a! ngimbu! 
Bukuka I 

Tulandula ngimbu, 
Ku embu." 

O makixi asuina kukoka. O Kikuambi uala mu zunga bulu ; an* 
ahetu exi: "Tata, Kikuambi, tu bulule; tu& ku fute 878 ku bata." 
Kikuambi uxi : " Nguamiami ; ki muaxikina ku ngi futa." Exi : 
" Tua ku diondo ; tui ku futa." Kikuambi uala mu zung'S ; kf ki 
mu kuatela kima. An' ahetu ala mu mu bomba: "Tata, eie Kikua- 
mbi, u tu ehelela, ni tufu? 879 Ha ua tu bulula, amanii etu 880 a 
ku futa. Ha k'aiikina ku ku futa, etu ene tutena ku ku fata.*' 
Kikuambi uxi : " Kiauaba." 

Uazangula mutu umoxi ku muxi; ua mu tula ku sambua. Uavu- 
tukila dingi muku&, kadi ; ua mu tula ku sambua. Uavutukila 

The Girls and the Ma-kishi. 109 

The girls, behind where they stayed, take their little things ; they 
wrap them in their bosoms. 375 They go outside ; they send aheaH 
their little sister. The moon shines. They walk with strength on 
the path. They arrive at the river ; find the river full ; they cannot 
cross by night They say : " Now, how shall we do ? " By the side 
of the river, there is a large tree ; they all climb on that same tree. 
The three elders, they get tip to the top of the tree ; the child gets 
up beneath. They keep quiet. 

Behind, in the village whence they came, the Ma-kishi come to 
the house to ask : 

" You, you, are you asleep now? 
You, you, are you asleep now ? " 

In the house there is silence. The Ma-kishi think, saying : " They 
are asleep." They take brands of fire ; they surround all the house ; 
the house is aflame. The gourds of beer, that are in the house, 
explode with the fire. The Ma-kishi, hearing the gqurds, that are 
bursting, said : « They are the people who are reeling." They are 
laughing : " Haha ! haha ! to-morrow we shall eat meat, meat of 
delicacy." The house is consumed ; they come to look in the ash6s; 
they scratch them : the gourds are there ; the people fail to appear. 
It displeased them ; they speak, saying : " The meat is gone, the 
meat is gone ! " 

They go to the path ; they look for the tracks on the road. They 
too go ; they pursue that same night. They arrive at the river, 
where are the girls. 

Day dawned ; they looked into the tree : here they are. The 
Makishi say : " Meat here ; meat here." The girls say : " Woe ! we 
had escaped ; now that they followed us, we are going to die." The 
Ma-kishi take (their) hatchets ; they are felling the tree from early 
morning. The girls begin to sing in top of the tree, saying : 

"Oh! hatchet! oh! hatchet! 
Do break ! 

We shall replace hatchet 
At home." 

The Ma-kishi are hard at felling. The Hawk is circling in heaven ; 
the girls say : « Please, Hawk, save us.; we shall pay thee at home." 
The Hawk said : " I will not ; you will refuse to pay me." They 
say : <t We beseech thee ; we will pay thee." The Hawk is circling 
on ; he does not care a bit The girls are imploring him : " Please, 
thou Hawk, wilt thou abandon us to die ? If thou savest us, our 
mothers will pay thee. If they refuse to pay thee, we ourselves can 
pay thee." The Hawk said : " Well." 

He took one person from the tree ; he set her down on the other 
side. He came back again for another, the second ; he set her down 

1 10 Folk - Tales of Angola. 

muku£, tatu ; ua mu tula mu sambua. Kuaxala kandenge kl O 
makixi asuina kukoka; muxi uanienge Ida. Makot' atatu, ala ku 
sambua, exi : " Aiu6 ! ndenge etu uandala kuf ua. Kikuambi, lenga ; 
mu zangule ni malusolo." Kikuambi ubixila ku muxi; uzangula 
kana; muxi uabu. Makixi abuila; 381 a di zuelela, exi: " Mbunda 
iaia;" exi: " Mbunda iaia." 

Kikuambi utula kana ku sambua, uxi : " Kiebi ? ku ngi futa." 
An' a ahetu exi : " Tata, tuasakidila ; ua tu bulula. Baba, ki tuala ni 
kima kia ku ku futa. Eie muene umona 382 o kiziia ki<§ n* u tu sange 
ku bata, etu ni tu ku futu." Kikuambi uaxikina. 

An 1 a ahetu akutuka mu njila ; ala mu iikina ndenge &, exi : 
" Ndenge etu, mazadind, tua mu betele ngoho ; manii kidi kid ; 
muene ua tu bana o mueniu." 

Abixila ku bata dii ; asange adi d. A a tudila ioso i amono, exi : 
" Ndenge etu ua tu bana o mueniu ; ni Kikuambi u£, muene ua tu 
bana a mueniu." Adi 4 exi : " Kiauaba." A di xib' &. 

Abanga iztfa iiadi, Kikuambi uatula, uxi: "Ngi fute-enu kid." 
Exi: "Ki tutena ku ku futa bu maku; eie muene, jisanji jiji, di 
nomuene." Kikuambi uaxikina. 

Ni kiki ki kiaxalela : Kikuambi, kiene mu kuata o jisanji, m'ukulu 
k'akexile mu kuata jisanji, uakexile mu dia mahoho ni tunjila ngoho. 
Kia mu kuatesa-jiu, mudimu 883 u6, u abanga. 

Ngateletele musoso ; mahezu. 

Muhetu uavualele an'e. Ki azuba kuvuala an'e, ana akulu. 

Pai 4 uafu. Umoxi, dikota, uixi: "Ngi di longa o ufunu ua 
ukongo." O ndenge uixi : " Ngi di longa uami o ufunu ua ukongo." 
Azangula o mauta ; id sua, kat£ mu mbole. Kana k'amoni xitu. O 
mvula ii iza ; exi : "Tulenga o mvula." 

Alenga ; eza mu 'nzo ia makixi ; abokola. Asange-mU mbanza 38 * 
ia makixi; id axika. Dikixi id uiza; uambata pakasa 885 jiiadi 386 
Uibula se : " Iti n6, uoloxika o mbanza ? " Uivila mueniomo, kuma : 
" Se u mukua-nguzu, bokola mVnzo, ukala huta ia jimbua jami." 

The Children of the Widow. 1 1 1 

on the other side. He came back for another, the third ; he set her 
down on the other side. There remained their child. The Ma-kishi 
work hard at felling ; the tree is bent already. The three elders, 
who are on the other side, say : " Woe ! our child is going to die. 
Hawk, hasten, take her up in haste." The Hawk arrives at the 
tree ; takes up the child ; the tree falls. The Ma-kishi are disap- 
pointed ; ^ they speak, saying : " The meat is gone ; " saying : " The 
meat is gone." 

The Hawk sets down the child on the other side, saying : " How 
about paying?" The girls said: "Sir, we are thankful; thou hast 
saved us. Here, we have nothing to pay thee. Thou thyself shalt 
see thy day and find us at home, we, that we pay thee." The Hawk 

The girls entered the road ; they are giving right to their chUd, 
saying : " Our younger, before yesterday, we beat her wrongly, for 
truth was hers ; she saved (us) life." 

They arrived at their home; they found their parents. They 
announced to them all they had seen, saying : " Our younger has 
saved our life ; and Hawk too, he has saved our life." Their parents 
said : "Well" They are silent. 

They spent two days, the Hawk arrived, saying : " Ye pay me 
now." They said: "We cannot pay thee into (thy) hands; thou 
thyself, the fowls are here, help thyself." The Hawk assented. 

And thus it remained : the Hawk, who is wont to catch fowls, of 
old he did not catch them ; he was eating locusts and small birds 
only. What caused him to catch them, his job, that he once did. 
I have told the story ; finished. 


A woman gave birth to her children. When she had finished 
giving birth to her children, the children grew up. 

Their father died. One, the elder said : u I will learn the craft 
of hunting." The younger said : " I will learn also the craft of 
hunting." They took up the guns ; they go, until (they are) in the 
woods. They see no game. The rain comes on ; they say : " Let 
us flee from the rain." 

They run ; they come to a house of Ma-kishi ; they enter. They 
find in it a mbanza 884 of the Ma-kishi; they play. One Di-kishi 
comes ; he carries two buffaloes. 885 He asks : " Who (is) he, who is 
playing the mbanza ? " He hears in there, $aying : " If thou art a 

112 Folk-Tales of Angola. 

Muene uasukila bu kanga. Dikixi diamukuA iii uiza; uambata u£ 
jipakasa jitatu. Uebula o mukud, uala bu kanga, kuma : " MVnzo 
inii ualenge-mu ? " Uxi : " Ngalenge atu kiiadi, ala-mu. Amesena 
ku tu jiba pala kudia kua jimbua jl" Amukui ia eza u&, ni soba i4. 
Soba uibula, kuma: "MVnzo, inii nualenge-mu ? " Exi : "Etu 
tualenge-mu atu kiiadi, amesena ku tu jiba." 

O soba uabokola ; uamenekena, kuma : " Tundenu bu kanga." O 
atu kiiadi exi : " Kt tutenetu kutunda bu kanga." Soba uexana aku* 
enji, 387 kuma : " A tundisienu bu kanga." Azuba ku a tundisa. 

O dikota, iti uaxikama; o ndenge, iii ulua ni makixi Uajiba 
makixi kiuana. Kuaxala nake dia makixi. Uajiba dingi kiuana. 
Ndenge u6 uaxikama. 

Dikota ualendela ue ; uajiba o kiuana kiaxala-bu. Uakuata o soba ; 
u mu batula o mutue. Buabingana dingi mutue; uobatula dingi. 
Buabingana dingi uamuku&. O dikota uxi: "Tu mu tenetu; 888 
tuxikame hanji." 

Dikota uabiluka nguingi. Dikixi u mu zangula; ueminia. O 
nguingi uia kuitala mu mixima 389 i£, se muala jisabi ja jinzo ]L Ua 
ji sange ; ua ji katula ; uatundu. Ndenge, uabingana-ku, uabatula a 
mutue ua dikixi. Dikixi diafu. 

Ajikuile o jinzo. Asange-mu abika ; a a bana kudia. Abandaku 
sabalalu anga ajikula-ku. Asanga-ku jingana ja ahetu jitatu, anga a 
a bana kudia u£. Exi : " TukaTetu kia benobo." 

Ku axala, manii & uaia ku 'xi iengi ni tuana tu£ tuiadi. O manii 
& uixi : " O kudia, ku tuolodia, M ku tu tenetu. 390 K&xangienu 

Aii mu jihuinii ; ajimbidila. Eza mVnzo ia ngene, ia kaveia. 
Evile o kaveia, kuma : " Enu nu an* ami ; ndenu mu jihuinii." Aii 
mu jihuinii; eza ni jihuinii. Adi; azeka; abalumuka. Kuala o 
kaveia: "Ndenu dingi mu jihuinii." Aii mu xanga. O ndenge, ia 
muhetu, uai ni huinii j6 ; o dikota uaxala. 

Usanga difundu 891 pai &, uxi: "O jihuinii nuoloxanga palanii?" 
"Manii kii, papaii." Pai S uxi : " Loko ngu ku ambela, kioso a ku 
tuma ku menia," Dikota uvutuka uS kui kaveia. 

Ua a ambela : " Ndenu mu tek' o menia." Dikota ni ndenge aii 
ku menia. O ndenge uateke o menia ; ueza. Dikota uaxala, uixi : 
" Pai etu, ng' ambele kid." Pai 4 uxi : " O kaveia, loko ki 4ta o 
menia bu jiku; ki a ku ambela kuma 'tala o menia, se matema/ eie 

The Children of the Widow* 113 

strong man, enter the house, thou shalt be food of my dogs." He 
stopped outside. Another Di-kishi comes ; he also carries three buf- 
faloes. He asks the other, who is outside, saying : " In the house, 
what didst thou flee from ? " Says he : " I fled from two men who 
ate in it. They want to kill us for food for their dogs." Others 
they come too ; also their chief. The chief asks, saying : " In the 
house, what did you flee from ? " They say : u We fled from two 
men, who want to kill us." 

The chief entered ; greeted, saying : " Be gone, outside." The two 
men said : " We cannot go outside." The chief called the others, 
saying : •* Put them outside ! " They manage to put them out. 

The elder, he sits down ; the younger, he fights with the Ma-kishi. 
He kills four Ma-kishi. There remain eight Ma-kishi. He kills 
again four. The younger too sits down. 

The elder conquers too; ke kills the four who remained. He 
takes the chief ; he cuts off his head. There succeeds again a head : 
he cuts it again. There succeeds further another. The elder says : 
" We cannot (kill) him ; let us sit down, please ! " 

The elder becomes a bagre-fish. The Di-kishi takes him up ; he 
swallows (him). The bagre goes to look into his hearts, 389 whether 
there are the keys of their houses. He finds them ; he takes them ; 
comes out. The younger, who succeeded him, he cut the head of 
the Di-kishi. The Di-kishi died. 

They opened the rooms. They found (in them) slaves ; they gave 
them to eat. They go up to the upper story and open there. They 
find there three ladies, and they give them to eat, too. They say : 
" Let us live now here ! " 

Where she stayed, their mother had gone to another country with 
her two little children. Their mother said : " The food, which we 
are eating, it is not sufficient for us. Go to fetch firewood." 

They went for the firewood ; they went astray. They come to the 
house of a stranger, of ap old woman. They hear the old one, saying : 
" You (are) my children ; go ye for firewood." They went for fire- 
wood ; they came with firewood. They ate ; they slept ; they got up. 
Then the old woman : " Go ye again for firewood." They went to 
cut. The younger, a girl, went with her firewood ; the elder stayed. 
He finds his deceased father, saying: "The firewood, you are 
cutting it why ? " " I don't know, father." Their father says : 
" Directly I will tell thee, when they send thee for water." The 
elder returns also to the old woman. 

She tells them : " Go ye to get the water." The elder and the 
younger went for the water. The younger got the water ; came 
(home). The elder stayed, said: " My father, tell me now." His 
father said ; " The old woman, forthwith when she puts the water 

1 14 Folk- Tales of Angola. 

uamba kuma f ngejiami.* Kioso ki atala o menia o kaveia, eie u mu 
xinjika mueniomo ; u mu bondeka o mutue mu menia matema." 

O dikota, kioso ki a mu ambela pai a, ldene ki abange. Ualundula 
o kaveia, ua mu jikila mueniomo mu menia ; o kaveia anga ufua. 

Kota ni ndenge abokola mu 'nzo. Akatula-mu kitadi kioso. 
Alenge & ku& manii 1 



Muhatu uexile n ! an* h kiiadi. Buiza Kaholongonio ka mutue ua 
mutu, uamesena mon' £ umoxi ua ndenge pala ku mu sokana. Mona 
ua dikota anga u ka zangula, anga ukatula utokua, anga u mu nokena 
nau. Ki azubile ku mu nokena utokua, anga u mu texi mu dizanga. 
K'axidivilS 892 kima pala kusokana ndenge 6. 

Muene koxi a menia ubiluka Kianda. O kimenemene anga uiza 
mu zuela ni manii £, ua mona mueni6, uixi : * Ngamesena mon' e 
pala ku mu sokana." Manii & anga utambujila. Ki azubile kutambu- 
jila, o Kianda anga uambata o muhetu, anga uia n'e koxi a menia. 
Ki azubile kuia n'6 koxi a menia, anga u mu zuika kiambote ni jiko- 
lodd 883 bu xingu ni mu maku. Ki a mu zuikile, anga uiza n'& ku 
bata dia manii &, anga u mu bekela pipa ia viniu, anga ukatula dikuba 
dia fazenda, u mu bana-diu. Ki abekele o im' eii, o muhatu anga uia 
ku bata dia munume 6, anga akal'S, akaTd. 

O diiala anga ukatula kalubungu ; u ka bunda boxl Butunda 
abika avulu, anga buiza kid jinzo pala abika. 

Ki azubile o im* eii, o muhatu inga uiza uimita, anga uvuala. O 
mona anga ufua. 

O diiala anga uamba kiki, kuma : * f Mon' ami 16 uafu 6. Manii 
enu k'ezd-bu ng6 bu tambi." Manii & anga uiza, o diiala ki exile mu 
kina. Muene ki asakuka, utala ku polo manii a muku'avalu kg. Ki 
atalele anga ui'6 ku bata di£, anga uambela mukaji &, kuma : " Nga 
ku ambelele ki£? kuma 'mon' ami uafu ; bu tambi manii enu k'ez£- 

Ki azubile o kuzuela, ukatula o kalubungu anga u ka bunda boxi. 
Jinzo joso anga jiia mu kalubungu. Bu akexile sanzala anga busa- 

The Kianda and the Young Woman. 115 

on fire-place ; when she tells thee, saying, ' Look the water, whether 
it is boiling,' thou shalt speak, saying : * I don't know.' While the 
old woman looks at the water, thou shalt push her into it ; shalt 
plunge her head into the boiling water." 

The elder, as his father told him, thus he did. He pushed the old 
woman, held her down there in the water ; the old woman then died. 

The elder and the younger entered into the house. They took 
out of it all the money. They ran away to their mother. 

The end. 


A woman was with her two children. There came Skull of the 
head of a man, who wanted one of her daughters, the younger, for to 
marry her. The elder daughter took it up and took ashes, and 
filled (its apertures) with them. When she finished smearing it 
(with) ashes, then she threw it into a lagoon. It was no good to 
marry her younger sister. 

The same under the water became Kianda. In the morning, then 
he comes to talk with the mother of that same daughter, saying : 
" I want thy daughter to marry her." Her mother then assents. 
When she finished assenting, Kianda then carried off the woman 
and went with her under water. When he had done going with her 
under water, then he dressed her finely with strings on neck and 
arms. When he has dressed her, then he comes with her to the home 
of her mother, and brings her a barrel of wine, and taking a bale of 
cloth, he gives her it. When he brought these things, the woman 
then went to the house of her husband, and they stayed and stayed 

The man then took the kalubungu ; he knocked it on the ground. 
There came out many slaves, and there came at once houses for the 

When these things are finished, the woman then comes to be 
pregnant and gives birth. The child then dies. 

The man then speaks thus, saying : " My child is dead here. Thy 
mother, let her not come to the funeral." Her mother then comes, 
as the man was dancirig. He, when he turned, saw, in front, the 
mother of his consort. When he had seen, then he went to his 
house, and told his wife, saying: " How did I tell thee? saying 'my 
child is dead ; thy mother (need) not come to the funeral * ? " 

When he had finished speaking, he takes the kalubungu, and 
knocks it on the ground. The houses all then go into the kalu» 

n6 Folk* Tales of Angola. 

btika iangiL Ki azubile, o diiala anga ui'd kuosokuoso. Muhatu ua 
mu kaiela, kuoso ku oloia o diiala, anga ukala mu kuimbila, uixi : 

" Munume ami ua henda ! Munume ami ua h#nda ! " 
Atu ala bulu anga akala mu tambujila : 

" E ! lendenu 6 I Mbengela kende xibu." *** 

O diiala anga usanga buama, bu ala kiditadi kionene, kiala ni 
dibitu. Muene ubokola moxi a ditadi. O muhatu k'a mu mueniS 
dingi. Anga uvutuka kuoso ku atundu, anga uia ku bata dia manii L 

Ki abixidile ku bata dia manii &, anga ufua ; manii & ue angaufua ; 
ni atu oso afua ul 895 

Buaxala ng6 mutu umoxi, ua muhatu. 16 uaxala mu o'nzo ie, 
Dikixi anga diza anga u mu ambata ; uia n'e ku bata did. Anga 
akal'&. O muhatu anga uiza uimita ; uvuala mona. Uatundile mutue 

Muhetu anga uimita luamuku&; dikixi anga u mu ambelakiki: 
u Se uvuala dingi mona ua mutue umoxi, ngi ku ixanena aku' etu 
pala ku ku dia." O muhatu anga uvuala mona ua mitue iiadi. 

O muhetu anga uambata mon'd ua mutue umoxi, anga uleng'e. 
Usanga jinzo, anga usuama mueniomo. Buexile mu bita dikixi, anga 
uivua o dizumba dia mutu. Dikixi anga ubokola mu o'nzo ; usanga 
o muhatu uazeka, anga u mu dia ni mon' e, kiiadi kia. 

O inzo anga ibiluka inzo ia makixi. 


Tuateletele a-Uoua ** kiuana ; ua makota aiadi, ni ndenge jiiadi 
Na Kimanaueze kia Tumb' a Ndala, kilundu kia makamba, uatunga, 
uasoma. Uavuala an* £ kiuana ; ahatu ene oso, Kana dingi mon* a 
diiala. Ene oso, mama i& imoxi. 

Dikota, ki eza mu di luka, 397 uxi : " Eme Uoua." O ndenge 6, ia 
mu kaiela ku kunda did, uxi : " Eme Uoua." Pange &, ia katatu, 
uxi: "Eme Uoua." Kasule M, kauana, uxi : "Eme Uoua." Aku& 
exi: "O dijina dimoxi, di mua di luka, m'upange uenu kiuana, A 
m' ixana kiebi ? " 

The Four Uouas. 117 

bungu. Where there was a village, then there sprouts the grass. 
When he had finished, the man then goes away, anywhere. The 
woman follows him, wherever the man is going, and she keeps on 
singing, saying: 

" Husband mine of love ! Husband mine of love ! " 

People who are in heaven, then keep answering : 

4 O ! run ye, O run ! Soon is gone the dry season." w4 

The man then finds a place where there is a large rock, that has a 
door. He enters inside the rock. The woman saw him not again. 
And she returned where she came from, and went to the home of 
her mother. 

When she arrived at the home of her mother, then she died ; her 
mother also then died ; and all the people they died too. 895 

There remained only one person, a woman. She remained in her 
house. A Di-kishi then comes and he carries her off ; goes with her 
to his house. And they live together. The woman then becomes 
pregnant ; she gives birth to a child. It came out (with) one head. 

The woman then conceived another time ; the Di-kishi then said 
to her thus : " If thou bearest again a child with one head, I shall 
call our folk, to eat thee." The woman then bore a child of two 

The woman then carried her child of one head, and ran away. 
She finds houses, and hides there. There was passing a Di-kishi, 
and he scents the smell of human beings. The Di-kishi then enters 
into the house ; he finds the woman asleep, and he eats her with her 
child, both of them. 

The house then was changed into a house of Ma-kishi. 


We will tell of the four Uouas, 896 of the elder two, and the younger 
two. Na Kimanaueze kia Tumb' a Ndala, favorite of friends, built, 
lived. He begat his four children; all females. There came no 
male child. They all (had) one mother. 

The eldest, when she came to name herself, 897 said: "I (am) 
Uoua." Her younger, who followed her behind, also said : " I (am) 
Uoua." Their sister, the third, says : " I (am) Uoua." Th$ young- 
est, the fourth, says : " I (am) Uoua." The other people say : " The 
name is one, that you called yourselves, in your sistership of four. 
How shall they call you ? " 

1 1 8 Folk- Tales of Angola. 

Akulu; eza rau itala 898 ia kusakana. 

Kueza diiala mu beka, kua Uoua ua kota. Ene inzo imoxi, ia 
unzangala. 899 A mu bake mu kijima. Kumbi diafu. A mu tele- 
kela kudia; uadi Usuku ueza; diiala diatubuka; diaii mVnzo ia 
an* ahetu. 

Uxi : " Ngoloxi, enu, jingana." An* ahetu ai 400 tambula exi ; 
"Ngoloxi iiii." A mu zalela dixisa boxi; uaxikama. An' ahetu a 
mu nangesa, exi : " Uanange kiebi, mon' a diiala ? " Muene uxi : m 

" Nganange munangi 4oa a nzamba. 
Ngasete museti a kiela. 
Nzamba katenguna, a mu ase. 
Njila kafufuka, a i endela. 408 
Kangalafa ka masangu, kndia kua jinjila. 404 
O milemba ni mibangu, kijingisa kia dibata. 406 
Mu tunda, tu an' a nguvu ; 
Mu ngela, tu an* a Nguvulu. 406 
O mon' a diiala, ha ua di futila, 
Dibeka ku kiasu. 407 
Mbamba, mbamba; xibata, xibata: 
Mbamba, tua i kuatele, makembu ; 
Xibata, tua i kuatele, usalajendu. 408 
Makania azekele bu hete ; 
Maluvu azekele mu kobo : 409 
Makania, telu dia mate ; 
Maluvu, telu dia maka. 
Kuene ku a mu ii o muxama. Mu maxila, 41 * jingana." 

Ene Sxi: "Tuaxamenena." Exi: " Tu&nange-etu. Kumbi diafu; 
ngoloxi ialembe* Ki uila, uxi ; 'ngiia mu ku a bana ngoloxi/ tua ki 
ximana, ki uabange. Mahezu 6." Muene uataia, uxi : "A Nzambi." 
Ala mu ta o mak'& Uxi: "Nga ku endela, eie, na Uoua ua 
kota/' 411 

Na Uoua uxi : " Kiauaba. U ngi sakan* eme, u tu sakana etu 
oso, kiuana kietu. Ha uedi, uxi eme ngoho, ngi dikota, k'utena ku 
ngi sakana. Kikala tusakana iala dietu dimoxi, kiuana kietu mu 
uana ua mama." Diiala ditaia, uxi: "Erne ngitena ku mi sakana." 
Ua a bana makania ; uai'S mu kijima ki6 ; uazekele. 

Kuaki; id uia kui na Kimanaueze, uxi: "Ngeza mu ta maka; 
ngamesena kusakana n* an' 6." Na Kimanaueze uxi: « Kiauaba, 
Ha uatena kiuana kid, ngi lembele." O diiala uaxikina, uxi : " Nga* 
tena. Kiauaba." 

Uvutuka ku bata did. Uasange pai 4 ; uxi : " Ku ngendele, a ngi 
xikina. A ngi bingi ilembu ia an'ahetu kiuana." Pai & uazangula 
mama jiuana ja ngombe ; ua mu bana-jiu ; uxi : " K&lembe." Uaze- 

The Four Uouas. i ig 

They grew up ; have come to the age of marrying. 

There came a man to woo, to Uoua the eldest. They (were in) 
one house, of virginity. 399 They placed him in the guest house. 
The sun died. They cooked food for him ; he ate. The night came ; 
the man went out ; he went to the house of the girls. 

He says: "Evening, you, ladies." The girls accept it, saying: 
"This is evening." They spread for him a mat on the ground ; he 
sits down. The girls entertain him; saying: "Thou spentest (the 
day) how, young man ? " He says : m 

H I spent the day as an elephant spends it 
I played, as a player of backgammon. 
The elephant is lame, (because) they shot him. 
The path is worn down, (because) they walked it.** 
A nice bottle of bird-seed, (is) food of birds. 404 
The wild fig-tree and the Mubangu tree (are) ornaments of a home.*** 
In the East, we are children of the hippo ; 
In the West, we are children of the Governor. 4 ** 
The young man, when he covers himself, 
(Casts) the mantle over the left (shoulder). 40 * 
Staff, staff ; sword, sword : 
Staff, we took it for ornament ; 
The sword, we took it for sergeantship. 
The tobacco slept at head of bed ; 
The palm-wine slept in the glass ; 
Tobacco, (is) the cause of spitting; 
Palm-wine, (is) the cause of talking. 
There is where his heart went. This is the end, ladies." 

They say : " We accept." They say : « Let us pass time. The 
sun is down, the evening dark. That thou thoughtest, saying, ' I 
will go to give them (good) evening/ we praise it, that thou didst so. 
The end/' He answered, saying: "(Is) of God." They continue 
their conversation. He says : " I came (because of) thee, thou, na 
Uoua the eldest." ^ 

Na Uoua says : " Very well Thou shalt marry me, (if) thou 
marriest us all, the four of us. If thou thinkest, that (thou wilt 
have) me alone, the eldest, thou canst not marry me. It must be 
that we marry our one man, the four of us in the fourhood (of) one 
mother." The man assents, saying : " I can marry you." He gives 
them tobacco ; he goes to his guest house ; sleeps. 

At daybreak, he goes to na Kimanaueze, saying; "I have come 
to have a talk ; I want to marry with thy daughters." Na Kimana- 
ueze says : " Very well. If thou canst afford the four of them, bring 
me the price/' The man agrees to, saying : " I can. All right" 

He returns to his home. He finds his father ; says : u Where I 
went, they accepted me. They asked me for the wooing-presents of 
four girls." His father took up four mothers of cows ; he gave them 
to him, saying : " Go and woo." He slept. 

i2o Folk- Tales of Angola. 

Kuaki, uakatuka. Uabixila ku makoii' 412 d; uabana jingombe* 
Atambula. Dilemba 418 dixi : " Eme nga mi bana iziia iuana. Kiziia 
kia katanu eme ngiza rau benga o mabanga." A mu telekela mama 
ia hombo. Uazekele. 

Kuma kuaki, uvutuka ku bata did. Uazekele iziia iuana. Kiziia 
kia katanu kieza-bu, diiala uazangula akunji. 414 Aia mu takana ma- 
banga; abixila. Anange dikumbi. A a telekela hombo ni funji. 
Ngoloxi ieza ; a a bana mabanga. 

Eza n'a. A a bokuesa mu manzu m &. Dikota n' mzo id , ndenge 
n' inzo id ; katatu n' inzo id ; kasule k£ n' inzo id. A a jibila hombo. 
Adila inu manzu a ubanga. Iziia iiadi iabu. Mundu ua imbalaiiibi 
uamuangana 41 * 

O diiala ngud kuiza mu manzu a mabanga. Iziia ioso uala mu 
zeka mVnzo ia unzangala. Kizu* eki pai 4 ua mu ambe, uxi : " Eie f 
na NzuA, an' a ngene, hanji ki ua a benga, mu jinzo j& ngud kubo- 
kona palahi ? " Muene uvutuila pai &, uxi : " Papaii, sonii ja ngi 
kuata, mukonda hanji ki nga a benga, k'adi liia kudia kua mbote. 
Mungu ngiia mu iangu mu mbole; sumba ngijiba-mu kambftmbi n' 
adie," Uazekele. 

Kuaki kimenemene, uazangula uta ud, ni poko id, n* imbua id, ni 
kamosokd. Uxi: " Tuie mu mbole." Akatuka; abi±ila mu mbole. 
Atungu fundu ; abokona. Azekele. 

Kuma kuaki, Na Nzud uia mu ta mibetu ia jipuku. Uatundu-ku ; 
ueza mu fundu id. Uazekele. Aii mu fala mibetu. 417 Ajitula jipuku ; 
makuinii-a-uana a puku. Avutuka bu fundu. 

Na Nzui uambela kamoso kd, uxi: "Sua mafue a uisu." 418 Ka- 
moso kasu mafue. Uxi : " Kuta mabunda auana a jipuku." Uxi : 
" Kamoso, ngu ku tuma kindaula ku bata. Ubixila n'usuku ; k'uibi- 
j&le ni muania. Mabunda auana ii, ambat' & 419 kui akaji ami" 

Kamoso uai. Utuama Uoua ua kota. Ubokona m'o'nzo, uxi: 
u Dibunda didi, di a ku tumisa muadi, uxi : * dibunda didi, di akutu 
njimu, kioua ki di jitule. 421 Eme ngaxala kunu; kl ngitena liia 
kuia/ Muene, muadi, ua ng' ambela, uxi : ' dibunda didi, ki di bane 
na Uoua ua kota ; k'u di tangele o pange jd.' " Kamoso katubuka. 

Uai dingi mui 422 Uoua uamukui; ua mu jikuila. Kamoso uxi: 
"Dibunda didi, muadi uxi, f dibunda, di akutu njimu, kioua ki di 
jitule. Eie ngoho, nga ku tumikisa o dibunda; pange jd k'u a 
tangele-diu. Eme ngaxala hanji.' " Kamoso katubuk'd. 

The Four Uauas. iai 

In the morning, he starts. He arrives at his parents-in-law's j 412 
he hands the cows. They accept. The bridegroom says : " I give 
you four days. The fifth day I shall come to fetch the brides/' 
They cook him a mother of goat. He slept. 

Morning comes ; he returns to his home. He slept four days. 
The fifth day having come, the man took the companions. 414 They 
go to fetch the brides; they arrive. They spent the day. They 
cooked them a goat and mush. The evening came ; they gave them 
the brides. 

They come with them. They introduce them into their houses. 
The eldest has her house ; the younger has her house ; the third has 
her house; the youngest has her house. They kill them a goat. 
They eat in the houses of brideship. The two days are over. The 
band of the companions scatters. 416 

The man will not come into the houses of the brides. All days he 
is sleeping in the house of bachelorship. One day his father scolded 
him, saying: "Thou, na Nzud, the girls strangers, since thou hast 
brought them home, in their houses thou refusest to enter, why ? " He 
jreplied to his father, saying : " Father, shame has held me, because 
since I brought them home, they not yet ate nice food. To-monow 
I will go to the bush to hunt ; perhaps I may there kill a deer for 
them to eat." He slept. 

When shone the morning, he took up his gun, and his knife, and 
his dog, and his boy. He says : " Let us go to hunt." They start ; 
they arrive in bush. They builci a hut ; they get in. They sleep. 

Morning shines. Na Nzud goes to set traps for rats. He comes 
away; comes to his hut. He slept. They went to look at the 
traps. They loosened the rats ; forty rats. They return to the 

Na Nzud tells his boy, saying: "Cut green leaves." The boy 
cuts leaves. He says : " Bind four bundles of the rats." He says : 
" Boy, I will send thee directly home. Thou shalt arrive at night ; 
do not arrive by day. These four bundles, carry them to my wives." 
The boy went. He begins with Uoua the eldest. He enters into 
the house, says: "This bundle (is) that which the master sends 
thee, saying, 'the bundle, which the wise bound, let a fool 420 untie 
it. 421 I remain here, I cannot yet go/ He, the master, told me, 
saying, ' this bundle, go, give it na Uoua the eldest ; do not men- 
tion it to her sisters.' " The boy went out. 

He went again to Uoua the second ; she opened to him. The 
boy said: "The bundle here, master says, 'the bundle, which the 
wise bound, let a fool untie it. Thou alone, I sent thee the 
bundle ; thy sisters, do not mention it to them. I still remain.' " 
The boy went out 

122 Folk- Tales of Angola. 

Uai dingi mu& Uoua ua katatu; ua mu jikuila. Uabokona: 
* Muadi uxi : 4 dibunda di akutu njimu, kioua kA di jitule. Dibunda 
didi, eie ngoho nga ku tumikisa-diu ; pange ji k'u a tangele-diu/ " 
Kamoso katubuk'd. 

Uai dingi mu4 Uoua ua kasule; ua mu jikuila. Kamoso kexi: 
"Muadi uxi: * dibunda didi, eie ngoho nga ku tumikisa-diu. Di- 
bunda, di akutu njimu, kioua kk di jitule/ " Kamoso kexi : "Ngala 
mu i* ami kid. Mungu k'u ngi tange ku pange )L" 

Kamoso kai' 6 ni usuku. Uabiiila kui, ngana i6 mu mbole. 
Ngana ifi u mu ibula : " Uabange ki nga ku tumu ? " Kamoso kexi : 
" Kiene ki ngabange." 

Ahatu ku bata, a a tumikisa mabunda, Uoua uadianga uabake o 
dibunda mu kaxa. Uoua ua kaiadi ua di bake mu kaxa, Uoua ua 
katatu ue ua di bake mu kaxa. Uoua ua kauana uxingeneka, uxi : 
"Dibunda, di a ngi tumikisa, uxi ( kh di jitule,' erne ngi di jitula ni 
ngitale kioso kiala-mu." 

Ua di jitula ; utala jipuku, jala-mu. Ua ji kubula ; ua ji kulula. 
Ua ji te mVmbia ; ua ji lambe. Ua ji niange ku musoma ; uosomeka 
mu hongo, Ua di xib'6. Akal'& ku iziia, kuinii dia kizua. 

Na Nzud, uendele mu mbole, ueza ; iii m'o'nzo ia Uoua ua kota, 
uxi : " Beka dibunda, di nga ku tumikisa." Ujikula mu kaxa ; uno- 
raona dibunda ; u di sangununa. Fuku jabolo jo so ; jakituka mandui. 

Diiala uatubuk'6; uai mui Uoua ua kaiadi: "Beka dibunda, di 
nga ku tumikisa/' Muhatu ujikula mu kaxa; u di nomona; u di 
sangununa. Muala mandui oso. 

Diiala uatubuk'6; uai mui Uoua ua katatu. Uxi: "Beka di- 
bunda, dinga ku tumikisa." Muhatu ujikula mu kaxa; unomona 
dibunda ; u di sangununa. Muala mandui ngoho. 

Diiala uatubuka; uai mui Uoua ua kasule. "Beka dibunda, di 
nga ku tumikisa." Muhatu ubalumuka ; unomona musoma mu 
hongo. O jipuku jakukuta. 

Diiala uolela. Utubuka bu kanga ; uixana o mundu u* akua- 
sanzala. Uxi : " Enu, jingana, eme ng€le mu mbole. Ngakutu ma- 
bunda auana ; nga a tumikisa ahetu, ngixi ' dibunda di akutu njiiqu, 
kioua ki di jitule/ Eme ngabange kuinii dia kiziia mu iangu. Lelu 
ngeza ku bata, ngixi ' enu, ahetu, bekenu mabunda, u nga mi tumi- 
kisa/ Anomona mabunda; a makota atatu abolo; o dibunda dia 
kauana, dia kasule, diakukuta. Jipuku jfi jiji. Makota atatu maioua; 
k'adimuka. Ngisakana o kasule." Makota atatu ai'i. 

The Four Uouas. 123 

He went again to Uoua the third ; she opened to him. He en- 
tered: " Master says, 'the bundle, that the wise bound, let a fool 
untie it Thou only, I send thee this bundle ; thy sisters, do not 
mention it to them.' " The bey went out. 

He went further to Uoua the youngest; she opened to him. 
The boy said : u Master says, ' this bundle, thou only I sent it to 
thee ; thy sisters, do not mention it to them. The bundle, which 
the wise bound, let a fool untie it' " The boy says : " I am going 
now. To-morrow do not mention me to thy sisters." 

The boy went in the night. He arrived at his master's in the 
bush. His master asks him : " Didst thou do as I ordered thee ? " 
The boy says : " I did do so." 

The women at home, to whom the bundles were sent, Uoua the 
first kept the bundle in the box. Uoua the second kept it in the 
box. Uoua the third also, she kept it in the box. Uoua the fourth 
thought, saying: "The bundle, that he sent me, saying, 'let her 
open it/ I will open it, that I see what is in it." 

She opened it ; she sees the rats, that are in. She cleans them 
out ; she shaves them. She puts them in pot ; she cooks them. 
She sticks them on a spit ; she sticks it in roof. She kept quiet. 
They live on some days ; ten days* 

Na NzuA, who had gone hunting, comes ; he is in the house of 
Uoua the eldest, saying : u Bring the bundle that I sent thee." She 
opens the box ; takes out the bundle ; she unties it. The rats are 
all rotten ; they have become maggots. 

The man goes out ; he goes to Uoua the second : " Bring the 
bundle that I sent thee." The woman opens the box ; she takes it 
out ; she unties it. In it are all maggots. 

The man goes out ; goes to Uoua the third. Says : " Bring the 
bundle that I sent thee." The woman opens the box; she takes 
out the bundle ; she unties it In it are maggots only. 

The man goes out ; goes to Uoua the youngest : " Bring the 
bundle that I sent thee." The woman stands up; she takes off 
the spit from the roof. The rats are dried. 

The man laughs. He goes outside; he calls the crowd of the 
people of the village. He says : " You, gentlemen, I went a-hunt- 
ing. I tied four bundles ; I sent them to my wives, saying ' the 
bundle which the wise tied, let the fool untie it' I made ten days 
in the bush. To-day I have come home, saying, 'you, wives, bring 
the bundles, that I sent you/ They take out the bundles ; those of 
the elder three are rotten ; the bundle of the fourth, of the youngest, 
is dried. Her rats are these. The elder three are fools ; they are 
not intelligent. I will marry the youngest." The elder three went 

1 24 Folk - Tales of Angola. 

Kiabekesa o kuila: "Kota ni ndenge k'asakana diiala dimoxi." 
Mukonda o kasule uatambuile makot' e o diiala, mu konda dia 
unjimu u£. 

Bu tua u ivila, Mahezu. 


Ngana KamuambatA ni ngana Kamuarnbeld ^ akutu o uenji ud; 42 * 
aluia mu Luanda mu ta uenji, ni ngamba ]L 

Ate o uenji mu 'xi ia Luanda; akuta o mihamba; azangula. Ai'4 
kat6 bu 'Ifuangondo. 425 Kuala ngana Kamuambeld: "Kupatele, 
tui'etu kid." Uixi : " Ngdzekedi ami kid." Anange. Atula mu 
ngoloxi : u Kiebi ? Kupatele, uanange kiebi ? " Uixi : " Ngana- 
ngiami." Azek' ft. 

Utula mu 'amenemene : "Tui'etu, kupatele kuami." Uxi: "Ngi- 
tenami kuenda," Kuala kupatele ku& : "Tunange etu. Enu, 
jingamba, ndenuenu ku bata. Ki mudbixila ku bata, dtangedienu 
adiakimi ku Mbaka muixi : ' O ngana Kamuambatft ualukata. Tua a 
xisa bu 'Ifuangondo, ni ngana Kamuambelft ni ngana Kamuambatft. 
Ngana Kamuambatft ualokata ; mukuft uaxala, u mu talela, kat6 ki 
bua o uhaxi.' " O ngamba jai' ft. Ene, axala ku dima, anange ft; 
azek' ft. 

Kutula mu 'amenemene, kuala ngana Kamuambelft uixi : " Kamba 
diami, o uhaxi uavulu. Za ngu ku ambate, tui'etu." " K'a ng' amba^ 
tami." "Makutu m6." Uixi: "Moso, kidi ngazuela. Erne, k'a 
ng' ambatami." Uixi : " Ngu ku ambata muene ; ngalu ku ambel'6 ! " 
Uixi : " Erne, k'a ng' ambatami-ze ; kijila-ze 426 kia muiji uami." 

Uixi: "Makutu m6; erne ngu ku ambata muene." Ua mu te ku 
dima. Akatuka . . . kat6 mu Nzenza mud Palma. 427 "Moso, 
tuluka ! " " Ngitulukami. Ngakexile mu ku ambel'6 : * erne, k'a 
ng' ambatami.' O kiziia kia lelu, ua ng' ambata, ngitenami kutu- 
luka." Uazeka n'6 ku dikunda, kat6 kuma kuaki. Azangula. 

Kutula mu njila, ngana Kamuambelft uamesena kunena, uixi: 
"Moso 6, tuluka, nginene." "Erne, nga ku ambelele kid; erne, k'a 
ng' ambatami, O kiztia kia lelu, uala ku ng' ambata, ngitenami 
kutuluka." Ngana Kamuambelft uanena uemana. 

Akatuka . . . kat£ mu Jipulungu. 428 Kuala ngana Kamuambelft : 
"Tuluka, moso, nginioke." 429 Uixi: "Kamba diami, ngitulukami 

Mr Carry-me-not and Mr. Tellme-noL 125 

This brought about the saying : " Elder and younger shall not 
marry one man." Because the youngest took from her elder the 
man, because of her shrewdness. 

Thus far we heard it. Finished. 



Mr. Carry-me-not and Mr. Tell-me-not 428 bound their merchan- 
dise; 424 they are going to Loanda to make trade, with their carriers. 
They made trade in the city of Loanda ; they bind their baskets ; 
they lift (them). They go as far as Kifuangondo. 426 Then Mr. 
Tell-me-not : " Friend, let us go now ! " Says : " Let me sleep 
first ! " They rest. They reach the evening : * How ? friend, thou 
hast rested how ? " Says : " I rested not." They sleep. 

(He) arrives in morning : " Let us go, friend ! " Says : " I cannot 
walk." Then his friend : " Let us rest. You, carriers, go ye home. 
When you reach home, tell them, the old people at Ambaca, saying : 
'Mr. Carry-me-not is sick. We left them at Kifuangondo, both 
Mr. Tell-me-not and Mr. Carry-me-not. Mr. Carry-me-not is sick ; 
the other remained, to look after him, until the sickness is over.' " 
The carriers have gone. They, who stayed behind, spend the day ; 
they sleep. 

Arriving in the morning, then Mr. Tell-me-not says : " My friend* 
the sickness is much. Let me carry thee that we may go." " They 
do not carry me." " Lies thine." Says : " Friend, I spoke the 
truth. I, they do not carry me." (The other) says : " I will carry 
thee indeed ; I am telling thee so ! " He says : " I, they do not 
carry me at all ; it is a law 426 of my family." 

(The first) says : " Thy lies ! I will carry thee anyhow." He puts 
him on (his) back. They start ... as far as on Bengo River at 
Palma's. 427 " Friend, get down ! " "I shall not get down. I have 
been telling thee : ' I, they carry me not/ The day of to-day, thou 
hast carried me, I cannot get down." He sleeps with him on (his) 
back until day breaks. They set out. 

Halting on the road, Mr. Tell-me-not wants to do something, says : 
" Friend, get down, that I may do something." " I have told thee 
already ; me, they carry me not. The day of to-day, thou art carry- 
ing me ; I can no more get down." Mr. Tell-me-not did it standing. 

They start ... as far as Pulungo. 428 Then Mr. Tell-me-not : 
" Get down, friend, that I may rest." He says : " My friend, I shall 
not get down any more." 

126 Folk-Tales of Angola. 

Ngana Kamuambeld k'adi& kima, k'anug menia. Ngana Kamua- 
mbati k'anud menial, k'adie kudia. Akatuka. Atula mu njila; 
ngana KamuambelS, ua di bala boxi. Pai \k atumisa o uanda. A a 
longo mu uanda, . . . kate ku bata. O ngana KamuambelS, o ngana 
KamuambatS, abange nake dieziia. 430 Ngana Kamuambeld uafu, 
ngana Kamuambatd uafu. Mukud, ngana Kamuambat&, uafile ku 
dikunda dia mukul A a funda, mutu mu mbila i6, mutu mu mbila 

Ki kuxalela, k' o lo dia mundu, o mutu uevua ki azuela mukud : 
' Eie, moso, kienieki k'u ki bange; ki ku bekcla maka," ki uixi "ki 
ki& ngi bangami kima," uele. 

K* o lo dia mundu, mutu uevua muku& ; eie \x6 uevua muku'enu 
ki azuela. Eie, k'uvu6 mutu, u kiama kia muxitu ; umona ng<S i ku 
dia, i ku tanga k'u i mon^ 431 

Kiebi? ngana jami ja ahetu. Eme ngateletele ngana Kamua- 
mbatd, o kamusoso kc\ La kauaba, la kaiiba, ngana jami ja mala, 

Mahezu . . . " ma Nzambi." 


Tuateletele Mutelembe ni Ngunga. 482 

Mala aiadi, kota ni ndenge, exi : " Tuie mu mbole." O ndenge, 
muene uala ni jimbua j£ jiiadi ; o ifii jina dig Mutelembe, o ifii jina 
di£ Ngunga. Akutuka; abixila mu mbole. Atungu fundu; abo- 
kona; akal'&. 

Ndenge iala mu loza © jlxitu, o dikota kana. Abange mbeji, 
ndenge uxi : " Kota tui' etu kid ku bata." 

Azangula. Dikota uxingeneka uxi : " Tuejite mu mbole. Mon* a 
ndenge, muene uajiba o jixitu; eme, ngi dikota, kana. Ki ngib&ila 
ku bata, sonii ji ngi kuata." Uajiba ndenge 6. Uanomona o midia 
ia ndenge 6 ; ua i bana Mutelembe. Mutelembe ua i nuha ; ngu6. 
Ua i bana imbua iamukui, Ngunga ; ngu& Uazangula o muhamba 
Ua xitu. O jimbua j at ale ngana i& a mu jiba ; jikala mu kuimbila : 

" Ndala ia kota 
Ni Ndala ia ndenge, 
Eie mu ngongo 
Mu dia aku&. 

Mutelembe and Ngunga. 127 

Mr. Tell-me-not eats nothing, drinks no water. Mr. Carry-me-not 
drinks no water, eats no food. They start They halt on the road ; 
Mr. Tell-me-not falls on the ground. Their fathers sent a hammock. 
They put them in the hammock ... as far as home. Mr. Tell-me- 
not, Mr. Carry-me-not, they made eight days. Mr. Tell-me-not died, 
Mr. Carry-me-not died. The one, Mr. Carry-me-not, died on the back 
of the other. They buried them, (one) man in his grave, (the other) 
man in his grave. 

If there is left, on the face of earth, somebody who hears that 
another says : " Thou, friend, do not do this ; it will bring thee 
trouble," if he says " It will not do me any harm," he is wrong. 

On the face of the earth, one listens to another ; thou, too, shalt 
listen to thy companion when he speaks. Thou, who dost not listen 
to any one, art a beast of the forest ; thou shalt find only what will 
kill thee, what thee will report thou shalt not find. 

How is it, my ladies ? I have told of Mr. Carry-me-not, his story. 
Whether good, whether bad, my gentlemen, I have finished. 

The end . . . "is of God." 


We will tell of Mutelembe and Ngunga. 

Two men, elder and younger, say : " Let us go a-hunting I " The 
younger, he has his two dogs ; this one, his name (is) Mutelembe, 
this one, his name (is) Ngunga. They start ; they arrive in game- 
ground. They build a hut ; they go in ; they stay on. 

The younger is (always) shooting the game, the elder none. They 
spent a month, the younger says : "Elder, let us go home now J " 

They start. The elder thinks, saying: "We came a-hunting. 
The child, he killed the game ; I, the elder, not. When I arrive at 
home, shame will take me." He killed his younger. He took out 
the bowels of his younger; he gave them to Mutelembe. Mute- 
lembe smelled them ; he refused. He gave them to the other dog, 
Ngunga; he refused. He lifted the basket of meat. The dogs 
looked at their master (who was) killed ; they begin to sing : 

" Ndala the elder 
And Ndala the younger, 
They went into the world 
To destroy others. 

128 Folk-Tales of Angola. 


Mutelembe ni Ngunga ; 
A a texile midia ; 
Ngui ku i dia." 

Ndala ia kota uatula o muhamba ua xitu boxi; uajiba imbua 
imoxi. Uxi: "Janda ku ngi tanga ku bata, jixi 'muene uajiba 
ndenge L 9 " Uazangula muhamba ; usuluka. Imbua, i ajiba, iiii iza 
dingi ni kuimba : 

" Ndala ia kota 
Ni Ndala ia ndenge, 
Ele mu ngongo 
Mu dia akui. 

Mutelembe ni Ngunga; 
A a texile midia ; 
Ngu* ku i dia." 

Uatula dingi o muhamba ua xitu boxi ; ua ji jiba jiiadi. Uakande 
kina ; ua ji vumbika. 

Uzangula ; usuluka. Jimbua ji jiza dingi ni kuimba : 

" Ndala ia kota 
Ni Ndala ia ndenge, 
Ele 488 mu ngongo 
Mu dia akua. 

Mutelembe ni Ngunga ; 
A a texile midia ; 
Ngua ku i dia." 

Uab&ila ku mbandu a bata. Uazuata; uazangula; 484 ubokona 

A mu ibula : " Enu muendele kiiadi ; o mukuenu uebi ? " Muene 
uxi: "Ua di tele ni ixi it" Uzuba kuzuela, jimbua jabixila ; jabo- 
kona mVnzo id ngana i4; jikala mu kuimba dingi. Atu exi: 
"Ivuenu o jimbua jala mu kuimba. Eie, Ndala ia kota, ndenge 6 
uendele n'£, ua mu jiba, O jimbua j6 ja tu tangela." Adidi o 

Mutelembe and Ngunga. 129 

We praise 

Mutelembe and Ngunga, 

To whom were thrown the bowels ; 

They refused to them eat" 

Ndala the elder set down the basket of meat on ground ; he killed 
one dog. Says : " They will report me at home, saying, ' he killed 
his younger/ " He took up the basket ; he goes ahead. The dog 
that he killed, here it comes again, singing : 

" Ndala the elder 
And Ndala the younger. 
Went into the world 
To destroy others. 
We praise 

Mutelembe and Ngunga; 
They threw them the bowels 5 
They refused to them eat." 

He set down again the basket of meat on the ground ; he killed 
them both. He dug a grave ; he covered them up. 

He lifts up ; goes on. The dogs, here they come again, singing : 

" Ndala the elder 
And Ndala the younger, 
Went into the world 
To kill others. 
We praise 

Mutelembe and Ngunga ; 
They threw them the bowels ; 
They refused to them eat." 

He arrives in vicinity of the village. He dresses ; lifts up ; enters 
into the house. 

They ask him : " You went two ; thy companion, where is he ? " 
He said: "He went to his country." He finishes speaking, (and) 
the dogs arrive; they enter the house of their master; they begin 
to sing again. The people say: "Hear the dogs are singing! 
Thou, Ndala the elder, thy younger thou wentest with him, thou 
hast killed him ! His dogs, they told us ! " They wailed the mourn- 

1 30 Folk- Tales of Angola. 


Erne ngateletele na Kimanaueze, uavuala mon*£ ua diiala. Mona 
uakulu; ugza mu kitala kia kusakana. Pai k uxi: "Sakana" Muene 
uxi: "Erne nguami kuSakana muhetu boxi." Pai a uxi: "Kikala 
usakana kuebi?" Muene uxi: "Erne, kikala ngisakana mon' a 
ngana Kumbi ni Mbeji." Mundu exi: "Nanii utena kuia bulu, 
b'alamon* a ngana Kumbi ni Mbeji?" Mufcne uxi: "Eme muene 
nga mu mesena ; ha boxi, nguami kusakana-bu." 

Uasoneka mukanda ua kusakana ; u u bana Mb&mbi 485 Mb&mbi 
uxi : " Eme k! ngitena kuia bulu." Ua u bana dingi Soko. 435 Soko 
uxi : "Eme kl ngitena kuia bulu." U u bana Kikuambi. Kikuambi 
uxi: "Eme Id ngitena kuia bulu." Ua u bana Holokoko. 486 Holo- 
koko uxi : " Eme ngisukila mu kaxi ; bulu M ngitena kubifcila-bu." 
Mon' a diiala uxi : " Ngibanga kiebi ? " Ua u bake mu kaxa ; ua di 

Akua na Kumbi ni Mbeji, £ne mu kuiza mu taba o menia boxi. 
Kazundu uiza ; usanga mon* a Kimanaueze, uxi : " Na velu, 486 ngi 
bane mukanda, ngiie n'L" Muene, na velu, uxi : " Tunda baba ; ku 
alembua atu a mueniu, ala ni mababa, eie uxi ' ngiia-ku ? ' Utena 
kubiiila kiebi?" Kazundu uxi: "Na velu, eme ngasoko-ko." Ua 
mu bana mukanda, uxi: "Ha k* utena kuia-ku, n'uvutuka n% ngu 
ku bana kibetu." 

Kazundu uakatuka ; uia bu f u£i, b'£ne mu kuiza akua na Kumbi 
ni Mbeji mu taba. Uamumata o mukanda ; uakutuka mu fu&i ; ua 
di xib'6. Kitangana, akua na Kumbi ni Mbeji 6za mu taba o menia. 
Ata disanga mu fuxi ; Kazundu uabokona mu disanga, 

Atabe menia ; azangula. Ene k'ejfa kuma mu disanga mu abokona 
Dizundu. Abixila bulu ; atula masanga bu kididi ki£ ; atunda-ku. 
Kazundu uatubuka mu disanga. O m'o'nzo, mu 6ne mu baka o ma- 
sanga a menia, abaka-mu ni meza. Kazundu ualukula mukanda ; ua 
u tula ku tandu a meza. Uaii ; uabatama mu hota ia 'nzo. 

Kitangana, na Kumbi muene uiza mVnzo ia menia; utala ku 
meza: mukanda uala-ku, U u nomona; uibula, uxi: "Mukanda 
uatundu kuebi?" Exi: "Ngana, maniI. ,, Na Kumbi u u jikula; 
u u tanga. A u soneka exi: "Eme, mona a na Kimanaueze kia 

The Son of Kimanaueze. 131 



I often tell of na Kimanaueze, who begat a male child. The 
child grew up ; he came to the age of marrying. His father said : 
" Marry." He said : " I will not marry a woman of the earth." His 
father said: "Then where wilt thou marry?" He said: "I, it 
must be, (that) I marry the daughter of Lord Sun and Moon." The 
people said : "Who can go to heaven, where is the daughter of Lord 
Sun and Moon?" He said: "I indeed, I want her; if on earth, 
I will not marry here." 

He wrote a letter of marriage ; he gives it to Deer. Deer says : 
" I cannot go to heaven." He gives it again to Antelope. Ante- 
lope says : " I cannot go to heaven." He gives it to Hawk. Hawk 
says : " I cannot go to heaven." He gives it to Vulture. Vulture 
says: "I reach half way; to heaven I cannot arrive." The young 
man said : " How shall I do ? " He laid it aside in (his) box ; he 
kept quiet. 

The people at Lord Sun and Moon's used to come to get water 
on earth. Frog comes; he finds the son of Kimanaueze, says: 
"Young master, give me the letter, that I go with it." He, the 
young master, said : " Begone ; where people of life, who have wings, 
gave it up, dost thou say : ' I will go there ? ' How canst thou get 
there ? " Frog said : " Young master, I am equal to it." He gave 
him the letter, saying : " If thou canst not go there, and thou return 
with it, I will give thee a thrashing." 

Frog started ; he goes to the well, where are wont to come the 
people of Lord Sun and Moon to get water. He puts in his mouth 
the letter; he gets into the well; he keeps quiet. A while, the 
people of Lord Sun and Moon come to get water. They put a jug 
into the well ; Frog enters into the jug. 

They have got the water; they lift up. They don't know that 
Frog has entered into the jug. They arrive in heaven; they set 
down the jugs in their place ; they go thence. Frog gets out of the 
jug. In that room where they were keeping the jugs of water, they 
kept also a table. Frog spat out the letter ; he set it on the top of 
the table. He went ; he hid in the corner of the room. 

A while, Lord Sun himself comes into the room of the water ; he 
looks on the table ; a letter is on (it). He takes it, asks, saying : 
"Whence comes this letter?" They say: "Lord, we don't know." 
Lord Sun opens it ; he reads it. Who wrote it says : " I, son of 

132 Folk- Tales of Angola. 

Tumb* a Ndala, boxi, ngamesena kusakana ni mona a na Kumbi ni 
Mbeji." Na Kumbi uxingeneka, uxi ku muxima u£: "O na Kima- 
naueze u&ne boxi ; eme ngi mutu ngene bulu ; o ueza ni mukanda 
mukuahi ? " Uabake mukanda mu kaxa ; ua di xib'& 

Na Kumbi ki azuba o kutanga o mukanda, Kazundu uabokona 
mu disanga. Kitangana, menia abu mu masanga ; tuhatu tu' akua- 
kutaba azangula masanga ; atuluka boxi. Abixila bu f uxi ; ata ma- 
sanga mu menia. Kazundu uatubuka; uaii koxi a menia; uabatam'& 
Tuhatu tuazuba kutaba ; ai'd. 

Kazundu uatubuka mu menia ; uai'6 mu sanzala i& ; ua di xib'& 
Ki abange iziia ikuxi, mon' a na Kimanaueze uibula Kazundu: 
"Iar£, ku uendele ni mukanda, kiebi?" Kazundu uxi: "Ngana, 
mukanda, nga u bene ; k'avutula Ma njimbu." Mon* a na Kima- 
naueze uxi : " Ial'6, uatange makutu ; k'uele-ku." Kazundu uxi : 
" Ngana, kuene ku ngendele, uandala kumona." 

Abange iziia isamanu ; mon* a na Kimanaueze uasoneka dingi o 
mukanda ua kuibula o mukanda uatuama, uxi: "Ngatumu ku mi 
sonekena, enu na Kumbi ni Mbeji. O mukanda uami uendele ; kana 
ki mua ngi vutuila o njimbu ia kuila, 'tua ku xikina, ba, tua ku di 
tunu.' " Uazuba ku u soneka; ua u jika. Uexana Kazundu; ua 
mu ban' 4. Kazundu ukatuka ; ubixila bu f uxi. Uamumata o mu- 
kanda ; ukutuka mu menia ; uabatam'6 bu hole ia fuxi. 

Kitangana, tuhetu tu* akua- kutaba tuatuluka; abixila bu fuxi. 
Ata masanga mu menia; Kazundu uakutuka mu disanga. Azuba 
kutaba; azangula. Abandele ku uandanda, 487 u aleke Kabube. 438 
Abixila bulu; abokona mVnzo. Atula masanga; ai'd. Kazundu 
utubuka mu disanga ; ulukula mukanda. Ua u tula ku meza ; uaba- 
tama mu hota. 

Kitangana, na Kumbi ubita mVnzo ia menia. Utala ku meza : 
mukanda uala-ku. U u futununa; u u tanga. Mukanda uxi: 
" Eme, mon' a na Kimanaueze kia Tumb' a Ndala, nga ku ibuF eie, 
na Kumbi, o mukanda uami, uatuamene o kuia. Kana k'u ngi vu- 
tuila njimbu." Na Kumbi uxi : " Enu, tuhatu, muala mu ia mu taba, 
enu muala mu kuambata o mikanda ? " Tuhatu tuxi : " Etu, ngana, 
kana." Na Kumbi, pata ia mu kuata ; uabake mukanda mu kaxa. 
Usonekene mon' a na Kimanaueze, uxi : " Eie, uala mu ngi tumikisa 
o mikanda ia kusakana mon' ami, ngaxikina, ha kima eie muene, 
diiala, uiza ni dixikina di£ ; eme u£ ni ngi ku ijfe." Uazuba kuso- 
neka; uabudika mukanda. Ua u tula ku meza; uai'S. Kazundu 
utunda mu hota ; uanomona mukanda. Ua u mumata ; ubokona mu 
disanga ; ua di xib'6. 

The Son of Kimanaueze. 133 

na Kimanaueze kia Tumb* a Ndala, on earth, I want to marry with 
the daughter of Lord Sun and Moon." Lord Sun thinks, saying in 
his heart : " Na Kimanaueze lives- on earth ; I am a man that lives 
in heaven ; he who came with the letter, who is he ? " He put away 
the letter into the box ; he kept quiet. 

Lord Sun, when he finished reading the letter, Frog got into the 
jug, A while, the water is out of the jugs ; the water-girls lift the 
jugs ; they go down on earth. They arrive at the well ; they put the 
jugs in the water. Frog gets out ; goes under water ; hides himself. 
The girls have finished bailing out ; they go. 

Frog comes out of the water; he goes to his village; he keeps 
quiet. When many days had passed, the son of na Kimanaueze asks 
Frog: "O fellow, where thou wentest with the letter, how ?" Frog 
said : " Master, the letter, I delivered it ; they have not yet returned 
(an) answer." The son of na Kimanaueze said : " O man, thou 
toldest a lie ; thou didst not go there." Frog said : " Master, that 
same (place) where I went, thou shalt see." 

They spent six days ; the son of na Kimanaueze wrote again a 
letter to ask about the former letter, saying : " I wrote to you, you 
Lord Sun and (Lady) Moon. My letter went; not at all did you 
return me an answer, saying, *we accept thee,' or 'we refuse thee/" 
He finished writing it ; he closed it. He called Frog ; he gave it to 
him. Frog starts ; he arrives at the well. He takes in his mouth 
the letter ; he gets into the water ; he squats on bottom of the well. 

A while, (and) the girls, the water-carriers, come down; they 
arrive at the well. They put the jugs into the water; Frog gets 
into a jug. They finish filling ; they lift up. They go up by the 
cobweb, which Spider had woven. They arrive in heaven; they 
enter the house. They set down the jugs ; they go. Frog comes 
out of the jug ; he spits out the letter. He lays it on the table; he 
hides in the corner. 

A while, (and) Lord Sun passes through the room of the water. 
He looks on the table ; a letter is on it He uncovers it ; he reads 
it. The letter says : "I, son of na Kimanaueze kia Tumb' a Ndala, 
I ask thee, Lord Sun, (about) my letter, that went before. Not at 
all didst thou return me an answer." Lord Sun said : " You, girls, 
who always go to fetch water, (are) you always carrying letters ? " 
The girls said : " We, master, no." Lord Sun, doubt possessed him ; 
he laid the letter into the box. He writes to the son of na Kima- 
naueze, saying : " Thou, who art sending me letters about marrying 
my daughter, I agree ; on condition that thou in person, the man, 
comest with thy first-present ; that I too may know thee," He fin- 
ished writing; he folded the letter. He laid it on the table; he 
went away. Frog comes out of the corner ; he takes the letter. He 
puts it in his mouth ; he enters into the jug ; keeps quiet. 

134 Folk- Tales of Angola. 

Kitangana, menia abu mu masanga ; tuhatu tueza ; azangula ma- 
sanga. Ii ku ngoji ia Kabube ; atuluka boxi. Abixila bu fuxi ; ate 
masanga mu menia. Kazundu utubuka mu disanga ; uaii bu hole 
ia fuxi. Tuhatu tuazuba kutaba ; tuabande. Kazundu uatomboka ; 
ubixila mu sanzala id. ; ua di xib'e. 

Ngoloxi ieza, uxi : " Ng&beka kid o. mukanda." Ua u lukula ; 
ub&ila kVnzo ia mon' a na Kimanaueze. Ubaba ku dibitu ; mon' a 
na Kimanaueze uibula, uxi : " Nanii ? " Kazundu uxi : " Eme, 
Mainu dia Kazundu." Mon' a na Kimanaueze uabalumuka bu 
hama, bu azendelele, uxi: "Bokona." Kazundu ubokona; u mu 
bana mukanda ; utubuk'6. Mon' a na Kimanaueze u u futununa ; u 
u tanga. Ki a di kundu na Kumbi, kia mu uabela ; uxi : " Kazundu, 
manii kidi ki£ ki a ng' ambelele, uxi • uandala kumona ku ngendele/ w 
Ua di xib'£ ; uazekele. 

Kimenemene, uanomona makuinii-a-uana a mukuta ; uasoneka mu- 
kanda, uxi : " Enu, na Kumbi ni Mbeji, dixikina di diz' odio ; erne 
ngaxala mu kenga o kilembu. Enu koko, ngi tumikisienu o suilu ia 
kilembu." Uazuba mukanda; uexana Mainu dia Kazundu. Ueza; 
ua mu bana mukanda ni itadi, uxi : " Ambata." 

Mainu dia Kazundu uzangula ; ubixila bu fuxi. Uabokona koxi a 
fuxi ; ua di xib'e. Kitangana, tuhatu tuatuluka ; tuta masanga mu 
menia; Kazundu uabokona mu disanga. Tuhatu tuazuba kutaba; 
tuzangula. Tubandela ku uandanda; abixila m'o'nzo ia menia. 
Atula masanga; ai'a. 

Kazundu utubuka mu disanga ; uatula mukanda ku meza ni itadi. 
Uaii ; uabatama mu hota, Kitangana, na Kumbi ueza m'o'nzo ia 
menia ; usanga mukanda ku meza. Ua u nomona ni itadi ; uotange. 
Utangela muhetu S o njimbu, iatundu ku holome ; muhetu 6 uaxi- 

Na Kumbi uxi: "Uala mu kuiza ni mikanda, ki ngu mu ijfa; o 
kudia ku& ngu ku lambesa kiebi ?" O muhetu 6 uxi : "Tu ku lamba 
hgoho, ni tutula ku meza, kuene kuala mu kala o mikanda." Na 
Kumbi uxi : " Kiauaba." Ajiba mama ia sanji ; a i teleka. Ngo- 
loxi ieza ; alambe funji. Atula makudia ku meza ; ajika-ku. Kazu- 
ndu ueza ku meza ; uadi makudia. Uai'£ mu hota ; ua di xib'& 

Na Kumbi usoneka mukanda, uxi : " Eie, holome ami, dixikina, di 
ua ngi tumikisa, ngatambula. O suilu ia kilembu, u ngi bana saku 
ia itadi." Uazuba mukanda; ua u tula ku meza; uai. Kazundu 
utunda mu hota; uakatula mukanda. Uakutuka mu disanga; uaze- 

The Son of Kimanaueze. 1 35 

A while, the water is out in the jugs ; the girls come ; they lift 
the jugs. Now (they go) to the cord of Spider; they get down on 
earth. They arrive at the well ; they put the jugs into the water. 
Frog gets out of the jug ; goes to the bottom of the well. The girls 
have done filling; they go up. Frog goes ashore; he arrives in 
their village ; he keeps quiet. 

The evening come, he said : " Now I will take the letter/' He 
spat it out ; he arrived at the house of the son of na Kimanaueze. 
He knocks at the door; the son of na Kimanaueze asks, saying: 
"Who?" Frog says: "I am Mainu the Frog." The son of na 
Kimanaueze got up from bed, where he had reclined, saying : " Come 
in." Frog went in ; he delivered him the letter ; he went out. The 
son of na Kimanaueze he uncovers it ; he reads it. What Lord Sun 
announces, it pleases him ; says : " Frog, why, (it was) his truth he 
told me, saying, *thou shalt see where I went/ " He paused ; slept 
Morning, he took forty macutas ; wrote a letter, saying : " You, 
Lord Sun and Moon, the first-present is coming here ; I remain to 
seek for the wooing-present^ You there, ye send me the amount 
of the wooing-present" He finished the letter ; called Mainu the 
Frog. He came ; he gave him the letter and the money, saying : 
" Carry/ 1 

The Frog starts, he arrives at the well. He enters under the 
well; he keeps quiet A while, (and) the girls come down; they 
put the jugs in the water ; Frog enters into a jug. The girls have 
finished filling; they take up. They go up by the cobweb; they 
arrive in the room of the water. They set down the jugs ; they go. 

Frog gets out of the jug ; he puts down the letter on the table 
with the money. He went ; hid in the corner. A while, (and) Lord 
Sun comes into the room of the water ; he finds the letter on the 
table. He takes it with the money ; he reads it. He tells his wife 
the news that came from the son-in-law ; his wife assents. 

Lord Sun says : "Who is coming with the letters, I do not know 
him ; his food, how shall it be cooked ? " His wife said : " We will 
cook it anyhow, and put (it) on the table, where are usually the let- 
ters/' Lord Sun said : " Very well." They kill a mother hen ; they 
cook it. Evening comes ; they cook the mush. They set the eat- 
ables on the table ; they shut (the door). Frog comes to the table ; 
he eats the victuals. He goes to the corner ; he keeps quiet 

Lord Sun writes a letter, saying : " Thou, son-in-law (of) mine, 
the first-present, which thou hast sent me, I have received. The 
amount of the wooing-present, thou shalt give me a sack of money." 
He finished the letter ; he laid it on the table ; went. Frog came 
out of the corner ; took the letter. He entered the jug ; slept. 

136 Folk- Tales of Angola. 

Kimenemene, tuhatu tuanomona masanga; atuluka boxi. Abi- 
xila bu fuxi ; ate masanga mu menia. Kazundu uatomboka mu di- 
sanga. Tuhatu tuazuba o kutaba ; abande. 

Kazundu uatubuka mu menia ; ubixila mu sanzala id. Ubokona 
mVnzo iS ; unang'k Kumbi diaf u ; ngoloxi iatuluka ; uxi : " Ngi- 
beka kid mukanda." Uakatuka ; ubixila kVnzo ia mon' a na Kima- 
naueze. Ubaba ku dibitu ; mon' a na Kimanaueze uxi : " Nanii ? " 
Kazundu uxi : " Erne Mainu dia Kazundu." Uxi : "Bokona." Ka- 
zundu uabokona ; uabana mukanda ; uatubuk'S. Mon* a na Kima- 
naueze ufutununa mukanda ; uotange ; iu uobake. 

Uabange iziia isamanu; uatenesa o saku ia kitadi. 439 Uixana 
Kazundu ; Kazundu ueza. Mon' a na Kimanaueze uasoneka mu- 
kanda, uxi: "Enu, makou' ami, kilembu ki kiz' okio; hinu erne 
muene, ngimona o kizua kia kubenga mukaji ami." O mukanda, ua 
u bana Kazundu, ni itadi. 

Kazundu uakatuka; ubixila bu fuxi. Uabokona koxi a menia; 
uasuam'6. Kitangana, akuaJcutaba atuluka; abixila bu fuxi. Ate 
masanga mu menia; Kazundu uabokona mu disanga. Azuba ku- 
taba ; azangula. Abandele ku uandanda ua Kabube ; abixila bulu. 
Atula masanga mVnzo ia menia ; atundu-ku. Kazundu utomboka 
mu disanga; utula mukanda ku meza, ni itadi. Uaii mu hota; 

Na Kumbi uiza mVnzo ia menia ; usanga mukanda ni itadi. Ua- 
katula; uidika mukaji 6, na Mbeji, o itadi. Na Mbeji uxi: "Kia- 
uaba." Akuata seseme 440 ia ngulu ; a i jiba. Alambe kudia; atula 
ku meza; ajika-ku. Kazundu ueza mu dia; uadi. Uazuba; uabo- 
kona mu disanga ; uazekele. 

Kimenemene, akua-kutaba azangula masanga ; atuluka boxi. Abi- 
xila bu fuxi; aboteka masanga mu menia. Kazundu uatundu mu 
disanga; uasuam'6. Azuba kutaba; abanda bulu. Kazundu uato- 
mboka; ubii&la mu sanzala i*L Ubokona mVnzo ie; ua di xib'6; 

Kimenemene, utangela mon' a na Kimanaueze, uixi : " Na velu, ku 
ngendele, kilembu nga a bana ; atambula. A ngi lambela seseme ia 
ngulu ; erne ngadi. O kiki, eie muene umona o kiziia kia kuia mu 
benga." Mon' a na Kimanaueze uixi : " Kiauaba." Akal'A ; kuinii 
dia kizua ni iadi. 

Mon* a na Kimanaueze uxi : " Ngabindemena atu, aia mu ngi be- 
ngela o dibanga ; kl nga a mono. Exi, ' k! tutena kuia bulu/ O 
kiki, ngibanga kiebi, eie Kazundu ? " Kazundu uxi : * Na velu iami, 

The Son of Kimanaueze. 137 

Morning, (and) the girls take the jugs ; they go down to the earth. 
They arrive at the well ; they put the jugs into the water. Frog got 
out of the jug. The girls finished filling ; they went up. 

Frog went out from the water ; he arrived in their village. He 
enters into his house; he waits. The sun is gone; evening has 
come down ; he says : " I will now bring the letter." He started ; 
arrived at the house of the son of na Kimanaueze. He knocks at 
the door ; the son of na Kimanaueze says : " Who ? " Frog says : 
" I am Mainu the Frog." Says he : " Come in." Frog went in ; he 
gave the letter ; he went out The son of na Kimanaueze uncovers 
the letter ; he reads it ; now he sets it aside. 

He spent six days ; he has completed the sack of money. He 
called Frog ; Frog came. The son of na Kimanaueze wrote a letter, 
saying : " You, my parents-in-law, the wooing-present comes here ; 
soon I myself, I shall find a day to bring home my wife." The let- 
ter, he gave it to the Frog, with the money. 

Frog started ; he arrived at the well. He went in under water ; 
he hid. A while, (and) the water-carriers came down ; they arrived 
at the well. They put the jugs into the water; Frog entered into 
a jug. They finished filling ; they take up. They go up by the 
cobweb of Spider; they arrive in heaven. They set down the jugs 
in the room of the w^ter; they go out. Frog gets out of the jug ? 
he lays down the letter in the table with the money. He goes into 
the corner ; he hides. 

Lord Sun comes into the house of the water ; he finds the letter 
and the money. He takes them ; he shows the money to his wife, 
Lady Moon. Lady Moon* says ? "Very well." They take a young 
hog; they kill it. They have cooked the food; they set (it) down 
on table ; shut (the door). Frog came to eat ; he ate. He finished ; 
entered into the jug ; slept. 

Morning, (and) the water-carriers take up the jugs ; they get 
down on earth. They arrive at the well ; they dip the jugs into the 
water. Frog gets out of the jug ; he hides. They finish filling ; go 
up to heaven. Frog went ashore ; he arrived in their village. He 
entered his house; kept quiet; slept. 

Morning, he tells the son of na Kimanaueze, saying; "Young 
master, where I went, I gave them the wooing-present; they re- 
ceived it. They cooked me a young hog ; I ate. No^r, thou thy- 
self shalt choose the day of going to bring her home." The son 
of na Kimanaueze said : " Very well." They lived on ; ten days and 

The son of na Kimanaueze said : "T need people, to go to bring 
home the bride for me; I find them not. They say, 'we cannot 
go to heaven/ Now, how shall I do, thou, Frog?" Frog said: 

138 Folk- Tales of Angola. 

di xibe 6 ; eme ngasoko-ko, o kuia rau mu benga." Mon* a na Kima- 
naueze uixi : " Eie k'utena. Eie uatena kid kaambata mikanda ; ha 
ku mu benga, k'utena." Kazundu uxi dingi : " Na velu, di xibe 6 ; 
k'ubindame ngoho. Eme muene ngitena kuia mu benga ; k'u ngi 
tende." Mon 9 a na Kimanaueze uxi: "Ngi ku tale." Uakatula 
huta; uabana Kazundu. 

Kazundu ukatuka; ubixila bu fuxi. Ubokona mu fu*i; uabatam'S. 
Kitangana, akua-kutaba atuluka; abixila bu fuxi, Aboteka masanga; 
Kazundu uabokona. Atabe; abande bulu. Abixila mVnzo ia me- 
nia ; atula masanga ; ai'd. Kazundu utubuka mu disanga ; uasuama 
mu hota. Kumbi difua; mu ngoloxi ia usuku, Kazundu utunda 
mVnzo ia menia ; uia ni kukenga mVnzo mu azekele mon* a na 
KumbL U mu sanga, id uazeka. U mu lokola disu ; ulokola dingi 
diamukul Ua a kutu bu dilesu ; ueza mVnzo ia menia, mu hota iS. 
Uabatam'S, uazekele. 

fCimenemene, atu oso abalumuka ; mon' a na Kumbi k'atena kuba- 
lumuka. A mu ibula : " Eie k'ubalumuka ? " Uxi : " O mesu a ngi 
badikinia ; kt ngitena kutala." Pai S. ni manii & exi : " Ihi ibanga 
kiki ? Muene mazd k'a di tende." 

Na Kumbi uazangula akunji aiadi, uxi: "Ndenu ku Ngombo, 
muazambule mon' ami, uala mu kata o mesu." Akatuka ; abi&ila 
ku mukua-Ngombo. A a zalela; mukua-Ngorabo uatubula kita. 441 
Akua-kuzambula k'atumbula mahaxi; exi ngoho: "Tueza mu tu 
zambula." Mukua-Ngombo *** utala mu kita, uxi: " Mahaxi a mi 
beka ; o uala mu kata, muhetu ; o mahaxi a mu kate, mesu. Enu 
mueza, a mi tumu; k'enu mua di ijila ku muxima uenu. Mahezu 
enu." Akua-muzambu 4 * 4 exi: "Kidi, Tala kid, kioso kiabeka o 
kukata." Mukua-Ngombo utala dingi, uxi: "Muene muhetu, uala 
mu kata, kiliia asakana ; a mu mono ngoho. O ngan' £, ua mu zue- 
lesa, muene uatumikisa o uanga, uxi : ' Muhetu ami eze ; ha k'eza, 
ufua/ Enu, mueza mu taha, k& mu bekienu ku& munume 6, abu- 
luke. Mahezu enu." Akua-muzambu axikina; abalumuka. Asanga 
na Kumbi ; a mu tudila jinjimbu ja Ngombo. Na Kumbi uxi: *' Kia- 
uaba; tuzeke. Mungu a mu tulula boxi." O Kazundu, uala mu 
hota iS, iii uivua ioso, i ala mu di kunda. Azekele. 

Kimenemene, Kazundu uabokona mu disanga. Akuarkutab' eza; 
azangula masanga. Atuluka boxi; abbtila bu fu*i. Ate masanga 
mu menia ; Kazundu uatundu mu disanga. Uabatara'fi koxi a f u*L 
Akua-kutaba abande. 

The Son of Kimanaueze. 139 

" My young master, be quiet ; I am equal to it, to go and bring her 
home." The son of na Kimanaueze said : " Thou canst not. Thou 
couldst indeed carry the letters, but bring her home thou canst not" 
Frog said again : " Young master, be quiet ; be not troubled for 
naught I indeed am able to go and bring her home ; do not despise 
me." The son of na Kimanaueze said : " Let me try thee." He 
took victuals ; he gave to Frog. 

Frog starts ; he arrives at the well. He gets into the well ; he 
hides. A while, the water-carriers come down ; they arrive at the 
well. They dip in the jugs ; Frog enters. They have filled ; they 
go to heaven. They arrive in the room of the water ; they set down 
the jugs ; they go. Frog gets out of the jug ; he hides in the corner. 
The sun set ; in the evening of the night, Frog went out of the room 
of the water ; he went seeking in the room where slept the daughter 
of Lord Sun. He finds her asleep here. He takes out one of her 
eyes ; he takes out again the other. He tied them up in a handker- 
chief ; he came in the room of the water, in his corner. He hid ; 

Morning, all people got up. The daughter of Lord Sun cannot 
get up. They ask her : " Dost thou not get up ? " She says : " (My) 
eyes are closed; I cannot see." Her father and mother say: 
"What may cause this ? Yesterday, she did not complain." 

Lord Sun takes up two messengers, saying : " Go to Ngombo, to 
divine (about) my child, who is sick as to the eyes." They start; 
they arrive at the Ngombo-man's. They spread for them ; the 
Ngombo-man takes out the paraphernalia. 441 The divining people, 442 
(they) do not let know the disease ; they say only : "We have come 
to be divined." The Ngombo-man looks into the paraphernalia, 
says : " Disease has brought you ; the one who is sick is a woman ; 
the sickness that ails her, the eyes. You have come, being sent ; 
you have not come of your own will. I have spoken." The divining 
people said: "Truth. Look now what caused the ailment" The 
Ngombo-man looks again ; says : * She, the wornan, who is sick, is 
not yet married ; she is chosen only. Her master, who bespake her, 
he sent the spell, 448 saying, ' my wife, let her come ; if she does not 
come, she shall die.' You, who came to divine, go, bring her to 
her. husband, that she may escape. I have spoken." The divining 
men m assented ; th^y got up. They find Lord Sun ; they report 
him the words of Ngombo. 444 Lord Sun said: "All right Let us 
sleep; to-morrow they shall take her down to the earth." Frog 
being in his comer, he hears all that they are saying. They slept. 

(At) morning, Frog got into the jug; the water-carriers come; 
they take up the jugs. They descend to the earth ; they arrive at 
the well. They put the jugs into the water ; Frog came out of the 
jug. He hid under the well. The water-carriers went up. 

140 Folk- Tales of Angola. 

Na Kumbi uambela Kabube, uxi : " Leka uandanda ua dikota, 
kat6 boxi; manii lelu o kutulula mon' ami boxi." Kabube ualeka; 
uazuba. Ala mu nanga. 

O Kazundu uatubuka rau f uxi ; uia mu sanzala iL Usanga mon' a 
na Kimanaueze, uxi : " Na velu 6 ! dibanga di6 lelu diza." Mon* a 
na Kimanaueze uxi: "Tunda baba, ial'6! u mukua-makutu." Ka- 
zundu uxi : " Ngana, kidi kiene. Nganda ku ku bekela nfi mu ngo- 
loxi ia usuku." A di xib'&. 

Kazundu uavutuka bu fuxi; uakutuka mu menia; ua di xib'£. 
Kumbi diaf u ; mon' a na Kumbi a mu tulula boxi. A mu tula bu 
fu±i; abande L 

Kazundu utomboka mu fuxi ; uambela mon' a muhatu, uxi : " Eme 
muene ngu mukunji u6; tuie ngi ku beka kui ngan' enu." Kazu* 
ndu ua mu vutuila mesu 6; akatuka. Abokona mVnzo ia mon' a na 
Kimanaueze. Kazundu uxi : " Na velu 6 ! banga di6 didi." Mon' a 
na Kimanaueze uxi : "Tana-ku ! Mainu dia Kazundu/' 

Mon 1 a na Kimanaueze asakana 445 ni mon 1 a na Kumbi ni Mbeji; 
akal'ft. Ene oso alembuele kuia bulu ; ua ki tena, Mainu dia Ka* 

Ngateletele kamusoso kami Mahezu. 


Ngateletele kamusoso. 

Mon' a diiala u&ne ni pange j6 jiuana ja mala; tanu muene. Ua- 
muene muhatu ; ua mu benga. Dibanga diazeka iziia iuana ia 
ubanga; a di tubula. Uate imbia ia funji bu jiku ; ualambe funji; 
iabi. Uakandula ngalu ia ngan' & ; uakandula dingi ngalu ia huedi 
je jiuana. Uai mu ku a bekela. 

Huedi j6 jixi : " Ha tudia o funji i<§, tu tumbule majin' etu." O 
muhatu uxi ; " Majin* enu ki ngejfa." Exi : " Ha k'uejfa, ambata 
funji 16." Ua i zangula; ueza naiu mVnzo i6. Adi funji ia, ni 
diiala ni muhatu; azekele. 

Kimenemene, ualambe dingi o funji Uai mu ku i bekela o huedi 
jfi. Huedi j6 jixi: " Ha tudia o funji 16, tu tumbule o majin' etu." 
Muhatu uxi : " Majin' enu ki ngejfa." Exi : " Zangula funji ii" 
Uazangula ; ubokola m'o'nzo i& Adi funji il O muhatu uala mu 

A Bride and her Brother s-in-Law. 141 

Lord Sun tells Spider, saying : " Weave a large cobweb, down to 
the earth; for to-day is the taking down of my daughter to the 
earth." Spider wove ; finished. They are passing time. 

Frog got out of the well ; he goes to their village. He finds the 
son of na Kimanaueze, says : " O young master ! thy bride, to-day 
she comes/* The son of na Kimanaueze says : " Begone, man, thou 
art a liar." Frog says : " Master, truth itself. I will bring her to 
thee in the evening of the night." They kept quiet 

Frog returned to the well ; he got into the water ; he was silent 
The sim set ; the daughter of Lord Sun, they take her down to the 
earth. They leave her at the well ; they go up. 

Frog gets out of the well ; he tells the young woman, saying : " I 
myself am thy guide ; let us go that I bring thee to your master/* 
Frog returned to her her eyes ; they started. They enter the house 
of the son of na Kimanaueze. Frog says : " O young master I thy 
bride (is) here/* The son of na Kimanaueze said : " Welcome f 
Mainu the Frog." 

The son of na Kimanaueze married with the daughter of Lord 
Sun $nd (Lady) Moon ; they lived on. They all had given up going 
to heaven ; who could (do) it (was) Mainu the Frog. 

I have told my little story. Finished. 



Let me tell a little tale. 

A young man had four brothers ; the fifth (was) himself. He saw 
a girl ; he married hen The bride slept the four days of brideship ; 
they brought her out She set the pot of mush on the fire ; she 
cooked the mush ; it is done. She took out the dishful of her mas* 
ter ; she took out moreover the dishful of her four brothers-in-law. 
She went to bring (it) them. 

Her brothers-in-law said : " If we eat thy mush, tell us our names/' 
The woman said ; " Your names, I know them not" They said : 
" If thou knowest them not, take away thy mush." She took it up ; 
went with it into her house. They ate their mush, both the man 
and the woman ; they slept 

(In) morning, she cooked again the mush. She went to bring it 
to her brothers-in-law. Her brothers-in-law said: "If we eat thy 
mush, tell us our names." The woman said : u Your names, I do 
not know them/' They said : "Take up thy mush," She took up ; 

14 2 Folk- Tales of Angola. 

xingeneka : " O huedi jami jala mu di tunao funji iami. Erne muene 
kf ngejia majin* 1" Azekele. 

Kuaki; anange. Utula mu kumbi dia ngoloxi, muhatu uano- 
mona mbombo, 446 uxi: "Ngiia mu zuka." Uabixila bukinu; uate 
mbombo mu kinu ; umateka kuzuka. Kanjila katula mu muxi, uala 
bu kinu. Kanjila kala mu kuimba, kexi : 

" Ku€di zai dzi, 
K'u zi zi mazin' & ? 
Hulakana, ngu ku dmbel'e ! 

Hulakana, ngu ku ambel'£ ! 
O Tdmba Siktindu ; 
O Tiimba Siktindu Muni ! 
Hulakana, ngu ku dmbelM ! 

Hulakana, ngu ku dmbePd ! 
O Ttimba Katflu; 
O Tumba Katilu Muna" ! 
Hulakana, ngu ku drobel'^ ! 
Htilakana, nga ku ambel'd ! " « 7 

Mon* a muhatu uatakula muixi boxi; uanomona ditadi; uakaie 
kanjila, uxi: "Kala mu ngi bakela jinguzu." 448 Kanjila kai Ua- 
zuku ; mbombo iabi. 

Uazangula ; uabokona mVnzo. Uate inibia ia funji bu jiku ; iabi. 
Uakandula ngalu jiiadi ; uazangula, ubekela huedi j& Huedi j6 jixi : 
"Tu tumbule majin' etu." Uxi : " Ki ngi m'ejfa, majin' enu " Exi : 
"Ambata funji 16." Uazangula; uabokona mVnzo. Adi funji i&; 

Kimenemene, uazangula dingi o mbombo ; uab&ila bu kinu ; uate 
mbombo mu kinu. Uazangula muixi ; umateka kuzuka. Kanjila 
katula dingi, kexi : 

K'u zf zi mazin' 4? 
Hulakana, ngu ku £mbel'£ ! 

Hulakana, ngu ku dmbel'l ! 
O Tumba Siktindu; 
O Tumba Siktindu Muna! 
HUlakana, ngu ku ambel'l ! 

Hulakana, ngu ku ambel'd ! 
O Tumba Kaulu ; 

A Bride and her Br other s4n~Law. 143 

entered her house. They ate their mush. The woman is thinking : 
u My brothers-in-law keep on refusing my mush. I indeed do not 
know their names." They slept. 

It dawned ; they spent the day. Arriving at the hour of evening, 
the woman took the mbombo, 446 saying : " I will go to pound." She 
arrived at the mortar; she put the mbombo into the mortar; she 
begins to pound. A little bird alights on the tree, that is near the 
mortar. The little bird begins to sing, saying : 

" Thy brothers-in-law these, 
Thou knowest not their names ? 
Listen, I will tell thee ! 
She pounds ! 
Listen, I will tell thee ! 
(One is) Tumba Sikundu ; 
(One is) Tumba Sikundu Mun£! 
Listen, I will tell thee I 
She pounds ! 
Listen, I will tell thee ! 
(One is) Tumba Kaulu ; 
(One is) Tumba Kaulu Mund ! 
Listen, I will tell thee ! 
She pounds ! 
Listen, I have told thee ! " 4 * T 

The young woman threw the pestle on the ground ; she took a 
stone ; she chased the bird, saying : " It is making me noise." The 
little bird went. She has pounded ; the mbombo is finished. 

She takes up ; enters into the house. She set the pot of mush on 
the fire ; it is done. She takes out two dishfuls ; she takes (it) up, 
brings (it) to her brothers-in-law. Her brothers-in-law say : " Tell 
us our names." She says : " I know (them) not, your names." They 
say : " Take (away) thy mush." She took it up ; she entered the 
house. They ate their mush ; they slept. 

Morning, she took up again the mbombo; she arrived at the 
mortar ; she put the mbombo into the mortar. She has taken up 
the pestle ; she begins to pound. The little bird alights again, say- 

" Thy brothers-in-law these, 

Thou knowest not their names ? 

Listen, I will tell thee ! 

She pounds ! 

Listen, I will tell thee! 

(One is) Tumba Sikundu; 

(One is) Tumba Sikundu Mund ! 

Listen, I will tell thee ! 

She pounds ! 

Listen, I will tell thee! 

(One is) Tumba Kaulu ; 

144 Folk- Tales of Angola. 

O Ttimba Kaulu Muna! 

Htilakana, ngu ku ambel'd ! 


Htilakana, nga ku ambel'£ ! " 

Muhatu ua ka kaie. Ki azuba o kukaia, uxingeneka ki ala mu 
kuimba o kanjila. Uxi: "Kala mu ngi tangela o majin' a buedi 
jiami ; o kiki ngatukumuka I " Uazuku ; mbombo iabi. 

U€za mVnzo; uate funji bu jiku. Ua i lambe; iabi. Uaka- 
ndula ; uia mu ku a bekela. Exi : " Ha tudia funji i£, tu tumbule 
majin' etu." Muhatu uxi: "O iii, Tumba Sikundu; o id, Tumba 
Sikundu Muni; o iii, Tumba Kaulu; o hi Tumba Kaulu Muni." 
Huedi j£ jolela; atambula o funji i£; adi. Muene ueza m'o'nzo ifi; 
akal% ni ngan'4. 

O mon' a diiala uasakenene o mtjhatu S. O diiala uakexile ni pange 
jiuana. O muhatu, ua mu sakenane, k'ejidile raajin'&. Ki eie mu 
zuka, kanjila ka mu tangelele majina a huedi jS. 

Ngateletele kamusoso kami. Mabem 


O jihoji mu ngongo jatunga. Muvu umoxi, nzala ieza mu ngo- 
ngo. 449 Kana kuma ku adia. 

O jihoji jixi; "Tubanga kiebi? O nzala iavulu. O mutu u&ne 
ni jingombe j& Tuia-ku kuebi? Buala dikanga ria fundu* 50 imoxi 
ng<5." Azangula ; abixila mu kanga. 

O munzangala ua hoji ia muhatu uakituka mutu, A mu zuika 
kiambote ; a mu tokola kiambote. A mu bana jindunge, exi: "Ubita 
bu sanzala ia iund, uala ni jingombe javulu; muene, jina die ngana 
Kimona-ngombe kia na Mbua. 461 Eie, ki ubita-bu, uimba kiki: 
' Ngala mu ia kui pange ami, uatunga kuku/ O ngana Kimona- 
ngombe kia na Mbua, muene, ki a ku rnona, ua ku zuelesa pala ku 
ku sakana. O ki anda ku ku sakana, eie u mu jiba ; etu tukuate o 
jingombe pala kudia." 

O munzangala ua hoji iataia. Uakutuka kid mu ajila. Uabixila 
bu kanga dia Kimona-ngombe ; u mu sanga uaxikama bu muelu ua 

The Lions and Kimona-ngombe^ 145 

(One is) Tumba Kaulu Mund ! 
Listen, I will tell thee ! 
She pounds ! 
Listen, I have told thee ! " 

The woman chased it. When she had chased, she thinks what 
the little bird is always singing. She says : " It was telling me the 
names of my brothers-in-law ; now I perceive ! n She has pounded ; 
the mbombo is finished. 

She came into the house; she put the mush on the fire. She 
cooked it ; it is done. She took out ; went to bring them. They 
said : " If we shall eat thy mush, tell us our names." The woman 
said: "This one (is) Tumba Sikundu; this one, Tumba Sikundu 
Mund; this one, Tumba Kaulu; this one, Tumba Kaula Muni." 
Her brothers-in-law laughed ; they accepted their mush ; ate. She 
came to her house ; they lived on, with her master. 

A young man married his wife. The man had four brothers. 
The woman, whom he had married, knew not their names. When 
she went to pound, a little bird told her the names of her brothers- 

I have told my little tale. Finished. 


The lions in the land settled. One year, famine came in the 
world. 449 There was no place (where) to eat. 

The lions said : " How shall we do ? Hunger is great. Man has 
always his cattle. How shall we get there ? It is the distance of 
one camp 450 only." They start ; arrive in outskirts. 

A youth of a she-lion turned into a human being. They dressed 
her finely ; they trimmed her hair nicely. They give her instruc- 
tions, saying : " Thou shalt pass through the village of him who 
has many cattle ; his name is ngana Kimona-ngombe kia na Mbua. 461 
Thou, when thou shalt pass, shalt say this: 'I am going to my 
brother, who lives yonder.' Ngana Kimona-ngombe kia na Mbua, 
he, when he will see thee, he will talk to thee, to marry thee. When 
he will thee marry, thou shalt kill him, that we may catch the cattle 
to eat." 

The young lioness assented. She took at once the road. She 
arrives outside of Kimona-ngombe's ; she finds him seated on the 
threshold of the house. 

146 Folk- Tales of Angola. 

Muene ua mu ibudixile : " Eie, u mon' a muhatu, uala mu ia 
kuebi?" O muhatu uavutuila, uxi: "Ngala mu ia mu menekena 
pange ami. Ngabuila ; a ngi bane tumenia, nginue." A mu bana. 
O ngana Kimona-ngombe ua mu ibudisa dingi, uxi: "Eie, mon' a 
muhatu, uasakana kid?" O muene uxi: "Kihia ngisakana." Ua 
mu tesele maka ; o muhatu uaxikina. Uxi : " Ngiie hanji ku bata, 
ng&tangele adi ami. Ngiza mu iziia iiadi." 

Uabi£ila ku bata dill; uatangela akuct, kuma: "Kimona-ngombe 
ua ngi zuelesa ku ngi sakana." Aku£ exi : "Kiauaba." O muhatu 
uazeka iziia iiadi; 16 uavutuka ku diiala; ua mu sange. A mu 
jibila hombo ; uadi. A mu tungila o'nzo ; uabokona. 

O diiala, ngana Kimona-ngombe, uxi : " Ngiia mu zeka mWnzo ia 
dibanga." O mon* £, a mu vuala ni na mvuale, jina di£ Ndala ja 
Kimona-ngombe kia na Mbua, mon* a ndenge hanji, uanienganana pai 
&, uxi : " Ng&zeka ni papaii." Kuala manii & uxi : " O pai enu uala 
uiu ia mu zeka mVnzo ia dibanga ; eie, tuzeke n'eme." ** O mona 
nguaie ; uala mu didila pai L Pai & uatikina : " O mona ua ngi 
nienganana ; ngiia n'£." m 

Abixila mVnzo ia dibanga ; axikama bu hama. O dibanga uxi : 
"O mbanza ueza ni mona." O mbanza uxi; "O mon' ami ua ngi 
nienganana ; nguS kuxala kuA manii &." Azeka. O diiala uazeka 
ni mon* & boxi. 464 

Abixila mu kaxi ka usuku. O muhatu ubalumuka bu hama ; uaki- 
tuka hoji ; uamesena kukuata o diiala. O mona, uazeka ku ema dia 
diiala, ua mu mono. Uabalumuna pai &, uxi : " Papaii, boxi bala mu 
lumata." Pai A uabalumuka. O hoji iakituka muhatu. 

Kuma kuaki. Anange dikumbi. Ngoloxi iamukuS, ieza. Diiala 
ni mon* 6 eza mu zeka. O muhatu uxi : " Mbanza, o mona ua ku 
balumuine kid mu usuku ; palahi ueza n'S dingi ? " O mbanza ua 
mu ambela, uxi : " Mon' ami ua ngi nienganana." Azeka. 

O muhatu uiva k'o'xi iA, ku atundu, ala mu mu ixana : " Eie uaia 
mu dia Kimona-ngombe kia na Mbua, k'uiz'd ? " O muhatu ha utaia, 

'* Hombo ia Kimona-ngombe iazeka ; 
Mubika ua Kimona-ngombe uazeka ; 
Sanji ia Kimona-ngombe iazeka ; 
Ngulu ia Kimona-ngombe iazeka; 
Mbudi ia Kimona-ngombe iazeka; 
Muene Kimona-ngombe uazeka ; 

The Lions and Kimona-ngombe. 147 

He asked her: "Thou, young woman, art going where?" The 
woman replied, saying: "I am going to visit my brother. I am 
tired ; let them give me a little water, that I may drink." They 
give her. Ngana Kimona-ngombe asks her again, saying : * Thou, 
young woman, art thou married already?" She says: "Not yet 
(am) I married." He made her proposal; the woman accepted. 
She says : " Let me go home first, that I tell my parents. I shall 
come in two days." 

She arrived at their home ; she told the others, saying: u Kimona- 
ngombe has talked to me, to marry me." The others say : "That is 
good." The woman slept two days ; then she returned to the man ; 
she found him. They killed for her a goat; she ate. They built 
her a house ; she entered. 

The man, ngana Kimona-ngombe, says : " I will go to sleep in 
the house of the bride." His son, begotten with the head-wife, his 
name (is) Ndala ja Kimona-ngombe kia na Mbua, a child yet, hangs 
on to his father, saying : " I will sleep with papa." Then his mother 
says : "Thy father is going to sleep in the house of the bride ; thou, 
let us sleep with me.!' ^ 2 The child will not ; he is crying after his 
father. His father consents: "The child is hanging on to me; X 
will go with him." m 

They arrive in the house of the bride ; they sit on the bed. The 
bride says: "The chief has come with a child." The chief said.: 
"My child was hanging on to me; he would not stay with his 
mother." They lie down. The man lies down with his son, on the 
ground. 45 * 

They arrive in middle of night. The woman gets up on bed ; 
she turns a lioness ; she wants to catch the man. The son, who is 
lying behind the man, he sees her. He rouses his father, saying : 
"Father, on the ground, it is biting." His father got up. The 
lioness turned a woman. 

Day shone. They spent the day. Another evening is come. 
The man and his son come to sleep. The woman says: "O chief, 
the child has aroused thee already in the night ; why dost thou 
come with him again ? " The chief speaks to her, saying : " My 
son was hanging on. to me." They sleep. 

The woman hears in her country, whence she came, (how) they 
are calling her : " Thou, who wentest to kill Kimona-ngombe kia na 
Mbua, art thou not coming ? " The woman then answers, saying : 

u The goat of Kimona-ngombe is asleep ; 
The slave of Kimona-ngombe is asleep; 
The hen of Kimona-ngombe is asleep ; 
The pig of Kimona-ngombe is asleep ; 
The sheep of Kimona-ngombe is asleep ; 
Himself Kimona-ngombe is asleep ; 

148 Folk- Tales of Angola. 

Ndala ja Kimona-ngombe k'Sne kilu mu polo, pdti ! 
Ndala ja Kimona-ngombe k'Sne kilu mu polo, priri ! " 

O muhatu, ki embila kiki, uakituka hoji; uamesena kukuata o 

O mona uazeka ku eraa dia diiala, u mu balumuna, uxi : " Papaii, 
balumuka, boxi bala mu lumata." O pai & u mu vutuila: "Inzo 
ia ube ; ihi ilumata boxi ? " O mona uxi : " Boxi bala mbanze ni 
mandu." O pai & ua mu vutuila dingi : " Eie, mona, uala ni ma- 
kutu ; erne ki ngala mu kuiva." m Azeka dingi katangana kofele. 

O muhatu uivua akud, ala mu mu ixana 2 " Uaia mu dia Kimona- 
ngombe kia na Mbua, k'uiz'd ? " O muene utambujila, uxi : 

" O hombo ia Kimona-ngombe iazeka; 
O mubika ua Kimona-ngombe uazeka 
O sanji ia Kimona-ngombe iazeka; 
O mbudi ia Kimona-ngombe iazeka ; 
O ngulu ia Kimona-ngombe iazeka ; 
O muene Kimona-ngombe uazeka; 
O Ndala ja Kimona-ngombe k'£ne kilu mu polo, pdd ! 
O Ndala ja Kimona-ngombe k'ene kilu mu polo, piiu ! n 

O Ndala uabalumuka ku ema dia pai & uxi : " Papaii, balumuka I 
mu o'nzo muala kiama ! " O pai &, njinda ja mu kuata, uxi : " Tuie, 
nga ku beka kid manii enu. Ua ngi fidisa 456 o kilu," 

Atubuka bu kanga mu kaxi ka usuku. O mona ha uambela 
pai k bu kanga, uxi : " O muhatu 6 uala mu kituka kiama." O pai 4 
uakuata jipata, uxi : " Mon* ami, uazuela makutu." O mona uxi : 
"Kidi muene, papaii. Tuvutuke mVnzo; eie uazeka makutu, u 
mu tale." Avutuka; azeka. 

O muhatu uxi : " O mona, uendele kid mu mu beka kud manii 4, 
palahi uvutuka dingi ? " O diiala uxi : u Mona ngu&" Azeka. O 
diiala ua di futu o mulele mu mutue ; uala mu tala* 

O muhatu uivua id a mu ixana kVxi i&, exi : " Uaia mu dia 
Kimona-ngombe kia na Mbua, k'uiz'd ? " Muene utambujila, uxi : 

" O hombo ia Kimona-ngombe iazeka ; 
O mubika ua Kimona-ngombe uazeka ; 
O sanji ia Kimona-ngombe iazeka; 
O ngulu ia Kimona-ngombe iazeka ; 
O mbudi ia Kimona-ngombe iazeka; 
O muene Kimona-ngombe uazeka makutu ; 
O Ndala ja Kimona-ngombe k'ene kilu mu polo, plM 1 " 

The Lions and Kimona-ngombe. 149 

Ndala ja Kimona-ngombe has no sleep on face, pooh ! 
Ndala ja Kimona-ngombe has no sleep on face, pooh 1 " 

The woman, after singing this, turned a lioness ; she wanted to 
catch the man. 

The son, who was lying behind the man, rouses him, saying : 
"Father, arise, on the ground, it is biting." His father replies: 
" The house is new ; what (can) bite on the ground ? " The son 
says: "On the ground are roaches and maggots." His father 
answers him again: "Thou, child, hast lies; I am not listening" 455 
They sleep again a little while. 

The woman hears the others, who are calling her : "Thou who 
wentest to kill, Kimona-ngombe kia na Mbua, art thou not coming ? " 
She then responds, saying : 

" The goat of Kimona-ngombe is asleep; 
The slave of Kimona-ngombe is asleep ; 
The hen of Kimona-ngombe is asleep ; 
The sheep of Kimona-ngombe is asleep; 
The pig of Kimona-ngombe is asleep ; 
Himself Kimona-ngombe is asleep ; 
Ndala ja Kimona-ngombe has no sleep on face, pooh ! 
Ndala ja Kimona-ngombe has no sleep on face, pooh ! " 

Ndala stood up behind his father, saying: "Father, get up! in 
house there is a wild beast" His father, anger possessed him, he 
said : " Let us go, that I bring thee to thy mother. Thou disturbest 
my sleep." 

They get outside in midst of night The son then tells his father 
outside, saying: "Thy wife has been turning a wild beast" His 
father has doubts, says : " My son, thou tellest lies." The son says • 
"Truth itself, father. Let us return into the house; thou shalt 
sleep falsely, to see her." They return ; lie down. 

The wife says : " The child, thou wentest already to bring him to 
his mother, why does he return again?" The man says: "The 
child would not (stay)." They lie down. The man covers himself 
with the cloth on head ; he is looking. 

The woman hears them who call her in her country, saying: 
" Thou, who wentest to kill Kimona-ngombe kia na Mbua, art thou 
not coming ? " She answered, saying : 

" The goat of Kimona-ngombe is asleep ; 
The slave of Kimona-ngombe is asleep ; 
The hen of Kimona-ngombe is asleep ; 
The pig of Kimona-ngombe is asleep 5 
The sheep of Kimona-ngombe is asleep ; 
Himself Kimona-ngombe is asleep, falsely ; 
(But) Ndala ja Kimona-ngombe has no sleep on face, pooh ! " 

150 Folk* Tales of Angola. 

O muhatu ha ukituka hoji ; uamesena kukuata o diiala. Kimona* 
ngombe ua mu mono ; uaxikina ki azuela Ndala : " Ndala uazuela 
kidi." Uabalumuka m* usuku, uxi : " Mon* ami, tuie, ngi ku beka 
kui manii enu ! " Atubuka bu kanga. O Ndala a mu bokuesa 
mVnzo ia manii &. O ngana Kimona-ngombe uambela o sanzala 
ifi n* abik* 6 m* usuku ueniii, uxi : " Zenu, mute inzo mu tubia, O mu- 
hatu, nga mu sakana kindaula, uala mu kituka hoji." Akondoluesa o 
inzo ioso mu tubia, Muhatu uajokotela mVnzo. Kuma kuaki, 

Kiaxalela kala kiki: "O kuvuala kidi." 467 O ngana Kimona* 
ngombe, muhatu uejile ku mu jiba ; o mon* 6, Ndala, muene ua mu 
bele o mueniu. 



Ngateletele Musudi a Tumba, uasudile matemu £, uxi; "Ngiia 
ku a sumbisa." 

Uakatuka ; ubixila bu sanzala. Uasange a-Mulombe m a Nganzu, 
uxi; "Sumbenu matemu!*' A-Mulombe a Nganzu gxi: "Tu 
xile-u; 46 * hinu utakana o sela. Tuia mu dia o jingoma; eie uiza 
bu mbeji ia katatu." Musudi uaxikina ; ua a bana matemu ene oso. 

Uai'6 ku bata di& Uabange jimbeji ; ubiiila bu mbeji ia katatu, 
Uxi ; ** Iene o mbeji, i a ngi bele a-Mulombe a Nganzu. Ngiia kid 
mu takana sela iami" Uakatuka ; ubixila bu sanzala. Ene oso, ua 
a sange. "Ngi futienu kid o sela iami!" A-Mulombe a Nganzu 
exi : "Nanii ua mu bana matemu 6 ? " Musudi a Tumba uxi : "Enu 
muene." A-Mulombe a Nganzu exi : " Hondo, ku mu sula ; mbondo, 
ku mu tumuna. 461 Mutu a mu ila nganji; k'uile ngoho 4 enu, enu.* 
Etu ene oso, tuala baba, etu a-Mulombe a Nganzu. Polo jetu jene 
jimoxi ; kolo m ietu iene imoxi. Moso m ua mu bele matemu 6, u 
mu tumbula, uxi: 'u na Petele, ba na Lumingu/ n'a ku futa matemu 
e." Musudi a Tumba, mu tulu mua mu xiti; k'amono ki ibanga ni 
ki izuela. Uxingeneka, uxi : * Ngiia mu mi kolela." ** 

Uakatuk* 6; iii ku bata diS. 466 Uazekele. Kimenemene, uxi: 
" Ngiia mu ku a xitala." Uabixila kui na Katete, uxi : " Ngaxi- 
tala a-Mulombe a Nganzu. A ngi dia matemu ami ; nguft ku ngi 
futa." Katete uxi: "Kiauaba." Uaturau kuexana. Ene oso eza, 
ni bene ndond<5 1 Musudi a Tumba uxi : " Erne muene nga mi xitala 
pala ku ngi futa o matemu ami." 

The Blacksmith and the Blackbirds. 1 5 1 

The woman then turns a lioness ; she wants to catch the man. 
Kimona-ngombe saw her; he believed what Ndala said: "Ndala 
spoke the truth." He arose in the night, saying ; " My child, let 
us go, that I bring thee to thy mother ! " They get outside. Ndala, 
they put him into the house of his mother. Ngana Kimona-ngombe 
tells the village and his slaves that same night, saying : " Come to 
set the; house on fire. The woman, whom I married just now, keeps 
turning a lioness." They surround the house with fire. The woman 
is roasted in the house. The day breaks. 

It remains like this: "Begetting is truth." 467 Ngana Kimona- 
ngombe, a woman was going to kill him ; his child, Ndala, he saved 
his life. 

The end. 


I will tell of Blacksmith ; who had forged his hoes (and) said : %i I 
will go to sell them," 

He started ; arrived in village. He finds the Blackbirds, 468 says : 
"Buy some hoes I" The Blackbirds say: "Leave them; later on 
thou canst fetch the wax* We will go to empty the hives; thou 
shalt come in the third month." Blacksmith consented; he gave 
them the hoes, all of them. 

He went %o his home. He spent months 5 arrives at the third. 
Says : "This is the month, that the Blackbirds gave me. I will go 
now to fetch my wax." He started ; arrives in village. They all, 
he found thejn. " Pay me now my wax 1 " The Blackbirds say : 
" To whom didst thou give thy hoes ? " Blacksmith says : u Your- 
selves!" The Blackbirds say: "The baobab-fibre is to be ham- 
mered ; the baobab is to be peeled. 461 A person is to be named, 
So and So; do not say only 'yourselves/ We all pf us, who are 
here, .we are Blackbirds. Our faces are alike ; our color is alike. 
Whoever (it was) thou gavest him thy hoes, thou shalt name him, 
saying, * thou na Petele, or na Lumingu ; * that he may pay thee for 
thy hoes." The Blacksmith, it chokes him in the breast ; he finds 
not what he shall do, nor what he shall say. He thinks, says : " I 
am going to summon 464 you." 

He started ; here (he is) at home. He slept. Morning, he says : 
"I will go to summon them." He arrives at Lord Katete's, saying: 
" I summon the Blackbirds. They owe me my hoes ; they refuse 
to pay them." Katete says : " Very well." He sent to call them. 
They all come, and there, what blackness! Blacksmith said: "I 
myself, I summoned you to pay me (for) my hoes." 

i $3 Folk* Tales of Angola. 

Na Katete uxi: "Enu, a-Mulombe a Nganzu, palahi kt mufutu 
Musudi a Tumba?" A-Mulombe a Nganzu exi; "Ngana, kidi. 
Hondo, ku mu sula ; mbondo, ku mu tumuna. Mutu u mu tumbula, 
uxi : * nganji ua ngi di o kima kiami.' Etu ene oso, tuatena baba ; 
muene, Musudi a Tumba, iu uaxikam' 6, anomone o mutu, uoso ua 
mu di o matemu 6. Etu, a-Mulombe a Nganzu, tuazuba kufunda. 
Eie, na Katete, mukulu 466 mu jinjila, mahezu." 

Na Katete uxi : " Mulonga ua ngi bonzo ^kuu* 8 batula. Eie, 
Musudi a Tumba, tumbula muoso ua mu bele matemu 6." Musudi 
a Tumba uxi : " A-Mulombe a Nganzu." A-Mulombe a Nganzu exi : 
" Etu tuatena ; eie, Musudi a Tumba, sola muoso ua mu bele matemu 
6, n' a ku futa." Musudi a Tumba k'atena ku mu tumbula. Na 
Katete uxi : " Ki ngitena ku u batula." Ua di xib' 6. 

Katangana, Kadiembe ueza. Uatula mu muxi, uxi: "Maka-hi, 
muala mu zuela ? " Musudi a Tumba uxi : " A-Mulombe a Nganzu 
a ngi dia matemu ami ; nguS. ku ngi futa. Ene, nga a xitala." Exi : 
" K! tu ku dia matemu." 

Kadiembe uxingeneka, uxi : "Erne ngiz'6, ngu u batule." Uatuka; 
uai koko. Katangana, iu uiza. Uatula dingi mu muxi, uxi : " Eie, 
Musudi a Tumba, iii, mu kute ! iii, mu kute ! iti, mu kute ! iii, mu 
kute ! " Musudi a Tumba ua a kutu. 

IA a di tukulula, 469 exi ; " Erne ngadt" 16 uxi : u Erne, k'eme. 
Ngi jitule, nga ku kuatela muku'a kongo did" Ene oso, a a kutu, 
a mu futu o sela i£ ; makongo abu, 

Mulonga ua Musudi a Tumba, uabele matemu 6 ku4 a-Mulombe 
ja Nganzu ; kiziia ki ejile mu kufutisa, a di tunine & ; uabatula o mu- 
longa, Kadiembe. Ki ene mu dila, exi: "Diembe diala mu dila." 
Manii kana. U6ne mu batula mulonga ua Musudi a Tumba. 



Ngateletele Mbaxi a Koka. 470 

Mutu a Lubi la Suku uakuatele o Mbaxi mu iangu ; ueza n'S bu 
sanzala. Exi : " Tu i jibienu ! " 

Exi : " Tu i jiba kiebi ? " Exi : " Tu i tenda ni makiia/' Mbaxi u 
a vutuila, uxi : 

44 Mbaxi a Koka, 
Ni Kuaa Koka; 
Dikua k'a ngi di kama." 

Man and Turtle* 153 

Na Katete says : " You, Blackbirds, why do you not pay Black- 
smith?" The Blackbirds say: "Master, truth. The fibre, they 
hammer it; the baobab, they peel it. 461 The man, he shall name 
(one), saying, ' So and So, he owes me my thing.' We all, we are 
here in full ; he, Blacksmith, who is sitting here, let him take out 
the one whosoever owes him his hoes. We, Blackbirds, have fin- 
ished pleading. Thou, na Katete, chief among birds, finished." 

Na Katete says: "The case is to me hard to decide. Thou, 
Blacksmith, name the one to whom thou gavest thy hoes." Black- 
smith said : "The Blackbirds." The Blackbirds say : "We are com- 
plete ; thou, Blacksmith, take out the one to whom thou gavest thy 
hoes, that he (may) pay thee." Blacksmith cannot name him. Na 
Katete says : " I cannot decide it." He is silent. 

(That) moment, Turtle-dove comes. She alights on a tree, says : 
" What dispute are you debating ? " Blacksmith says : " The Black- 
birds, they owe me for my hoes ; they refuse to pay me. I have 
summoned them." They say : " We do not owe thee any hoes." 

Dove thinks, says: "I am coming directly to decide it." She 
flew ; went yonder. A moment, here she comes. She alights again 
on the tree, says : "Thou, Blacksmith, this one, bind him! this one, 
bind him ! this one, bind him ! this one, bind him ! " Blacksmith 
bound them. 

These confess, saying: "I owe (them)." This one says: "I (do) 
not Untie me, that I catch thee (thy) debtor." They all> who 
were bound, paid him his wax ; the debts are finished. 

The dispute of Blacksmith, who gave his hoes to Blackbirds ; the 
day when he came to make them pay, they denied (it) ; who decided 
the case, (was) Dove. When she is cooing, they say: "Dove is 
cooing." But not so. She is judging the case of Blacksmith. 



Let me tell of Turtle of Koka. 

Man of Lubi la Suku caught a Turtle in the bush ; he came with 
it to the village. They said : " Let us kill it ! " 

Some people said: "Row shall we kill it?" They said: "We 
shall cut it with hatchets." Turtle replied, saying : 

" Turtle of Koka, 
And hatchet of Koka ; 
Hatchet not kills me * bit." m 

154 Folk- Tales of Angola. 

Atu exi: "Tu mu jiba n'ihi?" Amoxi exi: "Tu mu jiba ni 
matadi." Mba£i, uoma ua mu kuata, uxi: "Ngandala kufua." Uxi 
mukanu: 471 

" Mbaxi a Koka, 
Ni Tadi a Koka; 
Tadi k'a ngi di kama." 

Atu exi : " Tu mu tienu mu tubia ! " Mbaxi uxi : 

"Mbaxi a Koka 
Ni Tubia a Koka ; 
Tubia k'a ngi di kama. 
Ku kunda diami, 
Kuala kala tadi ; 
Kl ku tena 
Kutata tubia." 

Atu exi : " Tu mu jiba ni jipoko," Mbafci uxi : 

" Mbaxi a Koka, 
Ni Poko a Koka ; 
Poko k'a ngi di kama." 

Atu exi: "IaT ii, tu mu banga kiebi? Tu mu jiba kiebi?" 14 
exi: "Tu mu takulienu bu dijfa dia menia." Mbaxi uxi: "Aiu6! 
ng&fu 6! Ngibanga kiebi?" Atu exi: "Eua! Tuamono kioso ki 
tu mu jiba ! " 

A mu ambata; abixila n'S ku ngiji. A mu takula bu dijfa. 
Mbaxi uakoboka; kitangana, uatumbuka. Iii uala mu zoua ni kui- 

" Mu menia, mu embu dietu ! 
Mu menia, mu embu dietu ! " 

Atu exi : " A ! Mbaxi ua tu tobesa. Tuejile ku mu jiba ni diktia, 
uxi ' dikiia kl di ngi di kima/ Tua mu tumbula ku mu takula mu 
menia, uxi * ngandala kufua.' Tueza, tua mu takula mu menia; 
manii tua mu bulula" 

Kiabekesa Mbaxi kukala mu menia: atu ejile ku mu jiba; muene, 
iii uadimukine. 


Man and Turtle. 155 

The people said: "What shall we kill him with?" Some said: 
" We shall kill him with stones/' Turtle, fear grasped him, he said : 
" I am going to die." He says by mouth : 471 

" Turtle of Koka, 
And stone of Koka ; 
Stone will not kill me a bit." 

The people said : " Let us cast him into the fire ! n Turtle said : 

« Turtle of Koka 
And fire of Koka; 
Fire will not kill me a bit 
On my back, 
It is like stone ; 
Not there can 
Catch on fire." 

The people said : " We will kill him with knives." Turtle said : 

" Turtle of Koka, 
And knife of Koka ; 
Knife will not kill me a bit." 

The people said: "This fellow, how shall we do? how shall we 
kill him?" These said : "Let us cast him into the depth of water/* 
Turtle said: "Woe! I shall die there! How shall I do?" The 
people said: "We have it! We have found the way we can kill 

They carry him ; they arrive with him at the river. They cast 
him into the depth. Turtle dives; (after) a while he emerges. 
There he is swimming and singing: 

" In water, in my home ! 
In water, in my home t n 

The people said : " Oh I Turtle has fooled us. We were going 
to kill him with hatchets, he says, ' hatchet will not kill me a bit/ 
We spoke of casting him into the water, he says, ' I am going to 
die/ We came, we cast him into the water ; but we saved him." 

(This is) what caused the Turtle to live in the water : the people 
were going to kill him ; (but) he was shrewd. 


156 Folk- Tales of Angola. 



Nianga dia Ngenga uzangula uta u£, uxi: "Ngiia mu mbole." 
Uabixila mu tutu, uaniange ; k'amono xitu, uxi : " Ngii'ami/' 

Ki alunga ku bata, usanga na Ngo, a mu badika bu pandanda ia 
muxi. Ki amono Nianga, uxi: "Tata Nianga, ngi sukumune!" 
Nianga uxi : " Ihi ia ku bange kiki ? " Uxi : " Ngi sukumune hanji; 
ngu ku ambela." 

Nianga ua mu katuile-bu ; ua mu tula boxi. Uxi : " Nzamba ua 
ngi badika bu pandanda ia muxi. Tata, a mu bana mueniu, a mu 
bela-ku. 472 Ngakuata iziia iiadi bu muxi ; ngi bane kakudia." Nia- 
nga uxi : " Kudia ngu ku sanga kuebi ? " Uxi : " Kuoso-kuoso." 

Nianga uazangula o imbua iS ; ua i bana na Ngo. Na Ngo uedi, 
uxi: "Ki ngekuta." O Nianga uzangula dingi imbua iamuku£; 
uebana na Ngo. Iii uadi, uxi : " Hanji ki ngekuta." Nianga dia 
Ngenga uazangula dingi patonona ; ua mu bana-iu. Na Ngo, ki edi, 
uxi : " Hanji ki ngekuta." 

Kabulu uiza; u a sanga mu zuela, uxi: "Ihi mua di kuatela?" 
Nianga uxi : " Na Ngo, nga mu sange bu pandanda ia mu*i. Uxi : 
' ngi katule-bu ! ' Nga mu katula. Uxi ' ngi bane kudia ! ' Nga mu 
bana o jimbua jami jiiadi ni patonona iami. Uxi 'ngi bane dingi 
kudia.' Iene tua di kuatel' eii" 

Kabulu uxi: "Na Ngo akale hanji bu muxi, buoso bu akexile; 
ngitale." Na Ngo uavutuka bu muxi, bu akexile. Kabulu uasa- 
nduka mu kanga; uexana Nianga. Uxi: "Eie, Nianga, uatoba. 
Na Ngo kiama, u£ne mu kuaf atu. Eie, ua mu sukumuna bobo, 
uamesenene ku ku dia. Mu loze." 

Nianga ha uloza na Ngo. 
Mahezu . . . "aNzambi." 

Nianga dia Ngenga and Leopard. 157 


Nianga dia Ngenga takes up his gun, saying : " I will go a-hunt- 
ing." He has reached the bush ; he has hunted ; he saw not game ; 
he says : " I will go/' 

When he returns home, he finds Mr. Leopard, whom they have 
stuck up in the fork of a tree. When he sees Nianga, he says : 
"Father Nianga, help me out!" Nianga says: "What has done 
this to thee ? " He says : " Unfork me first ; I shall tell thee." 

Nianga took him out ; he set him on the ground. He says : 
" Elephant has stuck me up in the fork of the tree. Sir, to whom 
one has given life, one gives more. 472 I have been two days on the 
tree; give me a little food." Nianga says: "Where shall I find 
food ? " He says : "Anywhere." 

Nianga takes up his dog; he gives it to Mr. Leopard. Mr. 
Leopard ate it and said : " I am not satisfied." Nianga takes up 
also the other dog; he gives it to Mr. Leopard, He has eaten, 
says : " Still I have not enough." Nianga dia Ngenga took up his 
cartridge-box ; he gives him it. Mr. Leopard, when he had eaten it, 
said : " Still I have not enough." 

Hare comes ; he finds them talking; says : "Why are you quarrel- 
ling?" Nianga says : "Mr. Leopard, I found him in the fork of a 
tree. Says he, 'Take me out!' I took him out. Says he, 'Give me 
to eat ! " I gave him both my dogs and my cartridge-box. He says, 
1 Give me more to eat/ That is what we are quarrelling about." 

Hare says : " Mr. Leopard, let him be again on the tree, where he 
was ; that I may see." Mr. Leopard returns to the tree, where he 
was. Hare moves off to a distance ; he calls Nianga. He says : 
"Thou, Nianga, art unwise. Mr. Leopard is a wild beast, he is 
wont to catch people. Thee, who didst get him out* of there, he 
wanted to devour thee. Shoot him." 

Nianga then shoots Mr. Leopard. 

The end . . . "(is) with God." 

158 Folk- Tales of Angola. 


Mukaji a Nianga uavuala ; o mukaji a Mb&mbi u6 uavuala. 

O mon* a Nianga, ku mu tubula, o jihaku j6, 474 muxima ua mb&mbi, 
ni funji, ni fejd, ni mbiji ia menia. O mon' a Mb&mbi uS, amesena 
ku mu bana o jihaku. O haku j& mudia-mb&mbi 476 ngoho. 

Dinianga uxi: "Ngiia mu batemena." Uazangula uta; ubteila 
mu tutu. Uasange mudia-mb&mbi ; uatudika-bu o kisumbula. 47 * 
Uasambela; unanga katangana. 

Mb&mbi uatula; Dinianga uamateka kutudika uta bu kisuxL 
Mb&mbi uxi: "Imana hanjil Kiiadi kietu tuabindama. Eie, Nia- 
nga, mukaji 6 uavuala. O mona uabingi jihaku jS, muxima ua 
mb&mbi Erne uami, MbSmbi, mukaji ami uavuala. O mona uabi- 
ngi jihaku j£, mudia-mb&mbi. Eie, ha utuama o ku ngi jiba, 
mon' ami k'andala kumona jihaku j£. Kinga; nginomona jihaku ja 
mon' ami, ngi mu tubule. Mungu, ki ngiza, eie Dinianga, u& ngi 
loze, utubule mon' 6." Dinianga uaxikina. MMmbi uambata mudia- 
mb&mbi. Dinianga uatuluka. Uai ku bata ; uazekele. 

Kimeneraene, uazangula uta; uabi£ila bu kisumbula. Uasambela ; 
unanga katangana. Mb&mbi iabixila ; ualozo ; iafu. Uatuluka ; ua- 
kutu Mb&mbi. 

Uazangula; ubi*ila ku bata. Uatale Mb&mbi; uanomona mu*ima. 
Atubula o mon 9 a Nianga. 


Dinianga dia Ngombe uazangula uta ufi, uxi : " Ngiia mu mbole." 
Uabiiila mu tutu ; usanga Mb4mbi, iala mu dia o mudia-mbftmbi. 
Uatudika nzambi ; uavutuka ku bata, 

Uaximbuisa o dikumbi, di idia o Mbdmbi, uxi: "Ngiia kid!" 
Uazangula uta ; uabixila bu kisumbula. Uasambela-mu. Ubanga 
katangana; MMmbi ueza. 

Uatudika uta bu kisuxi ; ua u tengununa ; ualozo. Mb&mbi iabu 
boxL Muene utuluka. Ukuata Mb&mbi mu kinama; uezubidisa 
ni dikiia; iafu. Uanomona poko mu mbunda; uala mu tala 

The Child of Hunter and the Child of Deer. 159 


The wife of Hunter gave birth ; the wife of Deer also gave birth. 

The child of Hunter, to take it out, its first-food (is) liver of 
deer, and mush, and beans, and fish. The child of Deer also, 
they want to give it first-food. Its first-food 474 is mudia-mb£mbi 476 

Hunter says: "I will go to lie in wait." He takes up the gun; 
he arrives in the bush. He finds a mudia-mb&mbi (tree) ; he sets 
up, in it, his tree-seat 476 He climbs ; spends a while. 

Deer arrives; Hunter begins to put up (his) gun to shoulder. 
Deer says: "Stay, please! Both of us, we are in need. Thou, 
Hunter, thy wife has born. The child needs its first-food, liver of 
deer. I too, Deer, my wife has born. The child needs its first-food, 
mudia-mb&mbi. Thou, if thou killest me first, my child will not get 
its first-food. Wait ; I will take the first-food of my child, that I 
may take him out. To-morrow, when I come, thou Hunter, shoot 
me, that thou mayest take thy child out." Hunter consents. Deer 
carries off mudia-mb&mbi. Hunter comes down. He goes home ; 

In the morning he takes up his gun ; he arrives at the tree-seat. 
He climbs up; waits a while. Deer arrives ; he shoots; it is dead. 
He comes down ; binds the Deer. 

He lifts (it) up; he arrives at home. He skins Deer; takes out 
the liver. They take out the child of Hunter. 


Dinianga dia Ngombe took up his gun, saying; "I will go hunt- 
ing." He arrived in the bush ; he found Deer, who was eating 
mudia-mb&mbi. He set up a tree-seat ; he returned home. 

He awaited the hour, when Deer eats, and said : " I am going 
now ! " He takes up the gun ; he arrives at the tree-seat. He 
climbs into it. He spends a while ; Deer comes. 

He sets the gun to the shoulder; he cocks it; he fires. Deer falls 
on ground. He gets down. He grasps Deer by a leg ; he finishes 
it with the hatchet ; it is dead. He takes the knife from waist ; he 

160 Folk- Tales of Angola* 

Mb£mbi. MMmbi, uazuba o ku i tala ; uasunga o kiba boxi dia 
Mb&mbi ; MMmbi iabalumuka ! 

Ialenge & ni malusolo. Itula mu kanga; iemana. O dinianga, 
diaxala ni kiba bu maku, uxi : " Isuma iahi, i nga di uana ? O 
mbimbi i ngajiba, i ngi xila kiba bu maku ! " Uxi : " Eie, MMmbi, 
sonii ]h ku kuata, ki uak&bixila kua tat'enu ni mam'enu ; k ku ibula 
' ueza tuxi ; o kiba ua ki xi ku£ ? ' " 

Mbdmbi uxi: "Sonii jai-eie, Nianga; sonii jairi-eme, Mbimbi. 
Eie ki uabixila ku bata, u&sanga akuenu ni mukaji 6, uxi 'ngele mu 
batemena ; . ngalozo mb&mbi. Iafu ; nga i tale. MMmbi iabalu- 
muka; ia ngi xila o kiba bu maku/ Sonii ji ku kuata." 

MMmbi uazuela ; Dinianga k'a mu vutuila dingi. Uxi : " Ngii'ami 
ku bata." Uazangula uta u§ ; uia ku bata. Uasange aku4 ni mu- 
hetu L Uxi : " Nga di uana kisuma ! Ngele mu batemena. MM- 
mbi ieza ; nga i lozo ; iafu. Nga i tale ; Mb&mbi iabalumuk' £ ; ia 
ngi xila o kiba bu maku." Aku4 a mu olela. 

Kienieki MMmbi ualungu ; Nianga uabele. 



Version A. 


Eme ngateletele ngana Ngo ni ngana Ngulungu. 

Ngana Ngulungu mulaul' a ngana Ngo. Ngana Ngo ufari: 
" Ndo, 477 xxk ngi beke kVlou' ami." 478 Ngana Ngulungu uambata 
jingalafd 479 jitatu ja ualende. 4 * Azangula. 

Kutula mu njila, ngana Ngo uixi : " Mulaul* ami, bonga o u mu 
sanga 481 mu njila pala mukaji etu." 481 O ki a mu bongo : jinzeu j 482 
ji mu lumata. Ngana Ngo uixi: "Mulaul 1 ami, u kioua. Manii, 
jinzeu a ji kuata ni mako ? M Jilumata. Tui'etu kid, mulaul' ami." 

Kutula mu njila, nzala i a kuata. Asanga o mienge, ngana Ngo 
uixi : "MulauV ami, o mienge ifii kedi&, kala 486 adia o mienge iofele." 
Ki abokola mu dibia dia mienge, o ngana Ngo uadi o mienge iauaba ; 
mukuetu, ngana Ngulungu, uadi o madianga. 486 Muzumbu ua mu 

Leopard^ Antelope^ and Monkey. 161 

is flaying the Deer. Deer is done being flayed ; he pulls the hide 
from under Deer ; Deer stands up ! 

It runs away in haste. It reaches a distance ; stands. The 
Hunter, who remained with hide in hands, says : " What (is this) 
ominous wonder, that I meet with ? The deer that I killed, it leaves 
the hide in my hands ! " He says : "Thou, Deer, shame will seize 
thee, when thou shalt arrive at thy father's and thy mother's ; they 
will ask thee, *Thou comest naked; the skin, thou didst leave it 

Deer says : " Shame is thine, Nianga, (as) shame is mine, Deer. 
Thou, when thou shalt arrive at home, and findest thy people and thy 
wife, thou sayest, ' I went to lurk ; I shot a deer. It died ; I flayed 
it. The deer stood up ; it left the hide in my hands.' Shame will 
seize thee." 

Deer has spoken; Dinianga does not reply to him again. He 
says: "I am going home." He took up his gun; he went home. 
He found his folks and his wife. He says : " I met with an ominous 
wonder ! I went to lurk. Deer came; I shot it; it died. I skinned 
it; Deer stood up; it left me the hide in my hands." The others 
laugh at him. 

Thus Deer won ; Nianga lost. 



Version A. 


I will tell (of) Mr. Leopard and Mr. Antelope. 

Mr. Antelope (was) grandson of Mr. Leopard. Mr. Leopard said : 
u Please accompany me to my father-in-law." Mr. Antelope carried 
three demijohns of rum. 480 They set out. 

Stopping on the road, Mr. Leopard says.: "Grandson, pick up 
what thou findest on the road, for my wife." When he picked it 
up, (they were) driver-ants, 482 which bite him. Mr. Leopard says : 
" My grandson, thou (art) a fool. Driver-ants, does one ever take 
them with hands ? They bite. Let us go now, my grandson." 

Stopping on the road, hunger seizes them. They find sugar- 
canes ; Mr. Leopard says : " My grandson, these canes, they don't 
eat them ; but they eat the small canes." When they entered the 
field of cane, Mr. Leopard ate the good canes ; our friend, Mr, Ante- 

1 62 Folk- Tales of Angola. 

kala jifidila. Ngana Ngo uixi : " Eie k'u kiou' 6 ? Madianga k'a ma 
did ; ima ikuama ku muzumbu. Mulaul' ami, tui'etu kid." 

Atula mu njila. Nzala i a kuata. Asang' o masa ma kindele 
mabi ; uixi : " Mulaul' ami, ndoko, tutolole masa pala tu m' oha." 
Uixi: "Mulaul' ami, o masa makusuka k'a ma tololl Utolola o 
masa maluzeza-ke ; 487 o masa makusuka k'a ma di£." Atula ku 
idima. Ngana Ngo uatolola o masa makusuka ; o mukuetu, ngana 
Ngulungu, uatolola o maluzeza-ke. 

Ki atula bu dixita, 488 uixi : " Mulaul' ami, ohela boba, bu ala o 
tubia." Ki ata o masa bu jiku, o ma ngana Ngo mabi, o ma Ngu- 
lungu ki mabi 6. Uixi : " Mulaul* ami, zangula, tui'etu ; eie u kioua. 
Uaxisa 489 buala o tubia; manii o masa ua ma te b'o'tokua. Ndoko, 
tui'etu kid." 

Kutula mu njila, asanga ahetu, 400 adima jinguba. Uixi : " Mulaul' 
ami, ngiz'6." Utula ku divunda dia muxitu, ujituna dibunda ; uka- 
tula mbinza; ukatula xilola ; ukatula jikalasd; ukatula kulete; 4 * 1 
ukatula kazaku; uazuata. Ki azuba o kuzuata, jungu bu maku, 
uakatuka, Uasange an'ahetu: " Boas-tadi, 492 jingana, nuanange?" 
" Tuanange ; eie ku6 ? m Ku bata dte, akuenu apasala kiambote ? " 
" Ala kiambote, a-muadi." " Eie ualuia kuebi ? " " Ngaluia k'o'lou'ami, 
kudmenekena o'kou' ami." 

A mu bana dilonga dia jinguba; a mu bana dilonga dia jimbombo. 
Ki azuba o kudia, a mu bana mudingi ua menia ; a mu uikila pexi 
ia makania. Uazuba o fumala, uixi : " Ngalui'ami kid. Xalenu kia- 
mbote. Loko ngu nu bita dingi." " Bixila kiambote ; kamenekene 
muku'avalu k&" 

Ki azuba o kutula, usanga ngana Ngulungu, ua mu xisa, uixi: 
"Kiebi? mulaul' ami Ku ngendele, a ngi kaie; k'a ngi banami 
kima ; ngeza ni nzala iamL Ngalenge ami ; andala ku ngi beta, 
Tui'etu kid." 

Ngana Ngulungu uixi : u Kana ; ngiia uami ku uendele eie ; ngiia 
uami pala ku a tala-ku." Uixi : " Ki udbixila ; ki u a menekena, 
k'uambe: 'boas-tadi;' uamba kiki, uixi: 'vioko, 494 vioko, kddienu 

Ngana Ngulungu, ki atula-ku, uzuela ki a mu longo ngana Ngo. 
A mu kuata ; a mu beta, 496 exi : " O kuku enu, ngana Ngo, o ki eza 
boba, k'a tu xingi etu. 496 Eie u tu xinga palanii ? O kuku enu, ki 
atundu boba, tua mu bana kudia ; uadi ; tua mu bana mudingi ua 
menia ; uanu ; tua mu bana o pexi ; uaf umala ; uixi : ' Ngaluiami kid ; 
xalenu kiambote. Loko ngu nu sanga.' ' Bixil'6 1 Kdmenekene 

Leopard^ Antelope^ and Monkey* 163 

lopet ate the wild cane. His mouth becomes (all) wounds. Mr. 
Leopard says : " Art thou not a fool ? Wild canes, they eat them 
not ; (they are) things (that) wound the mouth. My grandson, let 
us go now/' 

They stop on the road. Hunger has seized them. They find 
ripe maize ; he says : " My grandson, come, let us break corn for 
us to roast." He says : " My grandson, the red corn, they break it 
not Thou shalt break the green corn ; the yellow corn, they eat it 
not." They come , to the plants. Mr. Leopard plucks the yellow 
corn ; our friend, Mr. Antelope, he plucks the green. 

When they come to the straw-heap, 488 he says : " Grandson, roast 
here where the fire is." When they put the corn in the hearth, that 
of Mr. Leopard was done, that of Antelope was not done. He says ; 
" My grandson, arise, let us go ; thou (art) a fool. Thou hast left ** 
the fire ; but the corn, thou puttest it in the ashes. Come, let us 

Stopping on the road, they meet women, who are planting pea- 
nuts. He says : " Grandson, I come directly." He goes to a thicket 
of the forest ; he unties (his) bundle ; takes out a shirt, takes out 
drawers, takes out trousers, takes out a vest, takes out a coat ; he 
dresses. Having finished dressing, cane in hand, he goes. He finds 
the girls : "Good-afternoon, ladies, you are well?" "We are well ; 
thou, too? At thy home thy folks are getting on well?" "They 
are well, ladies." "Where art thou going?" "I am going to my 
father-in-law, to visit my father-in-law." 

They give him a plate of peanuts; they give him a plate of jimbo- 
mbo. When he finished eating, they give him a jug of water; they 
light for him a pipe of tobacco. Having done smoking, he says : 
" I am going now. Fare ye welL Soon I shall pass by you again." 
" Arrive safely ; greetings to thy wife." 

When he had arrived, he finds Mr. Antelope, whom he had left, 
(and) says : " How, my grandson ? Where I went, they chased me ; 
they did not give me anything. I have come with my hunger. I 
ran away ; they wanted to beat me. Let us go now." 

Mr. Antelope says: "No. I also will go where thou wentest; 
I, too, will go in order to see them there." Says: "When thou 
arrivest, do not say, f Good-afternoon ; ' speak like this, saying : 
' Vioko, vioko, go and eat dung.' " 

Mr. Antelope, on arriving there, speaks as Mr. Leopard instructed 
him. They take him ; they beat him, saying : " Your grandfather, 
Mr. Leopard, when he came here, he insulted us not Thou in- 
sultest us, why ? Your grandfather, when he left here, we gave him 
food ; he ate ; we gave him a jug of water; he drank ; we gave him 
the pipe; he smoked ; (then) he said, ' I am going now; fare ye well 

164 Folk" Tales of Angola. 

akua-bata.' m Ki ku bekesa o kuxing' atu, kianii? Ki endo 498 ku 
betela, mukonda dioxing' atu, ua a sange. Eie uasange akuenu, 
k'ua a menekente kiambote, kala ua a xingl Ndate. Tuandele 499 
ku 'u bana kudia ; kala kiki, kana. K'uimane dingi boba, kiene tu 
ku beta ; mukonda uakambe o ujitu. Ndate kil" 

Ki atula mu njila, usanga kuku k 9 uaxikama. " Mulaul' ami, kiebi, 
ku uendele? A ku bange kiebi? Aba, ku uendele, uabange-ku 
kiebi?" "Ki ngatula, ngambe: 'Vioko, vioko; kddienu matuji/ 
O ahetu, ki evile, njmda i a kuata; a ngi beta, a ngi kaie." Ngana 
Ngo uixi : " U kioua. Eie uasange akuenu, kala u a xinga ? Tamina 
a ku betele ; uabukumuka. Zangula, tui'etu." Uazangula. 

Ki azuba kuzangula, asanga honga ; uixi : " Mulaul* ami, ki 
ubita o hong' eii, kikala ubadikinia pala kutuka." Ki aii mu tuka, 
ua di vundu boxi; kingalafa kia ualende kiabudika. Uixi: "Aba, 
ki u kiou'e ? Uabitila mu honga, mesu ua ma badikinia ; o kinga- 
lafa kia ualende ua ki bulu. A kiki, tuabanga kiebi? Tualuia ni 
ujitu ku makouakimi. A tu tambulula kiebi ? O kingalafa ua ki 
bulu mu njila. Ndoko, tui'etu kid." 

Ki azuba o kutula ku bata di' o'kouakimi : " Holome ami, mua- 
pasala ? " Uixi : " Tuapasala kiambote. Kana kima kialiba ki tua- 
mono." Ku a tambulula — jingalafa jiiadi, jaxala. 600 

A a bana maxisa pala ku a zalela m'o'nzo, mu ene mu akala, 
O'kouakimi uaii-ku ; ujiba kiletd kia ngulu pala kulambela o holome. 
Kudia kuabi, 6 m tumisa ku meza ; aii mu bekela holome. 

O holome iatambulul? o kudia, uixi : " Ngana Ngulungu, ndai6 mu 
honga mund, kdkatule muziia ; tekela menia pala kunua." Ngana 
Ngulungu ki aia mu tekela o menia mu muziia, menia malubub'6. 
Ki azuba o kuvutuka, usanga ngana Ngo uadi & kid. Uixi : " Kuku 
etu, ngala ni nzala iami ; o kudia kuebi, ku ua ngi xila ? " Uixi : "O 
kudia kuabu & Ndumba i' atu akexile boba. Ene adi o kudia* 
Kinga mu ngoloxi, kiene ki udia-ki. ,, 602 

Kukuata mu ngoloxi, kudia kuabi, uixi : " Mulaul' ami, ndai£, kita- 
kane kid o muziia ua menia/' Ki aia mu takana muziia, ki abulula 
o menia, malubub'6. Uixi : " A ! nganange ni nzala iami ; ngibulula 
o menia mu muziia, mabub'd. Kota, ngii* ami ; o menia nga ma 

JLeopard, Antelope y and Monkey. 165 

Soon I shall meet you/ 'Safe arrival. Greet the home -folks.' 
What induced thee to insult people, what is it ? If they beat thee, 
(it is) because of insulting people, whom thou mettest. Thou didst 
meet others, didst not greet them well ; rather didst insult them. 
Begone. We would have given thee food ; but thus, no. Stand not 
longer here, else we beat thee ; for thou lackest respect. Go at once." 

When he arrives on the road, he finds his grandfather seated: 
" My grandson, how, where thou wentest ? How did they treat thee ? 
Well, where thou wentest, how didst thou do ? " " When I arrived, 
I said : ' Vioko, vioko, eat ye dung.' The women, when they heard, 
anger possessed them; they beat me, they chased me." Mr. 
Leopard says : " Thou (art) a fool. When thou meetest others, 
then dost thou insult them ? (It was) right (that) they beat thee ; 
thou wast insolent. Arise, let us go." He took up (his load). 

When they had started, they meet a brook. He says : " My 
grandson, when thou Grossest this brook, it shall be (that) thou 
shuttest (thy eyes) for jumping." When he went to jump, he 
tumbled down ; the demijohn of rum, it broke. He says : " Now, 
art thou not a fool ? Thou crossest the river, (with) eyes shut ; the 
demijohn of rum, thou hast broken it. Now, how shall we do ? We 
are going with a present to parents-in-law. How will they receive 
us ? The demijohn, thou hast broken it on the road. Come, let us 
go now." 

When they had arrived at the house of the father-in-law : u Son- 
in-law, how do you do ? " Says : " We are well. Nothing bad, that 
we have seen." (They are) receiving them ; (he gives) the two bot- 
tles, that remained. 600 

They give them mats to spread for them in the house, in which 
they are to stay. The father-in-law has gone ; he kills a big suck- 
ling of hog to cook for his son-in-law. The food is ready ; they send 
it to the table ; they bring it to the son-in-law. 

The son-in-law receives the food, says : " Mr. Antelope, go to the 
river yonder, and take out the fish*trap ; dip out water to drink." 
Mr. Antelope, when he goes to dip out the water with the fish-trap, 
the water runs out. When he had returned, he finds Mr. Leopard 
has eaten already. He says: "Our grandfather, I am with my 
hunger; where is the food, thou hast left me?" He says: "The 
food is finished. A lot of people were here. They have eaten the 
food. Wait till evening, then thou shalt eat." 

The evening having come, the food is ready, he says : " My grand- 
son, fetch quickly the fish-trap with the water." When he goes to 
fetch the fish-trap, when he dips out the water, it runs out. He says : 
"Ah ! I spent the time being hungry ; I dip out water with the fish- 
trap, it runs out Better I go away ; the water, I give it up." 

1 66 Folk- Tales of Angola. 

Usanga ngana Ngo ; uadi 6 kid. Uixi : " Kuku etu, tunde kame- 
nemene, ki tueza, ngadiami; ngizeka ni nzala iami? Kienieki 
kiauabd." Uixi : " Mulaul* ami, di xibe i ; mungu udi'6." 

Kutula m'usuku, ngoma jakuata bu sungi. Ngana Ngo uatundu ; 
ngana Ngulungu uatundu; n'elumba 503 ifii boba bu sungi. Eza mu 
tambujila o ngoma. Atonoka kat6 mu dikolombolo. Kuala elumba, 
exi: "Tuala ni kilu kietu, tudzek'etu." Exi: "Mungu <H" Aka- 
tuka. Aii mu xinjikila o mujitu, ngana Ngo. 

Ki atula mVnzo, akuata mu sungila, exi : " Mungu 6 ; zeka kia- 
mbote, huedi ami." Kutula m'usuku, ngana Ngo uixi: " Ngana 
Ngulungu, o kididi kiatolo ; zeka bu tala." Ngana Ngo uabilukile ; 
uakexile mutu, akiki uala kiama. Uabokola mu kibanga kia ukou' 6 ; 
uasange o jihombo ni jimbudi; uajiba makuiniadi a mbudi ni hombo. 
Uatambula o maniinga ; ua ma te mu 'mbia. Usanga ngana Ngu- 
lungu uazeka ; u mu xamuina o 'mbia ia maniinga. Uiza bu hama 

Mu 'amenemene ka selu, uakatula o mbanza id ; uakuata mu xika 
muimbu ue. O 'kouakimi, ki atula mu kibanga, uasange o jimbudi 
jojibe, uixi : " Aiud 1 ni maT£ I hombo joso a ngi jibila najiu ; ihi ia 
ngi bange kiki ? Kiki, ngibanga kiebi ? " Kuala ngana Ngo uixi : 
44 Kiebi, ukou' ami ? " Uixi : " Holome ami, o hombo joso, a ji jiba." 
"K&tadienu hanji; ngana Ngulungu uazeka. Manii, la 504 muene 
uajib' o jihombo ? " Uai ku mu balumuna. Uatono ; uatundu bu 
kanga. Ki a mu tala kiki, o mukutu uoso uaiiba ni maniinga, exi : 
"Tua mu fikile mujitu, manii mufii. Kiki tu mu banga kiebi?" 
Exi : " Tu mu jiba ; mukonda mufii. La uakexile mujitu, k'andele 

A mu jiba ; a mu tala ; akatula-ku kinama kia xitu ; a ki bana 
ngana Ngo, o mulaul' 6 mufii. Azeka. 

Atula mu 'amenemene, ngana Ngo uixi: "Ngalui'ami kid." A 
mu longela 505 diletd dia ngulu, kizongelu kia fadinia; a mu bana o 
ngamba, i mu ambatela o muhamba. Ki akatuka: "Xalenu kia- 
mbote ! " " Bixila, holome ami 6 1 Kdmenekene akua-bata." 

Ki azuba o kutula ku bata did, ukatula o kinama kia xitu ia Ngu- 
lungu, u ki sasa mu 'axaxi ; mbandu iamuku& pala muene, mbandu 
iamuku& pala kuibekela muku'avalu ka ngana Ngulungu. U i be- 
kela, uixi : "Tumenu o ku ki ijfa : o xitu ifii, i a ku tumisa mutat' 6." 
A i dia. Kuala o mona uixi : " Mamanii, o xitu ifii, ialunuha kala 
papaii. Manii, ku endele papaii, manii V a mu jiba ? Nguamiami 

Leopard^ Antelope % and Monkey. 167 

He finds Mr, Leopard, who has eaten already. He says : " Our 
grandfather, since early morning, when we came, I have not eaten ; 
shall I lie down with my hunger ? This is not right," He says \ 
" My grandson, hold thy peace ; to-morrow thou shalt eat." 

Arriving at night, the tom-toms begin in the dancing place. Mr. 
Leopard went out, Mr. Antelope went otft ; also the girls, here they 
are in the dancing place. They begin to respond to the drum. 
They dance until the cock-crow. Then the girls say : " We are with 
oiir sleep, we want to go to bed/' They say ; " To-morrow ! " They 
leave. They go to accompany the visitor, Mr. Leopard. 

When they come to the house, they begin the night-chat, (and) 
say : '? To-morrow ! sleep well, my brother-in-law." The night hav- 
ing come, Mr. Leopard said: " Mr. Antelope, the place is (too) small ; 
sleep on the shelf." Mr. Leopard changed ; he was a man, now he 
is a wild beast. He enters the fold of his father-in-law ; he finds the 
goats and sheep ; he kills twenty sheep and goats. He takes the 
blood ; he puts it into a pot. He finds Mr. Antelope asleep ; he 
throws at him the pot of blood. He comes to his bed. 

In the morning early, he takes his instrument ; he begins to play 
his song. The father-in-law, when he came into the pen, he found 
the sheep killed, said : " Oh ! woe to me ! all my goats, they killed 
them ; what has done this to me ? Now, how shall I do ? " Then 
Mr. Leopard says : " How, father-in-law ? " He says : " My son-in- 
law, the goats, they have all been killed." "Look, please; Mr. 
Antelope is asleep. Maybe he has killed the goats?" 50 * He goes 
to make him get up. He wakes up ; comes outside. When they 
see him thus, the whole body ugly with blood, they say: "We 
thought (he was) a visitor, but (he is) a thief. Therefore how shall 
we treat him ? " They say : " We shall kill him ; for (he is) a thief. 
If he were a guest, he would not steal." 

They kill him ; they skin him ; they take off a leg of meat ; they 
give it to Mr. Leopard, whose grandson (was) a thief. They go to 

Arriving in the morning, Mr. Leopard says : " I am going now." 
They pack for him m a suckling of pig, a measure of cassada-meal ; 
they give him a carrier, who shall carry for him the load-basket 
When he starts : " Fare ye well ! " "Arrive (well), my son-in-law. 
Greet the home-folks." 

When he finally arrives at his home, he takes out the leg of the 
meat of the Antelope ; he cuts it in the middle, one half for himself, 
one half to bring to the wife of Mr. Antelope. He brings it, saying : 
"Know ye well; this meat (is) what thy husband sent to thee." 
They eat it. Then a child says : " Mama, this meat is smelling like 
papa. I wonder, whither papa went, whether they killed him ? I 

1 68 Folk- Tales of Angola. 

kudia o xitu ifii, ialunuha pai etu." "Eie, u niona, uamba 506 pai enu 
ku mu jiba palanii? Iti uiz'e. Dia ngo o xitu." 

Ngana Ngo uambele kiki : " O xitu, ki nu i dia, kl mubake-ku dingi 
xitu ; ioso iie mu 'mbia. U ngi xile ng6 kaxitu, mukonda eme ngi 
ngiz'ami." O xitu ioso elambe. Ki azuba, ku i lamba, funji iabi, 
adi. Ki azuba o kudia, ngana Ngo uixi: "Tuma o kuijfa, eie, rau- 
marna a ngana Ngulungu : o mutate, ku tuendele, uanianene o 
hombo ja ngene. Id a mu jibile ; id a tu banene o xitu iiii. Eme 
ngambe 'ngidiami ng6 k'ubeka uami ; nga i bekela mumam' e ; udia-ku 
pala ku k'ijfa.' Id a ng' ambelele ; ' Eie u mu tangela : tuma ku ki 
ijfa, o mutat'e ku endele k'ujitu, a mu jibile.' Tumenu o ku k'ij/a: 
o xitu i muadi mutat'6 nua mu di 6. Pala mu k'ijfe; ki nukinge ngd 
Bangenu tambi ; mutat'6 uafu mu kondadia ufii." Kuala o mona 
uixi : "Mamanii, nga ki ambele; o xitu ifii inuha papaii. Kidi kiami 
ki ngambele. Kiki papai uebi ? " 

Akuata mu dila tambi. 6 ** 7 Tambi iabu. Kiziia ki abua tambi, 
kuala ngana Kahima 507 uixi: "Kiztia, eme uami ngiia ni kuku etu, 
ngana Ngo ; la utena ku ngi banga kala ki abange mukuetu." 

Id akexidi k ; adia nguingi, aseiala musolo. Alubanza ngana Ngu- 
lungu, exi: "Kia mu dia, kianii? O kalunga, ka mu dia, muene 
kanii ?" Kana mutu uejfa o kalunga, kadi ngana Ngulungu. 


Ngana Ngo uixi: "Mulaul' ami, ngana Hima, z& t ua ngi beke 
kVlou' ami." Azangula. 

Kutula mu njila, uixi : "Mulaul* ami, bong* o u mu sanga, iii uxi- 
kelela, pala mukaji etu." Uixi: "Kuku etu, eie kuata ku mutue; 
erce ngikuata ku mbunda; mukonda ua k* ij£a kuma jinzeu, jilu- 
mata." Uixi : "MulauF ami, ki uamateka kubanga mu njila, kl kia- 
uabe. Zangula, tui'etu ! " Azangula. 

Kutula mu njila, asanga dibia dia masa. Uixi: "MulauF ami, 
udia o masa momo, maluzeza-ke; la udia o masa momo makusuk' 
omo, ki anda ku sanga mukua-dibia did, uanda ku ku beta." O 
ngana Hima, ki abokola mu dibia, uadi o masa makusuka, manii uaxi 
o masa maluzeza-ke. 

Ki atula bu dixita bu ala tubia, uixi : " Mulaul' ami, ohela boba o 
masa m£." Uixi : " Ai ! kuku, o boba, tubia tuajimi ; o masa maxi- 
kana o kubi'd ? " " Ohela buoso bu uandala." Ki adi kid, ngana 

Leopard, Antelope and Monkey. 169 

won't eat this meat, that smells like our father." " Thou, child, why 
dost thou say that your father is killed ? He will come. Only eat 
the meat." 

Mr. Leopard had said thus : " The meat, when you eat it, do not 
lay by any meat ; let it all go into the pot. Leave me. only a little 
bit, for I shall soon come." The meat they cooked it all. When 
they had cooked it, the mush was ready, they ate. When they had 
done eating, Mr. Leopard says: "Know thou well, thou, wife of 
Mr. Antelope, thy husband, where we went, stole the goats of others. 
These killed him ; these to us gave this meat. I said : ' I will not 
eat alone to myself. I will bring it to his wife ; she will eat of it, 
that she may know/ They had told me : ' Thou shalt announce her : 
know thou well, thy husband, where he went on a visit, they killed 
him.' Know ye well, the meat you ate (is) thy husband, whom you 
ate here. That you might know, and not wait in vain. Make the 
mourning; thy husband is dead because of stealing." Then the 
child said : " Mama, I said it ; this meat smells of father. Truth 
mine, which I said. Now, papa, where (is he) ? " 

They begin to wail the mourning. 607 The mourning ended. The 
day, on which the mourning ended, then Mr. Monkey said : " One 
day, I too will go with my grandfather, Mr. Leopard : whether he 
can do to me as he did to our friend." 

Thus they lived ; they ate bagre, they supped on cat-fish. They 
keep remembering Mr. Antelope, saying : " What killed him, what 
(was it) ? The death that he died, what was it ? " No man knew 
the death that destroyed Mr. Antelope. 


Mr. Leopard said : " My grandson, Mr. Monkey, come, accompany 
me to my father-in-law." They start. 

Stopping on the road, he says : " My grandson, pick up what thou 
findest, this black thing, for our wife." He says: "My grandpa, 
thou take hold at the head ; I will take hold at the tail ; for thou 
knowest that (these are) driver-ants, which bite." He says : " My 
grandson, the way thou hast begun to behave on road is not nice. 
Get up, let us go ! " They start. 

Stopping on the road, they find a field of corn. He says : " My 
grandson, thou shalt eat the corn yonder, that (is) green ; if thou 
eatest this yellow corn here, when the owner of the field will find 
thee, he will beat thee." Mr. Monkey, when he entered the field, 
he ate the yellow corn, but left the green corn. 

When they arrived at a straw-heap where is fire, (he) says : " My 
grandson, roast here thy corn." He says : u Oh ! grandpa, here, the 
fire is out ; the corn, will it cook ?" "Roast wherever thou wilt." 

170 Folk- Tales of Angola. 

Ngo uambela ngana Hima : " Zangula, tui'etu kid, mulaul' ami," 

Kutula mu njila, asanga dibia dia mienge. Kuala ngana Ngo, 
uixi: "O mienge oio ic'edii; udia o raienge iofele oio." O ngana 
Hima, ki a mu ambela kua kuku &, uabokola mu dibia, manii $6 ku 
ki banga, ki a mu tumine ngana Ngo. Uabukula o mienge ienene. 508 
Ngana Ngo uixi : " Nanii ua ku tumu kubukula o mienge eii ? " 
Uixi: "Kuku etu, k'uadimuk£; uamonene kid mutu, udia madia- 
nga?" "Kuabu kid, mulaul' ami ; zangula, tui'etu kid." 

Kutula mu honga, uixi : " Mulaul' ami, o muziia iii, etu tuala ku u 
sisa 509 boba. Loko uiza mu takana-mu o menia." Kuala ngana 
Hima, uixi : " Kuku etu, eie k'uadimuk£. Uamuene kid o mutu ute- 
kela raenia mu muziL ? " " Nd6, tui'etu kid, mulaul* ami*' 

Kutula k'o'lou' a ngana Ngo, ahetu exi: "E! ngana Him* 6! 
Uapasala?" "Ngal'ami kiambote." "Akaji 6, ala kiambote?" 
"Ala kiambote," " Eie, ngana Ngo, ku bata di6, kuala kiambote ? " 
Uixi : " Kuala kiambote." A a jibila sanji ; sanji iabi, O kudia 
kuiza m'o'nzo pala ngana Ngo ni ngana Kahima. 

Uixi : " Mulaul' ami, ndai6 kdtakane o jingutu pala kuiza mu dia." 
Ngana Hima uasuam'S ku dima dia 'nzo. Uvutuka, usanga kuku S, 
ngana Ngo, iti ualudi'6 kid. U mu kuata o lukuaku : " Erne, ua ngi 
tumu kuia mu takana o jingutu ; erne ng'u sanga ualudi'£ kid, $6 ku 
ngi king' erne. Kinga ki ngidi'ami hanji uami." Uta o lukuaku bu 
dilonga dia mbiji, uta mu kanu ; ukatula ku dilonga dia funji, uixi : 
" Ngadi kid uami ; ndoko, tudie kid, kuku etu ! " Akuata mu kudia ; 
kudia kuabu. Asukula maku ; axikam'l 

Kumbi dialembe. O kudia kuiza dingi. Ki azuba o kudia, akuata 
mu kusungila. Jingoma jiza; akuata mu kutonoka . . . kat6 kolo- 
mbolo diakokola. 

Ngana Hima uiza mu kuzek'£. Ngana Ngo uaxala bu kanga. 
Uabokola mu lumbu lu' o'kou' & Usanga jihombo ; ukuata mu ku- 
jiba. Ujiba hombo, utambula o maniinga ; u ma ta mu 'mbia, Usanga 
ngana Hima; uamesena ku mu texila o maniinga ku mukutu u& 
Manii Kahima uatono £. Ki azuba ku mu mona ualukuiza ku mu 
xamuna o maniinga ku mukutu u£, u mu lundula ni lukuaku. O 
'mbia ia maiinga 610 iatula ku mukutu ua ngana Ngo. • Azek'l 

Kutula mu 'amenemene, o 'kouakimi, ki aia mu tala mu kibanga, 
usanga jihombo joso jojibe. Kahima ubokola m'o'nzo ; ukatula mba- 

Leopard, Antelope* and Monkey. 171 

When they had eaten, Mr. Leopard says to Mr. Monkey: "Get up, 
let us go now, my grandson." They go. 

Arriving on the road, they find a field of sugar-cane. Then Mr. 
Leopard says : " Those canes there, they don't eat (them) ; thou 
shalt eat that small cane there." Mr. Monkey, as he was told by 
his grandfather, he entered the field, but without doing that which 
Mr. Leopard had bidden him. He broke the large cane. Mr. 
Leopard said : " Who ordered thee to pluck this cane ? " He says : 
" Grandfather, thou art not wise ; hast thou ever seen a man that 
eats wild cane ? " " Enough, my grandson, take up (thy load), let 
us go now " 

Arriving at a brook, he says : " My grandson, this fish-trap, we 
are leaving it here. Soon thou shalt come (and) fetch water in it." 
Then Mr. Monkey says : " Our grandfather, thou art not wise. Hast 
thou ever seen a man dipping water with a fish-trap ? " " Come, let 
us go, my grandson." 

Arriving at the father-in-law's of Mr. Leopard, the women say : 
"Eh! Mr. Monkey here! (How) hast thou been?" "I am well." 
"Thy wives, are they well?" "They are well." "Thou* Mr. 
Leopard, at thy home, are all well?" He says: "They are well." 
They kill for them a hen ; the hen is cooked. T&e food comes into 
the house for Mr. Leopard and Mr. Monkey. 

He says : " My grandson, go (and) fetch the spoons to come and 
eat." Mr. Monkey hides himself behind the house. He returns ; 
finds his grandfather, Mr. Leopard, who is eating already. He 
seizes his arm : " I, thou sentest me to go and fetch the spoons ; 
I find thee eating already, without awaiting me. Wait until myself 
also eat." He puts the hand into the plate of fish, puts in mouth ; 
takes out of the plate of cassada-raush ; says: "I also have now 
eaten ; come, let us eat now, our grandfather ! " They begin to eat ; 
the eating ends. They wash hands ; they sit down. 

The sun has set. The food comes again. When they have done 
eating, they begin to have night-chat. The drums come, they begin 
to dance ; (they dance) until the cock crows. 

Mr. Monkey comes to sleep. Mr. Leopard stays outside. He 
enters the yard of his father-in-law. He finds goats; begins to 
kill. He kills a goat, takes the blood (and) puts it into a pot He 
finds Mr. Monkey; wants to throw the blood on his body.' But 
Monkey is awake. When he has done seeing him coming to him 
(to) pour the blood on his body, he pushes him with the hand. The 
pot of blood upsets on the body of Mr. Leopard. They go to 

Arriving in the morning, the father-in-law, as he goes to look at 
the curral, finds the goats all killed. Monkey enters the house, 

f/2 Folk* Tales of Angola. 

nza, 611 ukuata mu xika, uixi : " Uatobesele ngana Ngulungu," uixi : 
" Manii Kahima u£ a mu tobesa ? " 512 O 'kou' £, ua ngana Ngo, 
uatula : "E! Kahima, kuku enu uebi?" "Iii m'o'nzo, uazek' 6." 
Aia ku mu balumuna. A mu sanga o mukutu uoso ua mu iiba ni 
maiinga. A mu kuata, a mu jiba. 

O 'kouakimi ua ngana Ngo uixi : " Kahima, ngana Ngulungu, tua 
mu jibile ngo. Ki muene e, uajibile o jihombo. Kiki, eie usokana 
kid mon' ami." Azek'&. 

Kutula mu 'amenemene, ajiba ngulu; apaxala ni ngana Hima, 
ualui'd kid ku bata did. A mu bana kinama kia xitu ia ngana Ngo,, 
a mu jiba. Exi : "O xitu eii, uakabana o mumam' a ngana Ngo." 

Uatambula o xitu ; uai'd, anga ubixila ku bata dia ngana Ngo* 
Ubana o xitu, uixi : " Ijienu, kuku etu, ngana Ngo, uabiti mu tomba 
O xitu eii, ua nu tumisa-iu. Dienu maienu; nu ngi xile ng6 karna; 
ngalokuiz'ami selu." 

Alambe o xitu, adi Kuala o mona, uixi: "Mamanii, o xitu itiU 
muxima ua ngi bumu. O xitu ialonuha papaii." "Eie u dilajL 
Pai enu iu uiz'S. 'O xitu, manii iene inuha pai enu?" 

Ki azuba o kudia, asukula o maku. Ngana Hima utunda bu 
kanga, uixi : "Tumenu o kuijfa, o mutat' 6, ngana Ngo, kVlou' 6, ku 
endele, uajibile hombo ja ngene ; ia a mu jiba u& Ngalui'ami." Exi r 
" Mu kuatienu ! " A mu kaie ; a mu lembua. Ngana Hima uai'6. 
Axala mu dila o tambi, 

Ngana jami, ngateletele o kamusoso kami, la kauaba, la kaiiba;, 

Version B. 

" Aba-diu." " Abeim-diu." 
" Dize." 618 

Eme ngateletele musoso ua na Ngo ni na Ngulungu. 

Na Ngo uxi : " Na Ngulungu, zA, ui ngi beke ku makou' ami." 
Na Ngulungu uaxikina. Akutuka mu njila. 

Ki abixila mu kaxi ka njila, asanga jinzeu. Na Ngo uxi: "Na 
Ngulungu, zangula ponda ia mukaji etu." Na Ngulungu uvota 
jinzeu ni maku ; ua ji fuxika bu homba. Ja mu lumata. Ua ji takula 
ni malusolo boxi, uxi : " Kalunga, 614 jala mu lumata." Na Ngo 

Leopard* Antelope^ and Monkey. 173 

takes out the banjo, 611 begins to play, saying : " He has made a fool 
of Mr. Antelope," says: "Whether Monkey too is to be fooled ?" m 
His father-in-law, Mr. Leopard's, arrives : " Eh ! Monkey, your 
grandfather, where (is he) ?" "He (is) here in the, house sleeping." 
They go to make him get up. They find his body all ugly with 
blood. They take him ; they kill him. 

The father-in-law of Mr. Leopard says : " Monkey, Mr. Antelope* 
we have killed him unjustly. Not he (it was) who killed the goats. 
Therefore now, thou shalt marry my daughter." They go to sleep. 

Arriving in the morning, they kill a pig; they accompany Mr. 
Monkey, who is going now to his home. They give him a leg of 
the meat of Mr. Leopard, (whom) they killed. Saying: "This meat, 
thou shalt give it to the wife of Mr. Leopard." 

He takes the meat; he goes away and arrives at the house of 
Mr. Leopard. He gives the meat, saying : " Know ye, our grand- 
father, Mr, Leopard, went (further) on, hunting. This meat, he 
sent it to you. Eat away ; for me leave only a little ; I am coming 

They cooked the meat; they eat. Then a child says: "Mama, 
this meat, my heart is sick. The meat smells of papa." "Thou 
art crazy. Your father, he is coming. The meat, how can it smell 
of your father?" 

When they had done eating, they washed (their) hands. Mr. 
Monkey goes outside, saying : " Know ye well, thy husband, Mr. 
Leopard, at his father-in-law's, where he went, killed the goats of 
others; these killed him also. I am going." They say: "Catch 
him ! " They pursue him ; they give up. Mr. Monkey is gone. 
They remain wailing the funeral. 

Gentlemen and ladies, I have told my little tale, whether good or 
bad ; I have finished. 

Version JB. 

" Take (thou) it," or, " Take (ye) it. 
"Let it come." 618 

I often tell the story of Mr. Leopard and Mr. Antelope. 

Mr. Leopard said : " Mr. Antelope, come, accompany me to my 
parents-in-law." Mr. Antelope agrees to it. They enter the path. 

When they arrive in middle of the road, they find driver-ants. 
Mr. Leopard says : "Mr. Antelope, pick up the girdle of our wife." 
Mr. Antelope gathers up the driver-ants with (his) hands ; he wraps 
them up in his bosom. They bite him. He throws them down in 
great haste, saying : " Sir, 614 they are biting." Mr. Leopard laughs, 

174 Folk- Tales of Angola* 

uolela, uxi; " Jene jinzeu. Eie u ji vota ni maku? U kioua. Za, 
tui'etu ! " 

Ki asuluka, asange kisonde. Na Ngo uxi : " Na Ngulungu, za« 
ngula ponda ia mukaji etu, ia baiita." 615 Na Ngulungu ua ki 616 vota ; 
ua ki f uxika bu homba. Kia mu lumata. Ua ki takula boxi, uxi : 
"Kalunga, kiala mu lumata." Na Ngo uolela, uxi: "U kioua. Ki- 
sonde, u ki vota ni maku ? Zd, tuie ! " 

Asuluka; abixila m'obia, Na Ngo uxi: "Eie, na Ngulungu, di 
tele mbandu ifii ; ukanze jinjilu 617 ja imbondo ; mukonda m'o bia dia 
ngene. 6ia Erne u6, ngi di tela kuku. Tutakana ku polo. Uvuza ni 
fadinia pala kuelela o jinjilu ; uvuza ku fadinia ia kazeia." Na Ngu- 
lungu uaxikina. Uakanze imbondo ia jinjilu ; uavuza kazeia ka fadi- 
nia. O na Ngo uakanze jinjilu jakolo ; uavuza fadinia ia makota. 

Atakana ku polo. Na Ngo uxi : " Zd hanji ; ngitale, ji uakanze/* 
Na Ngulungu uxi : " Kalunga, jiji." Na Ngo ua mu olela, uxi : 
"Ngulungu, eie uatoba ; ukanza idima ia uisu." AdL 

Abixila ku ngiji ; anu menia. Asange-mu mliziia. Na Ngo uxi : 
"Na Ngulungu, lelu ki a tu lambela funji, eie uiza mu takana o 
menia." Na Ngulungu uxi: "Kalunga, ng' a ambetela kuebi?" Na 
Ngo uxi: "U& q. ambetela mu muziia." Na Ngulungu uaxikina. 

Abixila ku mbandu a bata. Na Ngo uazangula o ngolamata, 619 
uxi : " Na Ngulungu, nienga-iu ku mbangala." Na Ngulungu ua i 

Abixila bu k&nga. A a zaiela mu kijima. Ngoloxi ieza A a 
lambela funji ni sanji. Na Ngo uxi : u Eie, na Ngulungu, lenga, 
U&takane menia/' 

Na Ngulungu uatubuka; uabixila ku ngiji. Uzangula o muziia. 
Menia abubu. Uote dingi mu menia. U u zangula. Menia abu-mu. 
Ua u boteka dingi mu menia. Abu-mu. Uxi : " Ngii'amL" Udta- 
kula ni njinda mu menia. 

O na Ngo, ku ema ku axala, uadi funji id ; ua mu xila kofelefele. 
Na Ngulungu uabbcila mVnzo, uxi: "Kalunga, muziia uala rau 
buba." Na Ngo uxi: "Eie, Ngulungu, u kioua. Muziia k'&ae-mu 
kutaba menia. Erne, na Ngo, ku ema, ku ngaxate, jimbua, funji ja 
i di. Kofele, ku ngatambula ku jimbua, dia ng6, keniaka. Erne, 
nganda kuzeka nzala iami." Mukuetu, na Ngulungu, uadi. Asu- 
ngila; azeka. 

Leopard \ Antelope^ and Monkey. 175 

saying: "They (are) driver-ants. Thou gatherest them up (in thy) 
hands ? Thou (art) a fooL Come, let us go ! " 

Having gone ahead, they found red ants. Mr, Leopard says: 
" Mr. Antelope, pick up our wife's girdle, of red cloth." Mr. Ante- 
lope gathers them up ; he wraps them up in (his) bosom. They bite 
him. He throws them down, saying : " Sir, they are biting." Mr. 
Leopard laughs, saying : "Thou art a fool. Red ants, thou gatherest 
them with (thy) hands ? Come, let us go ! " 

They go on ; they arrive at a field. Mr. Leopard says : " Thou, 
Mr. Antelope, go this side ; pluck egg-plants, 617 unripe ones ; be- 
cause in the field of others. 618 I too shall go that side. We shall 
meet in front. Thou shalt also tear out cassada to eat together 
with the egg-plants ; thou shalt pull out from the unripe cassada." 
Mr. Antelope obeyed. He plucked green egg-plants, and pulled* out 
unripe cassada. Mr. Leopard plucked ripe egg-plants, and pulled 
out cassada (tubers), large ones. 

They meet ahead. Mr. Leopard says : " Come, please, let me see 
which thou didst pluck." Mr. Antelope says : " Sir, these." Mr. 
Leopard laughs at him, saying: "Antelope, thou art silly; thou 
pluckest fruits (that are) green." They ate. 

They arrive at a river ; they drink water. They find in (the river) 
a fish-trap. Mr. Leopard says: "Mr. Antelope, soon when they 
cook for us mush, thou shalt come and fetch water." Mr. Antelope 
says: "Sir, in what shall I carry it?" Mr. Leopard says: "Thou 
shalt carry it in the fish-trap." Mr, Antelope assents. They go on. 

They arrive near the house. Mr. Leopard takes up (his) ngola- 
mata, 519 saying : " Mr. Antelope, hang it on the staff." Mr. Antelope 
takes it. 

They arrive in front (of the house). They spread for them (mats) 
in the guest-house. Evening comes. They cook for them mush 
and a chicken. Mr. Leopard says : " Thou, Mr. Antelope, run (and) 
fetch (there) water." 

Mr. Antelope goes out ; arrives at the river. He lifts out the fish- 
trap. The water runs out He puts it again into the water. He 
takes it out. The water is out of it. He dips it again into the 
water. This keeps not in. He says: "I am going." He casts it 
with anger into the water. 

Mr. Leopard, behind where he stayed, ate his mush ; he left him 
(but) very little. Mr. Antelope arrives in the house, (and) says : 
" Sir, the fish-trap is leaking." Mr. Leopard says : " Thou, Ante- 
lope, art a fool. The fish-trap, they do not dip out water with it. 
I, Mr. Leopard, behind, where I stayed, dogs ate the mush. The 
little that I took from the dogs, eat (it) only, that little. I shall go 
to sleep (with) my hunger." Our friend, Mr. Antelope, ate. They 
had their evening chat, (and) went to sleep. 

s 76 Folk- Tales of Angola. 

Mu 0*1120, mu a a zalela, ku muelu akuikila-ku jihombo ni jimbudi." 
Na Ngo uabaluxnuka m'usuku ; uajiba hombo ku muelu. UanOmona 
kitutu ; uazunjila-mu o mahaii 520 a hombo. Ueza ; uaxila 621 na Ngu- 
lungu mu mutue. Na Ngo uia bu hama i£. 

Kuma kuaki. Eza mu ku a menekena. Na Ngo uaxikama bu 
kanga. Exi : " Kalunga, o mona, mazd ueza n6, uebi ? " Na Ngo 
yxi: "Kioua kia mona; hanji ki azeka." Akua-bata abokona mVnzo ; 
atala ku muelu : hombo iojibe ! Abokona mu xilu. Na Ngulungu, 
mutue uakusuka mahaxi. Exi : " Na Ngulungu, muene uajib* o 
hombo/' Na Ngo uxi : " Kidi muene. Ki ngimesenami kuenda ni 
mona ua mufii. Tu mu jibienu! ,, Na Ngulungu a mu jiba. Na 
Ngo a mu bana o kinama, Azekele. 

Kiziia kia kaiadi, na Ngo uxi : " Ngii'ami." Makou' S a mu bana 
mona, u mu ambetela o kinama kia Ngulungu. Akutuka mu njila. 
Abixila ku bata di£. Ubokona mVnzo ; exi : " Kalunga, tusange- 
ku." Muene uxi : " Tuavulu." 

O mukaji a na Ngulungu ueza mu kuibula na Ngo, uxi : " Kalunga, 
o uendele n'6, 522 uebi ? " Na Ngo uxi : " Uabiti mu kobalala diko- 
ngo dig/' Muhetu ua na Ngulungu uataia. Na Ngo ua mu bana o 
kinama kia Ngulungu. 

O muhatu uaii & Uate o xitu bu jiku ; iabi. Uate o funji bu 
jiku ; iabi. Uauanena o ana o xitu. Mona uta xitu mu kanu, uxi : 
" Xitu ifii iala mu nuha tata." Manii & ua mu beta : " Eie, mona- 
kimi, ihi i ku zuelesa kiki ? Pai enu, exi uabiti mu kobalala diko- 
ngo." Azuba xitu i&. 


Ki abangeku izua, na Ngo uxi: "Ngiia mu menekena makou' ami. 
Eie, Kahima, tuie." Kahima uxi : " Kiauaba, kalunga." Akatuka. 

Abixila mu kaxi ka njila; asange jinzeu. Na Ngo uxi: " Kahima, 
zangula ponda ia mukaji etu." Kahima uxi : " Kalunga, jiji jinzeu ; 
jilumata." Na Ngo uolela, uxi : " Kahima, uadimuka." 

Asuluka. Asange dingi kisonde. Uxi : " Kahima, zangula ponda 
ia mukaji etu." Kahima uxi: "Kalunga, kiki kisonde; kilumata." 
Asuluka. Abixila m'o bia. 

Na Ngo uxi : " Kahima, di tele mbandu iiii, ukanze jinjilu ja 
imbondo ; uvuze ni fadinia ia kazeia ; mukonda dibia dia ngene. 
Erne ngi di tela mbandu ifii. Tutakana ku polo." 

Leopard % Antelope^ and Monkey. 177 

In the house in which they slept, by the door they had bound 
goats and sheep. Mr. Leopard got up in the night ; he killed a goat 
by the door. He took a piece of gourd; he let the blood of the 
goat run in (it). He came; he threw it at Mr. Antelope on (his) 
head. Mr. Leopard goes to his bed. 

The day shines. They come to greet them. Mr. Leopard is 
seated outside. They say: "Sir, the boy, yesterday thou earnest 
with him, where (is he)?" Mr. Leopard said: "A fool of a boy; 
still he is asleep." The house-people enter the house ; look inside 
the door ; a goat is killed ! They enter the sleeping-room. Mr. 
Antelope, his head is red with blood. They say : " Mr. Antelope, 
he has killed the goat." Mr. Leopard says: "Truth itself. I do 
niot want to go about with a son (who is) a thief. Let us kill him ! " 
Mr. Antelope is killed. Mr. Leopard, they give him a leg. They 

The second day, Mr. Leopard says: "I am going." His parents-in- 
law, they give him a boy, who will carry for him the leg of Antelope. 
They start on the road. They arrive at his home. He enters the 
house ; they say : " Sir, welcome." He says : u We are back." 

The wife of Mr. Antelope comes to ask Mr. Leopard, saying: 
" Sir, he thou wentest with him, 522 where (is he) ? " Mr. Leopard 
says : " He went to recover a debt of his." The wife of Mr. Ante- 
lope assents. Mr. Leopard gives to her the leg of Antelope. 

The woman went away. She put the meat on the fire-place ; it is 
done. She put the mush on the fire; it is done. She divides 
(among) the children the meat. One child puts the meat in (his) 
mouth, (and) says : " This meat is smelling of father." His mother, 
she beat him : " Thou, son, what makes thee talk thus ? Your 
father, they say he went to recover a debt." They finish their 


When several days had passed, Mr. Leopard said : " I will go to 
visit my parents-in-law. Thou, Monkey, let us go." Monkey says : 
"All right, sir." They start. 

They arrive in middle of road ; they meet with driver-ants. Mr. 
Leopard says : " Monkey, pick up the girdle of our wife." Monkey 
says: "Sir, these (are) drivers; they bite." Mr. Leopard laughs, 
saying : " Monkey, thou art shrewd." 

They go on. They find again red ants. Says: "Monkey, pick 
up the girdle of our wife." Monkey says : " Sir, these aie red ants ; 
they bite." They walk on. They arrive at a field. 

Mr. Leopard says : " Monkey, take thou this side, (and) pick green 
egg-plants, and pull out also unripe cassada, for (this) field is of 
others. I shall take that side. We shall meet ahead." 

ijS Folk* Tales of Angola. 

Kahima uaii Uabbdla ku jinjilu. Uakanze jakolo; uavuza ni 
fadinia ia makota. Na Ngo uS uakanze jinjilu jakolo, uavuza ni 
fadinia ia makota. Atakana ku polo. Na Ngo uxi : " Kahima, zk 
hanji, ngitale ji uakanze." Ua mu idika-jiu. Na Ngo uolela, uxi : 
" Kahima, uadimuka." Adi. 

Asuluka. Abixila ku ngiji. Anu menia. Na Ngo uxi: "Eie, 
Kahima, lelu ki a tu telekela o funji, uiza mu takana o menia." Ka- 
hima uxi : " Ngi a ambetela kuebi ?" Uxi : " Ui a ambetela mbinda 
ifii." U mu idika muziia. Kahima uataia. 

Asuluka. Abixila ku mbandu a bata dia makou' L Na Ngo uxi: 
" Kahima, nienga ngolamata ietu ku mbangala." Kahima uetambula, 
uenienga. Abixila mu sanzala. A a zalela mu kijima. Ngoloxi 
ieza. A a telekela kudia. 

Na Ngo uxi : " Kahima, k&takane menia." Kahima uabalumuka ; 
utubuka bu kanga, ukondoloka ku xilu dia 'nzo. Uimana katangana 
kofele ; ubokona mVnzo ; usanga na Ngo, uamateka kusukula o 
maku. Na Ngo uxi: "Kahima, meni* ebi?" Kahima uxi: "Ka- 
lunga, i6 muztia ; ki uxikina kutaba menia." Na Ngo uolela, uxi : 
" Kiauaba. Xikama boxi ; sukula maku ; tudie funji." Kahima uaxi- 
kama; uasukula maku ; adia funji il Akua-bat* eza. Exi : "Kalu- 
nga, uamono, mona, ueza n'6, uadimuka." Amuangana ; azeka. 

Ngana Ngo uabalumuka m* usuku ; uatubuka ku muelu. O ki aba- 
lumuka, Kahima iii u mu tala ; ua di xiVL O na Ngo uafika, uxi : 
" Kahima uazeka." Na Ngo uajiba hombo; uazangula mahaxi mu 
kitutu; iii uiza mu ku a texila Kahima. Umateka o kuzenga 623 lu* 
kuaku. Kahima u mu vutuila-lu. A mu texikila muene, na Ngo. 
Na Ngo uai mu hama ie, uazeka 

Kuma kuaki. Kahima uatubuka bu kanga ni ngolamata ia na 
Ngo. Ua* mu xika, uxi : 

- "Uatobesa Ngulungu; 

* Ni Kahim'4?" 


"Uatobesa Ngulungu; 
Ni Kahim'a?" 

Aku' a bat' eza, exi : " Mbanza uala kuebi ? " Kahima uxi : 
"Mbanza hanji iazeka." Exi: "Tuie, tu mu balumune." Abo- 
kona mu xilu ; asange mbanza ua di futu, ni mutue. Exi : " Mba- 
nza, balumuka." Muene uxi : " Uatungile o kanzu aka, uatungile." 

Leopard) Antelope, and Monkey. 1 79 

Monkey went. He came to the egg-plants. He picked the ripe 
ones; he pulled out also large cassada. Mr. Leopard, too, picked 
ripe egg-plants, and pulled out also the large cassada. They meet 
ahead. Mr. Leopard says : " Monkey, come please, let me see which 
thou hast picked." He shows him them. Mr. Leopard laughs, say- 
ing: *• Monkey, thou art shrewd." They ate. 

They walked on. They arrive at a river. They drink water. 
Mr. Leopard says : " Thou, Monkey, to-day when they cook us the 
mush, thou shalt come to fetch water." Monkey says: "Where 
shall I carry it (in) ?" Says: "Thou shalt carry it in this gourd." 
He shows him the fish-trap. Monkey assents. 

They move on. They arrive near the house of his parents-in-law. 
Mr. Leopard says : " Monkey, hang up our ngolamata on the staff." 
Monkey takes it ; hangs it up. They arrive in the village. They 
spread for them (mats) in the guest-house. Evening has come. 
They cook them food. 

Mr. Leopard says : " Monkey, go and fetch water." Monkey gets 
up ; goes outside, goes round to back of house. He stands a little 
while ; comes into the house ; finds Mr. Leopard, who has begun to 
wash (his) hands. Mr. Leopard says : " Monkey, the water, where 
(is it) ? " Monkey says : " Sir, that thing (is) a fish-trap ; it will not 
dip out water." Mr. Leopard laughs, saying : "All right. Sit down 
(on ground) ; wash (thy) hands ; let us eat the mush." Monkey sits 
down ; washes (his) hands ; they eat their mush. The house-people 
come. Say : " Sir, thou hast seen ; the boy, thou earnest with him, 
he is shrewd." They separate ; they go to sleep. 

Mr. Leopard stands up in the night ; he goes out into the door* 
room. When he stood up, Monkey, he looks at him ; (but) keeps 
silent Mr. Leopard supposes, saying: "Monkey is asleep." Mr. 
Leopard kills a goat ; he lets the blood run into a piece of gourd ; 
then he comes to pour it over Monkey. He begins to lift his hand. 
Monkey, he pushes it back. It (the blood) spills upon himself, Mr. 
Leopard. Mr. Leopard goes to his bed, to sleep. 

Morning shines. Monkey goes outside with the banjo of Mr. 
Leopard. He is playing, saying : 

" Thou didst fool Antelope, 

Whether also Monkey ? n 
Saying : 

" Thou didst fool Antelope, 

Whether also Monkey ?" 

The house-people came, saying : " The chief, where is he ? * Monkey 
says : " f The chief is still asleep." They say: "Let us go, that we 
make him get up." They enter the bedroom, they find the chief 
covered up, even the head. They say : " Chief, get up." He says : 

I So Folk -Tales of Angola. 

Eza mu mu balumuna ; exi : " Balumuka. Kuma kuaki." Uxi : 
" Uatudikile kaham* aka, uatudikile.''* A mu vungumuna mulele 
mu polo : mutue uoso uaiiba ni mahaxi. 

Atubuka ku muelu, atala jihombo : ajiba-ku hombo imoxi. Exi : 
"Tuafikile, tuxi <na Ngulungu uajibile o hombo;' manii na Ngo 
muene ? " Kahima uxi : " Mukuetu, na Ngulungu, ua mu tobesele ; 
n'eme uamesena ku ngi tobesa." 

O makouakimi a na Ngo ajiba na Ngo. Exi: "Manii holome ia 
kiama!" Exi: "Eie, Kahima, eie usakana kia ni muhatu; 62 * id 
kiama." A mu tale ; azangula kinama ; a ki bana Kahima. Azekele. 

Kiziia kia kadi, Kahima uxi: "Ngii'ami." A mu bana mona, 
uimbata o kinama kia na Ngo. Abixila ku bata. Exi : " Kahima, 
tusange-ku." Uxi : " Tuavulu." Uabokona mVnzo ia na Ngo. Exi : 
" O mbanza, muene uebi ? " Uxi : " Mbanza uabiti mu kobalala di- 
kongo did. O kinama kia xitu kiki, ki a tu bana-ku." Mukaji a na 
Ngo uatambula. Kahima uaii 6 ku bata did. 

Mukaji a na Ngo uate o xitu bii jiku ; iabi. Ualambe funji ; iabi. 
Uuana xitu; ubana ana. Mona uxi: "Xitu iala mu nuha tata." 
Muhatu uzangula ngima, 625 ubeta mona : " Ihi i ku tangesa kiki ? 
Tat'enu uabiti mu kobalala dikongo." Azuba kudia. Kahima iii 
uiza ; ubokona m'o'nzo, uxi : " Mukaji a na Ngo, ngi bane kaxitu." 
Muhatu uxi : " Xitu iabu." 

Kahima uatubuka bu kanga. Uai ku mbandu a sanzala. Uasa- 
mbela muxi, uxi: "Mukaji ana Ngo, uila, uxi 'ngadimuka.' Kiki, 
ngan' enu, ua mu di o kinama." Kahima ualenge 6 mu iangu. Mu- 
kaji a na Ngo ukuata mu dila, uxi : "Manii kidi, ki azuelele mona." 
Adidi o tambi. 

Tuateletele kamusoso ketu, ha kauaba ha kaiiba. Ha bala mutu, 
uamba kuta, ate. Mahezu. (Aku£ atambujila : "A Nzambi.") 

Leopard, Antelope^ and Monkey. x%l 

" (He) who built this little house, he built (well)/' They have come 
to make him get up; say: "Get up. It is day." He says: "He 
who set up this little bed, he set up (well)." They uncover the cloth 
from his face : his whole head is ugly with blood. 

They go to the door-room, look at the goats ; they have killed one 
of the goats. They say : " We had supposed, saying, s Mr. Antelope 
killed the goat ; ' whether (it was) Mr. Leopard himself ? " Monkey 
says : " Our friend, Mr. Antelope, he fooled him ; me also, he wanted 
to fool me." 

The parents-in-law of Mr. Leopard kill Mr. Leopard. They say : 
" Why, (our) son-in-law (is) a wild beast ! " They say : " Thou, 
Monkey, thou shalt marry now with the girl; 62 * this one (was) a 
wild beast" They skin him ; take a leg ; give it to Monkey. They 

The second day, Monkey says : "lam going." They give him a 
boy, who will carry the leg of Mr. Leopard. They arrive at home. 
People say: "Monkey, may we meet." He says: "All well." He 
enters into the house of Mr. Leopard. They say: "The chief, 
where is he ? " He says : " The chief went to recover a debt of his. 
This leg of meat (it is) that he gave us of it," The wife of Mr. 
Leopard receives (it). Monkey goes to his house. 

The wife of Mr. Leopard set the meat on fire-place ; it is cooked. 
She cooked the mush ; it is done. She divides the meat ; she gives 
the children. A child says: "The meat is smelling (like) father." 
The woman lifts up the mush-stick, beats the child : " What makes 
thee talk thus ? Your father went to recover a debt." They finish 
the food. Monkey, he comes ; enters the house, says : " Wife of 
Mr. Leopard, give me a little meat." The woman says : "The meat 
is finished." 

Monkey goes outside. He goes to side of village. He climbs a 
tree (and) says : " Wife of Mr. Leopard, thou thinkest, saying : * I 
am wise.' Now, thy lord, thou hast eaten his leg." Monkey runs 
away into the bush. The wife of Mr. Leopard begins to cry, say- 
ing: "Then (it is) truth, what the child said." They wailed the 

We have told our little story, whether good, whether bad. If 
there is one, who says 'to tell' (more), let him telL The end, (The 
others in chorus : " (Is) of God.") 

1 8a Folk^Tales of Angola. 


Erne ngateletele ngana Ngo. Mu 'xi, mu eza nzala. 

Ngana Ngo anga udima muzondo ; m muzondo uabi. Uasange 
alodia o muzondo : "Nanii ualuniana muzondo uami?" Uabatama; 
uia mu tala: Kahima ni Kabulu. Uixi : "Eie, Kahima, eie u rau- 
laul* ami, lelu ueza ku ngi niana o muzondo uami 6 ? N'eie u6, 
Kabulu, u mulauV ami, ualombuela i alobanga Kahima; ualokuiza 
ku ngi niana ? " 

Ngana Ngo uia ku bata dia kaveia, uixi : " Kaveia, ngi bangele 
milongo ia kukuata Kahima ni Kabulu, alokuiza ku ngi niana." 
"Uambata kikuxi? O mukolomono uebi?" "Ngambata dikolo- 
mbolo dia sanji." " O kitadi kia milongo kiebi ? " " U ngi bangele 
hanji o milongo. Ki ngabindamena, la nga ki mono, kiene ngu ku 
futa o kitadi kte. Ngi bandulule hanji." Kuala kaveia: " Kiambote; 
tuzeke-etu. O mungu, kiene tubanga o milongo." 

Kaveia uatubula o dikolombolo dia sanji, di ambata ngana Ngo ; 
uate o 'mbia bu jiku ; menia matema. Uabondeka 627 o dikolombolo 
dia sanji; ua di vuza; ua di bange. Uate maji mu 'mbia; ua di 
fokala; diabi. Uate o funji bu jiku; funji iasekuka; ualambe o 
funji. Uate bu malonga ; uazale o dixisa ; uexana ngana Ngo, uixi : 
*' Z£, ujandale." Uiza mu jandala. A mu bana dilonga dia kusu- 
kuila maku ; uasukula maku. Uakuata mu dia funji ; uadi A mu 
bana menia. Uazek'£. 

Utula mu 'amenemene ka selu. Kuala kaveia, uixi : " Uamono, 
eie ngana Ngo, ki uibanga ku bata di£. Ki u&sanga o muxi ua mu- 
zondo, u&kanda o madila pala ngana Kahima ni ngana Kabulu. Ene 
ki an da kuibanda muxi, eie uk di xib'6. Ki uanda 528 ku a mona 
abande kia ku muxi, eie uebudisa : ' A-nanii 6 ? * Ene, Kahima ni 
Kabulu, ki anda kuiva, andokala ni uoma u£, ngana Ngo. Anda 
ku&tuka boxi, anda kuafua mu makungu." 

Ngana Ngo uiza ku bata di£; uakande o makungu moxi dia muxi 
ua muzondo. Ki azuba kukanda o makungu, uvutuka ku bata diS. 

Ki anange kitangana, utunda ku bata di£ ; uia mu tala. Moxi a 
muxi, Kabulu iii ; Kahima uala ku tandu a muxi. Ngana Ngo ki aii 
mu kuata Kabulu, Kabulu ualenge fi. Ki akuata ku mu kaia, ua mu 
lembua. Kahima u£ ualenge e. Ngana Ngo uia ku bata did. 

Leopard, Monkey \ and Hare. 183 



I often tell of Mr. Leopard. In the country there came a famine. 
Mr. Leopard then planted a muzondo ; 626 the muzondo is ripe. 
He finds they are eating the muzondo : " Who is stealing my mu- 
zondo ? *' He hides ; goes to spy : (it is) Monkey and Hare. Says 
he : " Thou, Monkey, my grandson, now thou comest to steal my 
muzondo ? And thou, too, Hare, thou, my grandson, thou dost 
imitate what Monkey is doing ; thou art coming to rob me ? " 

Mr. Leopard goes to the houso of the old one t says : " Old one, 
make me a charm to catch Monkey and Hare, who are always com- 
ing to rob me." "How much dost thou carry? The doctor-fee, 
where (is it) ? " " I bring a rooster/* "The money of the medicine, 
where ?" "Do thou make me the medicine first What I need, if 
I get it, then I will pay thee thy money. Help me, please." Then 
the old one: "All right; let us sleep. To-morrow then we will 
make the charm. " 

The old one took out the cock, which Mr. Leopard had brought ; 
she ptit the pot on the hearth; the watet is hot She soaks the 
cock ; 627 she plucks it ; she prepares it She puts oil into the pot ; 
she roasts it ; it is done. She puts the mush on the fire-place ; the 
mush boils ; she has cooked the mush. She puts (it) on plates ; she 
spreads the mat ; she calls Mr. Leopard, saying : " Come (and) dine." 
He comes to dine. They give him the basin to wash hands in ; he 
washed (his) hands. He begins to eat mush ; has eaten* They give 
him water. He sleeps. 

He arrives in the morning early. Then the old one says : " Thou 
seest, thou Mr. jeopard, what thou shalt do at thy home. When 
thou hast gone to the tree of muzondo, thou shalt dig holes for Mr. 
Monkey and Mr. Hare. When they are going to climb the tree, 
thou shalt keep quiet When thou shalt see them having already 
climbed on the tree, thou shalt ask them ; • Who are there ? * They, 
Monkey and Hare, when they will hear, will be with fear of thee, 
Mr. Leopard. They will jump to the ground, and die in the holes." 

Mr. Leopard came to hife home ; he dug the holes under the tree 
of muzondo. When he finished digging the holes, he returned to 
his house. 

When he passed some time, he goes out of his house, goes to 
look. Under the tree, Hare (is) there ; Monkey is up on the tree. 
Mr. Leopard, when he went to catch Hare, Hare ran away. When 
he took to chasing him, he gave him up. Monkey also ran away. 
Mr. Leopard goes to his home. 

184 Folk- Tales of Angola. 

Mu 'amenemene ka selu, ukatula uta mu o'nzo i6, ni patonona, ni 
diselembe, ni himia; ukuata mu kuenda, kat£ ku bata dia kaveia. 
"U ngi bane o sanji iami! O madila, ua ngi tumine o kubanga, 
Kabulu, ngalembua ku mu kuata ; ni muku&, Kahima, ene ai'&. O 
sanji iami, ngi bane-iu, ngiie nam/' Kuala o kaveia : st Tuzeke-etu, 
ngana Ngo. Mungu, kiene uia-ke," Azek'l 

Ki atula mu 'amenemene, kuala kaveia: "Nd6 mu solongo dia 
muxitu, uabatula tumixi pala ku tu songa. Tubanga iteka ; iteka ia 
ahetu ni mesu md, ni mele ma, ni matui m&, ni mazunu m&, ni ma- 
kanu mi. Udtubula o matui ma, uata o jibixa; uatakana o misanga, 
ni hula ; uauaia o hula ; eie uasema uasu ua mulemba, uauaia ue ; 
o tumikolo uS ud tu takana. Eie, ngana Ngo, ki uatula ku bata 
di6, udzek'6. Uatula mu 'amenemene, uakatuka, uaia bu muxi. Ki 
udbixila-bu, udbanda mu muxi, uatudik' eteka. Kiene eie utunde-ku, 
usuame moxi a divunda, ni tumikolo tu6. Mu ene mu uakal'6 mii 
kinga Kahima ni Kabulu." 

Ngana Ngo uvutuka ku bata; uabange ioso i a mu tumine ka- 
veia. Kiziia kiamukud, ki atudika o iteka, uala moxi a divunda. Ki 
abange katangana, umona Kahima ni Kabulu ; id eza kid. 

Ki atula bu muxi, kuala Kabulu, uixi : " Moso 6 ! Kabulu 6 ! Zd 
utaT elumba, iala ku tandu a muxi." Ki azuba kutala, Kahima uixi : 
" Enu, ilumba, nuanange 6 ? " A di xib'd. " Nuala ni sonii ? " A 
di xib'd. "Nuala ni nzala?" A di xib'd. Kuala Kabulu uixi: 
" Moso 6 ! ku bata di£ kuala-hi ? " Kahima uixi : " Ku bata diami 
kuala mbudi. Eie u£, Kabulu, ku bata di6 kuala-hi ? " Uixi : " Ku 
bata diami kuala ngulu." Uixi : " Moso, tui'etu kid." 

Atula ku bata; ajiba ngulu; ebange; eta mu 'mbia. Xitu iabi; 
funji iabi ; eta bu malonga. Azangula mudingi ua menia, ni ngandu, 
ni kudia kuoso. Akatuka . . . kat6 bu kota dia muxi. 

Kuala Kahima : " Enu, ilumba, tulukenu ; tudienu kid.' 1 Nguaid 
kutuluka. Uebudisa : " Nuala ni sonii ? " A di xib'd. Kuala Ka- 
hima : " Moso 6 ! Tui'etu hanji ; mukonda ala ni scmii ietu." Ai'l 

Ngana Ngo uatundu mu divunda; usanga o kudia; ukuata mu 
kudia. Ki azub' o kudia, uanu menia. Uiza kididi, usukula maku ; 
uiza kididi kiamukud, usukula o maku. 629 Uia dingi mu divunda; 

Leopard) Monkey \ and Hare. 185 

In the morning early, he takes off the gun in his house, and a 
cartridge-box, and hatchet, and club ; he begins to walk, up to the 
house of the old one. "Thou give me my chicken! The holes, 
thou didst order me to make, Hare, I got tired of catching him ; 
with the other, Monkey, they went off My fowl, give it me, that 
I go with it." Then the old one : " Let us sleep, Mr. Leopard. To- 
morrow, then thou mayest go all right." They sleep. 

When they arrive in the morning, then the old one : " Go to the 
heart of the forest; there to cut small trees for to carve them. 
We shall make images ; images of girls, with their eyes, with their 
breasts, with their ears, with their noses, with their mouths. Thou 
shalt pierce their ears, and put (on) earrings; thou shalt fetch 
beads, and red-wood; thou shalt smear the red-wood; thou shalt 
tap gum of the wild fig-tree, and smear too ; small ropes also, thou 
shalt fetch them. Thou, Mr. Leopard, when thou arrivest at thy 
house, shalt sleep. Thou arrivest in the morning, thou shalt start, 
go to the tree. When thou arrivest there, thou shalt climb into the 
tree and set up the images. Then do thou go hence, to hide under^ 
a thick bush, with thy small ropes. There shalt thou stay awaiting 
Monkey and Hare." 

Mr. Leopard returns home ; he did all that the old one had ordered 
him. Another day, having put up the images, he is under the bush. 
When he passed a moment, he sees Monkey and Hare ; they have 
already come. 

When they arrive at the tree, then Hare says; "Ah, friend! O 
Monkey ! come to see the girls, who are up on the tree." When he 
finished looking, Monkey said : " You girls, how do you do ? " They 
are silent. "Are you with shame ? " They keep quiet. "Are you 
hungry ? " They are silent. Then Hare says : " Eh, friend ! at 
thy home, what is there?" Monkey says: "At my home there is 
a sheep. Thou, too, Hare, at thy house, what is there ? " He says : 
11 At my house there is a hog." He says : " Friend, let us go now I " 

They arrive at home ; they kill the pig ; they cut it ; they put it 
in the pot. The meat is done ; the mush is ready ; they put it on 
plates. They take up a jug of water, and a mat, and all the food. 
They start ... up to the place of the tree. 

Then Monkey : " You, girls, come down ; let us eat now ! " They 
will not come down. He asks them : " Are you bashful ? " They 
are silent. Then Monkey : (t O friend ! Let us go please, for they 
are bashful with us." They go away. 

Mr. Leopard comes out of the bush ; he finds the food ; begins to 
eat. When he finished eating, he drank water. He comes to one 
place, washes his hands ; comes to the other, washes (his) hands. 689 
He goes again under the bush ; he hides. 

1 86 Folk- Tales of Angola. 

Kabulu uatula, uixi: "Moso 6 ! Kahim'd ! elumba iadi kiA!" Alo- 
zalula 630 o imbamba it; abeka-iu ku mabata rnL Kahima uiza ni 
mbanza it Akuata mu kuxika, akuata mu tonoka. Kuala Kabulu 
ni Kahima : " Enu, ilumba, zenu tutonokienu ! " Elumba nguai& 
kutonoka. Kahima ukuata mu kukina; Kabulu ualuxika mbanza. 
Kahima uatuka ku ilumba; ki aia mu kubelela, 531 uanaminina ku 
uasu. Uixi : " Moso 6 ! Z4 utale, o mon' a muhatu ua ngi kuata." 
Kabulu utakula o mbanza boxi ; uia mu belela ; uanaminina. Uixi ; 
" Aiud ! Moso d ! tuanaminina." 

Ngana Ngo utula ni hunia it Usanga Kabulu iii ; u mu vunda 
hunia; u mu ta mu kitakala 632 kit Usanga u£ Kahima; u mu bana 
hunia; u mu ta mu kitakala ki& Utuluk'S. Uabixila ku bata di£ ; 
uxi: "Mukaji ami, Kahima ni Kabulu, nga a bindamena, nga a 
kuata; mungu tu a lamba." Azek'£. 

Atula mu 'amenemene. A mu tudila tambi ia ukou' t Uixi : 
" Mukaji ami, mungu uzuka o muteba ; ukatula Kabulu mu kitakala, 
U mu tala, u mu lamba. Eie udia o xitu id ; u ngi xila o iami. Kala 
kiki, xala kiambote." Ngana Ngo, iii ui'S kid. 

O muhatu uevu mu kitakala muixi: "Tu jitune; tfa, ngana Ngo, 
ua tu ambela u tu jitune, pala tu mu kaiela bu tambi." Muhatu ua 
a jituna. Kuala Kabulu: "Tu bane o jisabi ja kaxa; tuzuate, tu 
mu kaiele bu tambi." Ua a bana o jisabi. Ajikula o mbaulu; 688 
azuata. Ngana Kabulu uala kadifele : m xibata mu mbunda ; bond 
ku mutue. O ngana Kahima uala kabitangu : m xibata mu mbunda; 
bond ku mutue. 

Akatuka . . . katd bu tambi, bu aii ngana Ngo. Asanga ngana 
Ngo iii. Kuala ngana Kabulu uixi : " Mu kutienu ! ngana nguvulu 
ua mu tumu." A mu kutu, maku ku dima. Uixi: "Ngate-mu 
diletd dia ngulu pala ku ngi zozolola 534 o mikolo ! kizongelu kia 
fadinia! hama ia mukuta!" 686 A-ngana Kahima ni Kabulu ata- 
mbula. Anange &. 

Atula mu ngoloxi. Kuala ngana Kabulu uixi : "An* a ngamb' 
d!" Alenge &. m Uexana o jihuedi ja ngana Ngo: "Ambatenu 
huedi enu! nui'enu kui ngana nguvulu, ua mu tumu." A mu 
ambata ku mukambu ua muxi; katd ku bata did, dia ngana Ngo. 
A mu tula boxi. 

Kuala Kabulu: "Tuamesena tudia." Ngana Ngo ukatula ngulu 
iasokela kiki, 687 itokala hama jitatu ; uia-ku kibutu kia fadinia. Kuala 
ngana Kahima, uixi : " Nguetuetu fadinia ; tuamesena f uba." A a 
bana o kibutu kia fuba. Atambula. 

Ajiba o ngulu ; ebange ; iai mu jimbia. Xitu iabi, Stebula, Ate 

Leopard^ Monkey \ and Hare. 187 

Hare has come and says : " Eh, friend ! Monkey ! the girls have 
eaten !" They pick up their things ; they bring them to their houses. 
Monkey comes with his banjo. They begin to play ; they begin to 
dance. Then Hare and Monkey : " You, girls, come, let us dance ! " 
The girls will not dance. 4 Monkey begins to dance ; Hare is play- 
ing the banjo. Monkey has jumped to the girls ; as he goes to 
smack, 631 he sticks to the gum. He says : " O friend ! Come and 
see, the young woman is holding me," Hare throws the banjo on 
the ground; he goes to smack; he sticks. Says: "Woe to me! 
O comrade, we are stuck ! " 

Mr. Leopard arrives with his club He finds Hare here; he 
knocks him (with) club ; he puts him in his side-bag. 682 He finds 
also Monkey; he gives him a clubbing; he puts him in his side- 
bag. He comes down. He arrives at his home, says : " My wife ! 
Monkey and Hare (whom) I wanted much, I have caught them; 
to-morrow we will cook them." They go to sleep. 

They arrive in morning. They announce to him the funeral of 
his father-in-law. He says : " My wife, to-morrow thou shalt pound 
the cassava ; then take Hare out of the side-bag. Thou shalt skin 
him, cook him. Thou shalt eat thy meat ; (and) leave me mine. 
So now, farewell." Mr. Leopard, he goes now. 

The woman hears in the side-bag, saying: "Let us out; uncle, 
Mr. Leopard, told us, thou shouldst let us out, that we follow him to 
the funeral/' The woman frees them. Then Har6 : " Give us the 
keys of the trunk ; that we dress and follow him to the funeral." 
She gives them the keys. They open the trunk ; they dress. Mr. 
Hare is ensign : sword on waist ; cap on head. Mr. Monkey is cap- 
tain : sword on waist ; cap on head. 

They start — up to the funeral, where Mr. Leopard went. They 
find Mr. Leopard here. Then Mr. Hare says: "Bind himl the 
Lord Governor sent for him." They bind him, hands on back. He 
says : " I offer a suckling of pig for slackening the ropes I a measure 
of meal ! a hundred macutas ! " 685 Messrs. Monkey and Hare ac- 
cept. They pass time. 

They arrive in evening. Then Mr. Hare says : " Carriers, hallo ! " 
They run away. He calls the brothers-in-law of Mr. Leopard : *' Carry 
ye your brother-in-law ! ye shall go to the Lord Governor, who sent 
for him." They carry him on a pole of a tree ; as far as his house, 
of Mr. Leopard. They set him down. 

Then Hare : "We want to eat." Mr. Leopard takes a hog, like 
this, 537 worth three hundreds; there goes a sack of meal. Then 
Mr. Monkey says: "We don't want meal; we want flour." They 
give them a sack of flour. They receive (it). 

They kill the hog ; they prepare it ; it goes into the pots. The 

1 88 Folk -Tales of Angola. 

o funji bu jiku; menia ma funji masekuka. Exi: "Kana mutu 
ulamba o funji; ngana Ngo u i lamba 688 ni maku." 

Ki atumu Kahima, ngana Ngo uiza mu lamba o funji ni maku. 
Muhatu ua ngana Ngo uate o f uba ; mutat* 6, ngana Ngo, uakuata 
mu kulamba. Lukuakft luaxomoka. Ngana Kahima: "Ta-muluku- 
aku luamukuS. ! " Lukuaku luamukuct luaxomoka. 

Kuala Kahima: "O menia ma funji, a ma texi ; ki mauab& Tu- 
die kid fadinia ietu." 

Ngana Ngo, a mu zangula ; a mu beka mu o'nzo iL 

Ki azuba o kudia, Kahima ni Kabulu, aia ku dima dia 'nzo. Azula 
o lopa ia ngana Ngo; eta bu dibunda; emana mu kanga muni 
" Tuma ku k'ijia ! etu 6 ! a-Kahima n'eme Kabulu 6 1 "• ua tu tele 
mu kitakala. O kiztia kia lelu, etu tualengele etu. w Mumam' 6, 
muene ua tu jitunu etu mu kitakala. Etu tuendele bu tambi pala 
ku ku kut' eie^ ngana Ngo. Tualui' etu 6 1 Kaienu." O jihuedi ja 
ngana Ngo alokaia Kabulu ni Kahima. Akaie ; alembua. 

Kiabekesa ngana Kahima uzeka mu muxi : mu konda dia kulenga 
ngana Ngo, k'a mu kuame. Kiabekesa ngana Kabulu kuzeka mu 
divunda, k'alozekd mu kanga : mu konda diolenga ngana Ngo. O 
ngana Ngo, kakexidifi ni madinga, o kia mu bekesa ukala ni madinga, 
ngana Kahima ni ngana Kabulu. 

Enu, ngana jami ja ahetu ; enu, ngana jami ja mala, ngateletele 
kamusoso kami. La kauaba, la kaiiba; ngazuba. Mahezu — "Ma 



Na Ngo uakala Kizu' eki, nzala ia mu kuata. Uxi : "Ngibanga 
kiebi? Ngixana o jixitu joso mu ngongo, ngixi 'izenu; tubange 
umbanda!' O ki jiza o jixitu, eme ngikuate, ngidie." 

Uatumu kii kuixana MbSmbi, ni Ngulungu, ni Soko, 641 ni Kabulu, 
ni Kasexi. Abongoloka, exi: "Ua tu tumina-hi?" Muene uxi: 
" Tukuatienu umbanda, tu di sanze ! " 

Kumbi diatoloka, Akuata o jingoma bu kanga, ni miimbu. O 
ngana Ngo muene uala mu xika o ngoma ; uala mu kuimbila, uxi : 

Leopard and the other Animals. \ 89 

meat is done, they take it from the fire. They put the mush on the 
fire ; the water of the mush boils. They say : " No one shall cook 
the mush ; Mr. Leopard shall cook it with (his) hands." ** 

As Monkey commanded, Mr. Leopard comes to cook the mush 
with (his) hands. The wife of Mr. Leopard put in the flour ; her 
husband, Mr. Leopard, begins to stir. The hand peels off. Mr. 
Monkey : " Put in the other hand 1" The other hand peels off. 

Then Monkey : "The water of the mush, throw it away ; it is not 
good. Now let us eat our meal." 

Mr. Leopard, they lift him up ; they bring him into his house. 

When they finished eating, Monkey and Hare, they go to back of 
house. They strip the clothes of Mr. Leopard ; they put them in a 
bundle; they stand in distance yonder. "Thou must know it! we 
are Monkey and Hare ; thou puttest us in the side-bag. The day of 
to-day, we ran away. Thy wife, she let us loose out of the side- 
bag. We went to the funeral to bind thee, Mr. Leopard. We are 
going away. Chase (us) ! " The brothers-in-law of Mr. Leopard are 
chasing Hare and Monkey. They chased ; gave up. 

What causes Mr. Monkey to sleep on tree ; (is) because of flying 
from Mr. Leopard, that he should not hurt him. What causes Mr. 
Hare to sleep in the bush, he does not sleep in the open field ; (is) 
because of flying (from) Mr, Leopard. Mr. Leopard, who had no 
spots, what caused him to have spots (was) Mr. Monkey and Mr. 

You, my ladies; you, my gentlemen, I have told my little story. 
Whether good, whether bad; I have finished. The end — "(Is) of 


Mr. Leopard lived. One day hunger grasps him. He says : 
" How shall I do ? I will call all the animals in the world, saying, 
' come ye, let us have a medical consultation.' When the animals 
come (then) I may catch and eat." 

He sends at once to call Deer, Antelope, Soko, 6 * 1 Hare, and Phi- 
lantomba. They gather, saying : " Why didst thou send for us ? " 
He says : " Let us consult medicine, that we get health." 

The sun is broken (down). They begin the drums outside with 
the songs. Mr. Leopard himself is beating the drum ; he is singing, 
saying : 

190 Folk- Tales of Angola., 

** Ngulungu 6 \ Mbambi ! 
Mukuenu ukata; 
K'u mu boloke ! 
Ngulungu 6 ! Mbambi ! 
Mukuenu ukata ; 
K'u mu boloke ! 
Ngulungu 6 ! Mbambi ! 
Mukuenu ukata; 
K'umu boloke!" 

O Mbambi uxi : " Mbanza, o ngoma, uala mu i xika kiebi ? Bek.i- 
iu kunu; ngi i xike." Na Ngo ua mu bana-iu. Mbambi uakuata 

© ngoma, uxi : 

" Kf kukata ; 
Ndunge ja ku kuata ! 
Ki kukata ; 
Ndunge ja ku kuata ! 
Ki kukata; 
Ndunge ja ku kuata ! " 

O na Ngo uabalumuka boxi, uxi : " Eie, Mbambi, k'uijfa kuxika 

O jixitu joso ha jileng'd, jixi : " Na Ngo uala ni jindunge ja ku tu 


Ngateletele Kabidibidi ka mon' a ngo ni Kabidibidi ka mon* a 
hombo, atonokene ukamba ua. 

O Kabidibidi ka mon' a hombo uxi : " Eie, kamba diami, uenda ni 
kuiza mu ngi nangesa ku bata dietu." Kabidibidi ka mon' a ngo 
uxi : " Erne k! ngitena kuia-jinga ku bata dienu ; mukonda papaii, ki 
£ne mu ia mu mabia, u6ne mu ngi xila kulanga bu muelu. KikaF 
eie uia-jinga ku bata dietu." Kabidibidi ka mon* a hombo uxi: 
"Kiauaba." Amuangan'&; azekele. 

Kabidibidi ka mon' a hombo uai kua kamba di£, Kabidibidi ka 
mon 9 a ngo. Atonoka ; kumbi diaf u. Kabidibidi ka mon' a hombo 
uatundu-ku; ueza ku bata did; azekele. Izua ioso, Kabidibidi ka 
mon 1 a hombo uSne mu ia kua kamba did, Kabidibidi ka mon' a 

Kizu' eki, Kabidibidi ka mon* a ngo uatangela pai &, uxi : " Papaii 
6 1 Kabidibidi ka mon' a hombo, kamba diami, ngene mu nanga n'6 
beniaba izua ioso." Pai £ uxi :. " Eie, mon* ami, u kioua. O hombo, 

The Young Leopdrd and the Young Goat 191 

w O Antelope ! O Deer ! 
Your friend is sick ; 
Do not shun him ! 
O Antelope ! O Deer ! 
Your friend is sick ; 
Do not shun him ! 
O Antelope ! O Deer ! 
Your friend is sick ; 
Do not shun him ! " 

Deer says : " Chief, the drum, how art thou playing it ? Bring it 
here; that I play it" Mr, Leopard gives him it. Deer takes the 

drum, says : 

" Not sickness \ 
Wiliness holds thee ! 
Not sickness ; 
Wiliness holds thee ! 
Not sickness ; 
Wiliness holds thee ! " 

Mr, Leopard stood up from ground, said : " Thou, Deer, knowesl 
not (how) to play the drum." 

The animals all then ran away, saying: "Mr. Leopard has a 
scheme to catch us." 


I will tell of Kabidibidi, the young leopard, and Kabidibidi, the 
young goati who played their friendship. 

Kabidibidi, the young goat, said: "Thou, my friend, shalt be 
coming to me to pass time at our house/' Kabidibidi, the young 
leopard, said : " I cannot go always to your house ; because father, 
when he is wont to go to the fields, he leaves me to watch on the 
threshold. It must be that thou comest always to our house/* 
Kabidibidi, the young goat, said : " All right/' They separated ; 
they slept 

Kabidibidi, the young goat, went to his -friend, Kabidibidi the 
young leopard. They played ; the sun died. Kabidibidi, the young 
goat, left there; went to his house; they slept. All days, Kabi- 
dibidi, the young goat, used to go to its friend, Kabidibidi the young 

One day, Kabidibidi, the young leopard, told his father, saying : 
"O father! Kabidibidi, the young he-goat, my friend, I am always 
passing time with him here all days/' His father says: "Thou, 

192 Folk- Tales of Angola. 

iene xitu ietu ; kuene o kudia kuetu, ku tuene mu dia. Ki eza mu 
ku nangesa, palahi u mu eha n'ai'd ? Ku mu kuata xtgu6 f ni tu mu 
die? O kiki, oba o saku ietu. Lelu, ha uiza, u mu ila, uxi : 'kamba 
diami, tuala mu tonoka ; bokona mu saku ietu mumu.' O ki abo- 
kona, eie ukuta ku saku. O ki uzuba o kukuta, unomona mbangala 
n'u mu vunda-iu ku tandu a saku." Mon' d uxi : " Kiauaba." Na 
Ngo uai'd mu mabia, ni mukaji d. 

Ku ema, ku axala Kabidibidi ka mon' a ngo, o Kabidibidi ka mon' 
a hombo ueza. Ala mu tonoka. Kabidibidi ka mon' a ngo uano- 
mona o saku, uxi: " Kamba diami d! Bokona mu saku mumu; 
tuala mu tonoka." Kabidibidi ka mon' a hombo uabokona mu saku ; 
kamba did uakutu-ku ngoji. 

Kitangana, Kabidibidi ka mon' a hombo uxi : " Kamba diami d ! 
ngi jitule ! " Kamba did uxi : " Kala hanji momo ! " Kabidibidi ka 
mon' a hombo uxi dingi : " Ngi jitule ; ha k'u ngi jitula, ngisuxina- 
mu." Kabidibidi ka mon' a ngo uxi: "Sus' 6!" Uxi: "Ngine- 
nena-mu." Kamba did uxi: "Tunda mu saku ia pai etu; k'unenene- 
mu." Ua mu jitula ; atonoka. Kabidibidi ka mon' a hombo uai'd. 

O ku ema, na Ngo, uendele mu mabia, uatula. Uxi : " Kabidibidi 
ka mon* a hombo uebi ? " Mon' 6 uxi : " Uejile ; nga mu tele mu 
saku. Uxi: 'ngisuxina-mu;' ngixi ' sus'd ! ' Uxi: * nginenena-rau/ 
Ngixi: 'tunda mu saku ia pai etu; k'unenene-mu.' Eme nga mu 
jitula; uai'd." Na Ngo uxi: "Eie, mon' ami, hanji uatoba" Aze- 

Kimenemene, na Ngo ua mu bana dingi o saku, uxi : " Lelu ki 
eza, u mu bokuesa-mu dingi. O ki ela uxi ' ngisuxina-mu/ u mu ila 
* sus'd ! ' O ki ela ' nginenena-mu/ u mu ila ' nen'd ! * O saku iami 
eme muene ; tu i sukul' d." 

O ki ala mu zuela kiki, manii, Kabidibidi ka mon' a hombo lelu ua 
di meneka kui kamba did. O ki evu o kuzuela, uakondoloka ku xilu 
dia 'nzo ; uasuama. Na Ngo uai mu mabia. 

Ku ema, Kabidibidi ka mon 'a hombo uatukuluka ; ala mu tonoka. 
Kabidibidi ka mon' a ngo uanomona o saku, uxi : " Kamba diami, zi 
mu saku mumu." Kamba did uabokona; uakutu-ku. Kitangana, 
uxi: "Ngi jitule." Kamba did uxi: "Kala hanji." Uxi: "Ngi- 
suxina-mu." Uxi: "Sus'd!" "Nginenena-mu." Uxi: "K'unenene- 
mu ; tunda mu saku ia pai etu." Ua mu jitula ; mon' a hombo 

The Young Leopard and the Young Goat 193 

my child, art a fool. The goat, that is our meat ; that is the food 
which we are wont to eat When he comes to pass time with thee, 
why dost thou allow him to go away ? Wilt thou not catch him, 
that we eat him ? Well now, here is our sack. To-day, if he comes, 
thou shalt tell him, saying : ' My friend, we are playing ; enter into 
our sack, in here/ When he is in, thou shalt bind the sack. When 
thou hast done binding, thou shalt take a staff, and shalt knock it on 
him over the sack." His child said : " All right." Mr. Leopard 
went to the fields with his wife. 

Behind, where stayed Kabidibidi, the young leopard, Kabidibidi, 
the young goat, pame. They are playing. Kabidibidi, the young 
leopard, took the sack, saying : " My friend ! enter into the sack 
here; we are playing. ,, Kabidibidi, the young goat, entered the 
sack ; his friend tied on (it) the cord. 

A while, Kabidibidi, the young goat, says : " O my friend ! let me 
out ! " His friend says : " Stay in there ! " Kabidibidi, the young 
goat, says again : " Let me out ; if thou dost not let me out, I shaU 
pee in it." Kabidibidi, the young leopard, said : " Just pee ! " He 
says : " I must mess in it." His friend said : " Get out of the sack 
of my father ; do not mess in it." He let him out ; they played. 
Kabidibidi, the young goat, went away. 

Behind, Mr. Leopard, who had gone to the fields, has arrived. 
He says: "Where is Kabidibidi, the young goat?" His child 
says : " He came ; I put him into the sack. He said : ' I must pee 
in it ; ' I said : * Just pee ! * He said : ' I must mess in it,' I said : 
* Get out of the sack of my father ; do not mess in it/ I let him 
out ; he went away." Mr. Leopard said : " Thou, my child, art still 
foolish." They slept. 

(In the) morning, Mr. Leopard gave him again the sack, saying : 
" To-day, when he comes, thou must make him get in again. When 
he speaks, saying, ' I must pee in it,' tell him, ' just pee ! * When 
he says, <I must mess in it/ tell him, 'just messP The sack is 
mine, my own ; we can wash it ! " 

When he is thus speaking, behold, Kabidibidi, the young goat, 
to-d^y has come early to his friend. When he heard the talking, he 
went round to the back of the house ; he hid. Mr. Leopard went 
to the fields. 

Behind, Kabidibidi, the young goat, appeared ; they are playing. 
Kabidididi, the young leopard, took the sack, saying : " My friend, 
come into this sack here." His friend entered, he tied (it) up. 
A while, he says : " Let me out." His friend says : " Stay longer." 
He says : " I (must) pee in it." Says : " Just pee ! " "I must mess 
in it." Says : " Do not mess in it ; get out of the sack of my 
father." He let him out; the young goat came out 

194 Folk* Tales of Angola* 

Kitangana, Kabidibidi ka mon* a horabo uxi : " Eie u6, bokosa* 
mu. w Kabidibidi ka mon* a ngo uabokona mu saku. O mon* a 
hombo uakutu-ku. Kabidibidi ka mon' a ngo uxi: "Ngi jitulc." 
Muku& uxi : " Kala hanji." Uxi : " Ngisuxina-mu." Mukui uxi : 
" Sus'6 ! " Uxi : " Nginenena~mu." Kamba di£ uxi ; " Nen'6 ! " Ka- 
bidibtdi ka mon* a hombo unomona mbangala ; uevundu Kabidibidi 
ka mon f a ngo ; raon* a ngo uaf u. 

Kabidibidi ka mon' a hombo uazeka mu hama ia na Ngo. Uano- 
mona ngubu ; 642 ua di futu, ni mutue ; ua di xib'& 

Kitangana, na Ngo uabi&ila, uxi : " Mon' ami, uai kuebi ? " Ka- 
bidibidi ka mon' a hombo uatolesa kadizui 643 mu zuela, uxi : " Erne 
li ! papaii ; mutue uala mu ngi kata. O Kabidibidi ka mon' a hombo 
nga mu jiba ; nga mu te mu saku. Eie pe, k'u i jitule." Na Ngo 
uxi: "Kiauaba." 

Muhatu a na Ngo uate imbia ia dikota bu jiku ; menia afuluka. 
A mu kuzula ni saku m'o'mbia ; uaxomokena momo. Kabidibidi ka 
mon' a hombo, uala mu hama, uxi: "Eme ngiza, papaii; ngi mu 
kulula." Ua di futu o ngubu ia na Ngo ; uatubuka bu kanga ni 
saku. Ua mu xomona ; ua mu batula o makanda. Uabokona 
m'o'nzo; uazek'& Ateleka 3?itu; iabi. 

Na Ngo uxi: "Mon' ami, balumuka km, tudie." Kabidibidi ka 
mon* a hombo uxi : " Papaii, ki ngitena kuxikama m'o'nzo ; muala 
munza. Ngi bane enu kudia kuami ; ngiia bu kanga." A mu bana 
kudia ku& Ua di futu ni mutue ; uatubuka. Uaboloka mu kanga ; 
uhandekela, uxi : "Eie, na Ngo, uila uxi 'ngadimuka;' o kiki, mon r £, 
ua mu di. Eme Kabidibidi ka mon' a hombo ; eme ngii'ami id." 

Na Ngo utubuka bu kanga ; utala. Kabidibidi ka mon* a hombo 
uala mu lenga ni lusolo. Ua mu kaie ; ua mu lembua. 

Kala kiki, na Ngo kiene ki azembela o jihombo, mukonda mon' & 
uatonokene ni mon' a hombo ; o mon' a iti ua mu disa mon' 6. 

Ngateletele kamusoso kami. Mahezu. 

The Young Leopard and the Young Goat. 19S 

A while, Kabidibidi, the young goat, says : " Thou, too, get into 
it." Kabidibidi, the young leopard, got into the sack. The young 
goat tied (it) up. Kabidibidi, the young leopard, said: "Let me 
out" The other said : " Stay longer." He says : " I must pee in 
it" The other says: "Just pee!" Says: "I must mess in it." 
His friend says: "Just mess!" Kabidibidi, the young goat, takes, 
the staff ; he knocks it on Kabidibidi, the young leopard ; the young 
leopard is dead. 

Kabidibidi, the young goat, laid (himself) down in the bed of Mr. 
Leopard. He takes the sheet j 6 * 2 he covers himself over (his) head ; 
keeps silent. 

A while, Mr. Leopard arrives, saying: "My child, where art 
thou gone?" Kabidibidi, the young goat, makes a small, tiny 
voice 648 in speaking, says : " I am here ! papa; (my) head is aching 
•me. Kabidibidi, the young goat, I killed him ; I put him in the 
sack. Thou, however, do not untie it." Mr. Leopard said: "All 

The wife of Mr. Leopard set a pot, a large one, on the fire ; the 
water boils. They put him with the sack into the pot ; he is scalded 
in there. Kabidibidi, the young goat, who is in bed, says : " I am 
coming, papa ; I will scrape him." He covered himself with the bed- 
sheet of Mr. Leopard ; he went outside with the sack. He peels 
him ; he cuts off his paws. He goes into the house ; he lies down. 
They cook the meat ; it is done. 

Mr. Leopard says : " My son, get up now ; let us eat." Kabidi- 
bidi, the young goat, says : " Papa, I cannot sit up in the house ; in 
here there is heat Ye give me my food ; I will go outside," They 
gave him his food. He covered himself over head ; went out. He 
moved off in distance; he shouts, saying: "Thou, Mr. Leopard, 
thinkest, saying, ' I am shrewd ' ; but now, thy son, thou hast eaten 
him. I am Kabidibidi, the young goat ; I am going here." 

Mr. Leopard rushes outside ; he looks. Kabidibidi, the young 
goat, is running away in haste. He pursued him ; he gave him up. 

Thus, Mr. Leopard, therefore he hates the goats, because his son 
played with the son of the goat ; the young of the latter, he made 
him eat his (own) son. 

I have told my little tale. Finished. 

196 Folk- Tales of Angola. 


Kabulu uendile muhamba ue ualeba, uxi : " Ngiia mu kuta mania- 
ngua mu tala." 

Uakatuka; ubijdla mu ka*i kia 54 * njila. Utakanesa ni na Ngo; 
na Ngo uxi : " Eie, Kabulu, ua di kaka ; o muhamba uos' u ? uia n'a 
kuebi ? " Kabulu uxi : " Kalunga, ngiia mu kuta tumaniangua mu 
mabia." Na Ngo uxi : " Eie muene, muhamba ua ku tundu ; ha 
uazala 546 o maniangua, u u ambata kiebi ?" Kabulu uxi : "Kalunga, 
ha eie muene, ngasoko ku ku ambata ! " Na Ngo uxi : " Eie, Ka- 
bulu, ua di metena. Ha ua ngi lembua, ng 'u banga kiebi ? " Kabulu 
uxi : " Kalunga, ngi bete." 

Na Ngo uakutuka bu muhamba. Kabulu uxi : " Kalunga, ki ngi- 
kuta o mikolo ku muhamba, k'u di kole; manii uavula kusonoka 
boxi/' Na Ngo uxi: "Kiauaba." 

Kabulu uanomona mukolo ; uambela na Ngo, uxi : " Kalunga, ta- 
ndela kiambote." Na Ngo uatandela; Kabulu uakutu. Ufomona 
dikiia did mu mbunda ; u di ta na Ngo mu mutue. Na Ngo uxi : 
"Eie, Kabulu, uandala ku ngi banga kiebi?" Kabulu uxi: "Enu 
mua tu zemba." Kabulu u mu tonia dingi ; na Ngo uafu. 

Kabulu ua mu tale ; uvutuka ku bata did. Uadi xitu id ; uakal'd. 

Ngateletele kamusoso. Mahezu. 


Ngulungu uavile hombo ia muhatu ; o Ngo anga uvua hombo ia 

Ngulungu anga uia kua Ngo ku mu binga o hombo id ia kisutu, 
pala ku i baka mu 'ibanga kid ni hombo id ia muhatu pala ku i 
vualesa. Uixi, o ki akuata o mavumu matatu, n'a mu bana o mon' 
a hombo ia muhatu ni hombo id ia kisutu ; o Ngulungu n'axal'd ni 
hombo id ni an'd. Ingo anga itambujila, anga ubana o kisutu. 

O ki avualele o mavumu matatu, Ngulungu ukuata mona a hombo 
ia muhatu ni kisutu kia ngana Ngo. Uia kua mu bekela, anga u 

The Lawsuit of Leopard and Antelope. 1 97 


Hare plaited his long basket, saying : " I will go to bind squashes 
in the field." 

He started ; he arrives in middle of road. He meets with Mr. 
Leopard ; Mr. Leopard says : " Thou, Hare, thou art courageous ; 
this whole basket here? Where dost thou go with it ?" Hare 
said : " Lord, I am going to bind a few small squashes in the fields." 
Mr. Leopard said : " Thou indeed, the basket is bigger than thou ; 
if it be full of squashes, how wilt thou carry it ? " Hare said : 
" Lord, if (it be) thou, thyself, I am able to carry thee ! " Mr. 
Leopard said : u Thou, Hare, art presumptuous. If thou givest me 
up, what may I do to thee ? " Hare said : " Lord, beat me." 

Mr. Leopard gets into the basket. Hare said : " Lord, when I 
fasten the ropes to the basket do not shriek ; but beware of falling 
on the ground." Mr. Leopard said : " All right," 

Hare took a rope ; he tells Mr. Leopard, saying: " Lord, stretch 
(thyself) out well." Mr. Leopard stretched out ; Hare bound. He 
takes off his hatchet from waist ; he, knocks (with) it Mr. Leopard on 
the head. Mr. Leopard says : " Thou, Hare, how dost thou mean to 
treat me ?" Hare said : " You do hate us." Hare hits him again ; 
Mr, Leopard dies. 

Hare flayed him; he returns to his house. He ate his meat; 
lived on. 

I have told the little story. Finished. 

Antelope owned a she-goat ; Leopard, he owned a he-goat. 

Antelope then goes to Leopard to ask him for his he-goat, to 
keep him in (his) corral with his she-goat, to breed. Saying that 
after she has had three gestations, he would give him a young she- 
goat with his he-goat ; (while he) Antelope, would keep his goat and 
her young. Leopard then assents, and gives over the he-goat. 

When she had born three times, Antelope takes a young na&ny- 
goat and the billy-goat of Mr. Leopard. He goes to bring (th6rii) to 

198 Folk- Tales of Angola. 

mu ambela : " Kisutu kid kiki, ni mon' a hombo ia muhatu ; ubange 
ud o kibaku kid." Ingo uixi : " Kana ; ngalami Ida ni kibanga kio- 
tunge. Vutuka hanji ni jihombo, ud ji bake d. Ki ngandotunga o 
kibanga, ngd ji takana." 

Ngulungu anga uvutuka ni hofabo jd jiiadi anga u ji baka mu 
'ibanga kid. Hombo id ia muhatu imateka mu kuvuala, katd mu 
kuinii dia mavumu. 

Ki akala, uia kud ngan,a Ngo ku mu ambela kutambula o hombo 
id ia kisutu ni hombo ia muhatu, i a mu banene. Ngana Ngo ua di 
tunu ku ji tambula, mukonda kibanga hanji k'a ki tungud. 

Ki abange iztia, ngana Ngo, ki amono Ngulungu uala kid ni ma- 
kuinii-a-uana ma hombo, uia kud Ngulungu ku mu ambela, kuma : 
" O jihombo, tu ji uana." 

Kuala Ngulungu: "Ngitenami kuuana; mukonda erne ngobeke- 
lele o kisutu kid, ni mon' a hombo ia muhatu, anga u di tuna, uixi : 
* ngalami ni kibanga kiotunge ; ' katd ni lelu. Ngu ku bana hombo 
jiiadi ja ahetu ni kisutu kid." Kuala Ngo : " Nguamiami." Uia ku 
bata ; uxitala Ngulungu. 

Ngana Nzamba utuma Mbimbi kuia mu kuambela ngana Ngulu- 
ngu kuma : " Mungtfdind uia mu mbanza mud ngana Nzamba pala 
kudfunda o mulonga ua jihombo, u nuala nau ni ngana Ngo. Ni 
jihombo jiia ud." Mbimbi uambela ngana Ngulungu, anga uvutuka 
ku bata did. Ngana Ngulungu ualodila, ualobanza; ioso i dbanga 
k'a i ijid. 

Kasexi ubita bud Ngulungu, u mu ibudisa ioso ialodidila. Ngu- 
lungu u mu tangela o mulonga ua jihombo ni ngana Ngo. Kuala 
Kasexi : " Erne ngifunda o mulonga kiambote, ni uvutuke ni hombo 
]d ; u ngi futa kikuxi ? " 

Kuala Ngulungu : " Eie, Kasexi, ndaid. K'u ngi kuatese jinjinda; 
xind ngu 'u kuama." Kasexi, ni uoma ua Ngulungu, ni jinjinda 
javulu, ji a mu sange najiu, Kasexi ui'd. 

O ki atenene iztia iiadi, Ngulungu uambata o jihombo ; uia mu 
mbanza ia ngana Nzamba. Usanga muezala ; a-ngana Palanga, Pa- 
kasa, Sefu, Hoji, Kisebele, Semvu, 846 ni muene ngana Ngo. 

Ngulungu, ki abixila, uamenekena ngana Nzamba. 16 u mu tuma : 

Ki abange kitangana, amona Kasexi ualobita ni malusolo, ni kiji- 
nga kid ku mutue, anga umenekena mu kanga ngana Nzamba ni 
iama iamukud. 

Kuala ngana Nzamba: "Mukuanii und, uabiti ni lusolo ni kijinga 
kid ku mutue, sd ku ki tulula mu ku ngi menekena?" Uixana 
MMmbi; u mu tuma kukaiela Kasexi: "Kd mu kuate; uize n'd. 
Se ngud, mu jibs ! " 

The Lawsuit of Leopard and Antelope. i 99 

lim, and says to him : "Thy he-goat, (is) here/with the young she- 
goat ; that thou, too, may est raise thy cattle/' Leopard says : "No ; 
I have not yet a corral built. Return yet with the goats, and keep 
them. When I shall have built the corral, I will fetch them." 

Antelope then went back with his two goats, and he kept them in 
his corral. His nanny-goat begins to breed, until it had ten gesta- 

After a time, he goes to Mf. Leopard to tell him to take his he- 
goat and the she-goat, that he had given him. Mr. Leopard refuses 
to i&ke them, because he has not yet built the corral. 

After spending days, Mr. Leopard, on seeing (that) Antelope has 
already forty goats, he goes to Antelope's to tell him, saying : " The 
goats, we will divide them." 

Then Antelope: "I cannot divide, because I had brought thee 
thy he-goat, with a young she-goat, and thou didst refuse saying : ' I 
have no corral t>uilt/ until to-day. I will give thee two she-goats 
with: thy he-goat." Then Leopard : " I will not." He goes home ; 
summons Antelope. 

Lord Elephant sends Deer to go and tell Mr. Antelope, saying : 
" The day after to-morrow thou shalt go to the court of Lord Ele- 
phant, there to plead the lawsuit of the goats, that you have, (thou) 
and Mr. Leopard. And the goats, they shall go too." Deer told 
Mr. Antelope, and returned to his home. Mr. Antelope is crying, is 
thinking ; what he shall do, he does not know. 

Philantomba passes by Antelope's, and asks him what he is crying 
about. Antelope tells him the lawsuit of the goats with Mr. Leo-* 
pard. Then Philantomba: "I will plead this lawsuit well, so that 
thou shalt return with thy goats ; how much wilt thou pay me ? " 

Then Antelope : " Thou, Philantomba, begone. Do not make me 
angry ; lest I hurt thee/' Philantomba, in fear of the Antelope, and 
of the great anger, that he found him to have, Philantomba go$s 

When the two days were complete, Antelope took the goats ; he 
went to- the court of Lord Elephant* He finds the place full ; 
Messrs. Palanga, Buffalo, Sefu, Lion, Kisebele, Semvu, 546 and Mr. 
Leopard himself. 

Antelope, when he arrived, greeted Lord Elephant. The latter 
bid him : " Sit down." 

When they had spent a while, they see Philantomba, who is pass- 
ing in a hurry, with his cap on his head, and he greets from a dis- 
tance Lord Elephant and the other beasts. 

Then Lord Elephant : " Who is that, who passed in haste with 
his cap on (his) head, without taking it off while greeting me ? " He 
calls Deer, he orders him to pursue Philantomba: "Go, catch him 
(and) come with him. If he will not, kill him ! " 

200 Folk- Tales of Angola. 

Mbimbi anga uia ; ukuata Kasexi ; u mu bekela ngana Nzamba, 
Ngana Nzamba utuma ku mu kuta. "Kituxi kianii, Id ngi dia?" 
Kuala ngana Nzamba ulxi : "O ukambu ua uoma, ua kubita ni lusolo 
bu ngala, s6 kutulula o kijinga." Kuala Kasexi: " Ngasakamana, 
mu konda dia pai etu, nga mu xi ualovuala. Erne ngaloia ni lusolo 
mu takana manii etu, uaia mu ita." 

Ki azubile kuzuela, ngana Hoji, ni ngana Nzamba, ni iama ioso 
atukumuka ni kuzuela : " Manii ! Pai enu uvual'A ? " Kuala Ka- 
sexi: "O pai etu, jitigana, nubanga pata ia kuvuala, mu konda 
dia'nii ? " Ene atambujila : " O diiala dialovuala, kiWa tua mu 
mono." Kasexi uebudisa : " Milonga ianii iala mu mbanz* omo, ni 
ngana Ngulungu ni ngana Ngo ? " 

Kuala ngana Nzamba ni ngana Hoji : " Kasexi, mu jitunienu ! O 
milonga iabatuka. Eie, ngana Ngo, u mukua-hombo ia kisutu ; o 
ngana Ngulungu uobingila-iu pala kuvuala ni hombo i£ ia muhatu. 
Utambula o hombo eji jiiadi ja ahatu ni kisutu ki& Ki nu ji 
uanienu, mukonda o diiala kl divual&" 


Hoji uadidile, uxi: "Mu ngongo kl mufine mukuetu ngasoko n'6 
ku nguzu ; mukuetu ngoho, Nzamba Ngola ' Aniinii, ni Kisonde kia 
Malemba a mu zalela ngongo, 647 ene ngasoko n'd." 

Manii o Kimbungu, uabatemene mu kisasa, ha ubalumuka ; usa- 
nduka kadikanga, uxi: "Hoji, uatange makutu, uxi <mu ngongo kl 
mu&ie mukuetu ngasoko n'L 9 O Vula-ndunge ukola." Uenda ko- 
fele, uxi dingi : " O Niengena-maku ukola ! " 

Hoji utala Kimbungu. Njinda ia mu kuata, ha u mu kaia; ua 
mu lembua. 

Kiene ki a di zembela, mukonda Hoji uatangele makutu ; o Ki- 
mbungu iti ua mu tungununa. 

Lion and Wolf. 201 

Deer then goes ; he catches Philantomba ; brings him to Lord 
Elephant. Lord Elephant orders to bind him. Then Philantomba : 
"What crime is it that kills me?" Then Lord Elephant says: 
" The lack of respect, to pass in haste where I am, without lowering 
the cap." Then Philantomba: "I am in a hurry because of my 
father, whom I left giving birth. I am going in haste to fetch our 
mother, who is gone to the war." 

When he finished speaking, Lord Lion, and Lord Elephant, and 
all the beasts, start up, saying: "Possible? Thy father giving 
birth?" Then Philantomba: "My father, gentlemen, you have 
doubts of (his) giving birth, because of what?" They answer: 
" The male, that gives birth, we have not yet seen him." Philan- 
tomba asks them : " What lawsuit is there in this court between Mr. 
Antelope and Mr. Leopard ? " 

Then Lord Elephant and Lord Lion : " Philantomba, unbind him ! 
The lawsuit is decided. Thou, Mr. Leopard, wast owner of a he- 
goat ; Mr. Antelope asked him of thee, to breed with his she~goat 
Thou shalt get these two she-goats with thy he-goat Do not divide 
them, for the male does not give birth." 


Lion roared, saying : " In the world there is not another equal to 
me in strength ; only my friend, Elephant Ngola 'Aniinii and Red- 
ant of Malemba, whose couch is pain, 647 they are equal to me." 

But the Wolf, who had lurked in the thicket, then gets up ; moves 
off a short distance, says : " Lion, thou toldest a lie, saying ' in the 
world there is no other equal to me.' The Know-much is stronger." 
He walks a little, says again : "The Hang-arms is stronger I " 

Lion looks at Wolf. Anger takes him, and he chases him ; he 
gives him up. 

Therefore (it is) they hate each other ; because Lion (once) told a 
lie ; but Wolf, he exposed him. 

202 Folk -Tales of Angola. 


Erne ngateletele ngana Nzamba ni ngana Dizundu, akexile mu 
namulalela 548 ku bata dimoxi. 

Kizua kimoxi, ngana Dizundu uambelele mukaji 8 ^ a ngana Nza- 
mba, uixi: " Ngana Nzamba kabalu kami." Ngana Nzamba, ki ejile 
ni usuku, anga ilumba i mu ambela, exi : " Eie u kabalu ka ngana 
Dizundu ! " 

Ngana Nzamba anga uia ku& ngana Zundu, uixi : " Eie uambele 
mukaji ami kuma erne ngi kabalu k6 ? " Nga Dizundu uamba,. kuma : 
" Kana ; erne nga ki ambiami." Aia buamoxi, mu sanga mukaji a 
ngana Nzamba. 

Mu njila ngana Zundu uambelele ngana Nzamba, uixi : " Kuku, 
ngalami ni nguzu ia kuenda. Za ngibande ku dikunda di6 !" Ngana 
Nzamba uixi : " Banda, mulaul' ami." Ngana Dizundu anga ubanda. 

Ki abangele katangana, uambelele ngana Nzamba : " Kuku, ngondo 
di bala. Za ngisote tungoji pala ku ku kuta mu dikanu." Ngana 
Nzamba anga uxikana. Nga Dizundu anga ubanga ioso i abingile. 

Ki abitile katangana, uambelele dingi ngana Nzamba uixi: "Za 
ngisote kasanzu pala ku ku bukila o jihamua." Nga Nzamba uixi: 
u Ndai6." Muene anga usota o sanzu. 

Ene, ki akexile mu bixila kid, o ilumba id a muene, anga itunda 
ku a kauidila ni ku di kola, ixi : u Eie., nga Nzamba, u kabalu muene 
ka ngana Zundu ! " 

Mukenge ni Sute m a di kuatele ukamba ua nzangu imoxi. 

Mukenge uxi : u Eie, mukuetu Sute, erne ngiia-jinga mu kuata o 
jisanji." Sute u6 uxi: "Erne ngiia-jinga mu tuta o f uba bu zukilu 
dia ahatu." Mukenge uxi : " Kiauaba." Azekele. 

Kimenemene, Mukenge uai mu kuata o sanjl Sute u6 uatumbu 
matumbu kat6 bu zukilu dia ahatu. Uatubula kinda kia f uba ; uasu- 
kumuina mu saku i£ ; iezala. Uvutuka ; ubi&ila mVnzo & Usanga 
mukui, Mukenge, ueza kid ni sanji, Alambe ; adi ; azekele. 

Fox and Mole. 203 


I often tell of Mr. Elephant and Mr. Frog, who were courting at 
one house. 

One day Mr. Frog spake to the sweetheart W9 of Mr. Elephant, 
saying: "Mr. Elephant (is) my horse." Mr. Elephant, when he 
came at night, then the girls tell him, saying: "Thou art the horse 
of Mr. Frog ! " 

Mr. Elephant then goes to Mr. Frog's, saying : " Didst thou tell 
my sweetheart that I am thy horse ? " Mr. Frog says, saying : 
" No ; I did not say so." They go together to find the sweetheart 
of Mr. Elephant. 

On the way, Mr. Frog told Mr. Elephant, saying : " Grandfather, 
I have not strength to walk. Let me get up on thy back t " Mr. 
Elephant said : " Get up, my grandson." Mr. Frog then goes up. 

When a while passed, he told Mr. Elephant : " Grandfather, I am 
going to fall Let me seek small cords to bind thee in mouth." 
Mr. Elephant consents. Mr. Frog then does what he has asked. 

When passed a little while, he told again Mr. Elephant, saying: 
" Let me seek a green twig to fan the mosquitoes off thee." Mr: 
Elephant says : " Go." He then fetches the twig. 

They, when they were about to arrive, the girls saw them, and 
they went to meet them with shouting, saying : " Thou, Mr. Ele- 
phant, art the horse indeed of Mr. Frog ! " 


Fox and Mole 650 took to each other the friendship of one board 
(of eating together). 

Fox said : " Thou, comrade Mole, I will go always to catch chick- 
ens." Mole also said : " I will go always to carry off flour from the 
pouuding-place of the women." Fox said: "All right." They 

(At) morning, Fox went to catch a fowl. Mole, too, threw up (his) 
mole-hills as far as the pounding-place of ths women. He bored a 
basket of flour ; he drew (it) off into his sack ; it is full. He Tec- 
tums ; arrives in their house. He finds the other, Fox, who has 
come already with a fowl. They cooked ; they ate, slept. 

204 Folk- Tales of Angola. 

Kimenemene, Miikenge uxi: "IalNJ, erne ngala mu ia mu kuata 
o sanji." Sute u£ uxi : " Eme ngala mu ia ku fuba." A di mua,nga. 
Ku ai Mukenge, uakuata dikolombo dia sanji. O Sute uasukumuna 
fuba mu saku i&. Uvutukisa ; usanga mukud, ueza kid ni sanji. 
Alambe sanji ; alambe funji. Mukenge uxi : " Ial'e u6 ! tuie tuaka- 
zoue; ki tuiza, tudie kiua." Sute uxi : " Kiauaba." 

Akatuka ; abixila ku ngiji. O Sute uabanga m ngenda M i£, 
tunde k'o'nzo id kat6 ku ngiji Mukenge uakutuka mu menia; uai 
ni kuzoua kat£ mu ka£i kia menia Uvutukisa ; utomboka. 

Sute uxi: "Eme ki ngikutuka mu menia, k'u ngi mono kindala." 
Mukenge uxi : " Kutuka, ngitale." Sute uakutuka ; uaboba. Uaku- 
tuka dingi mu uina u6 ; uala mu kuenda. Ubixila mVnzo id ; uatu- 
buka mu uina. Unomona makudia, axi ni mukud ; uadi. Ubokona 
mu uina ; uenda. Ubixila mu ngiji ; uatumbuka koxi a menia. Uxi ; 
" IaTe, Mukenge, tui'etu kid." Akatuka. 

Abixila ku bata; abokona mVnzo. Mukenge, b'axile makudia, 
makudia a a di. Mukenge uxi : " IaT6, Sute, nanii uadi makudi' 
etu ? " Sute uxi : " Manii. Tuendele kiiadi kietu mu zoua. Eme 
ngi mu ijfa kiebi, muoso uadi ? " A di xib'd ; azekele. 

Kimenemene, Mukenge uxi : " Eme ngala mu ia mu batemena o 
jisanji." Sute ue uxi : " Eme ngala mu ia ku fuba." Amuangana. 
Ku ai Mukenge, uakuata mama ia sanji. Ueza mVnzo mu lamba. 
O Sute u§, ku ai, uanomona fuba. Uvutukisa; ubokona mVnzo 
id. Usanga mukud, sanji uelambe kid. Alambe funji. Sute uxi : 
" Ial'6, tuie hanji mu zoua. Ki tuiza, tudie kiua." Mukenge uxi : 
" Kutuama kuia mu zoua, tuala mu sanga makudia a a di/* Sute 
uxi : " Kiki, ki tunange-ku." Mukud uaiikina. 

Akatuka; abixila bu tabu. Mukenge uakutuka mu menia; ua- 
zouo; uatomboka. Sute uS uakutuka; uaboba koxi a menia; iii 
mu uina uS. Uala mu kuenda ; ubixila mVnzo id. Uatubuka ku 
kanga ; uadi kudia. Ubokona dingi mu ngenda ifi ; uenda. Ubixila 
ku ngiji ; uatumbuka ; iii ku kanga. Uxi : " UV6, tui'etu kid ! " 

Akatuka; abiiila ku bata. Abokona mVnzo. Mukenge utala 
b'abakele o makudia; a a di. Uxi: "Ial'<§, nanii uadi o kudia 
kuetu ? " Sute uxi : " Manii/' Mukenge uxi : " Kiene ki ngambela, 
ngixi 'tudie hanji ' ; eie uxi 'tuie mu zoua ; ki tunange-ku.' O kiki, 
makudia, a a di." A di xib'd ; azekele. 

Fox and Mole. 205 

(At) morning, Fox says : " O man, I am going to catch a fowl." 
Mole also said: "I am going for flour." They separated. Where 
Fox went, he caught a cock. Mole drew off flour into his sack. 
He returns ; finds his comrade, who has already come with a fowl. 
They cooked the cock ; they boiled the mush. Fox said : " O man ! 
let us go to have a bath ; when we come, we will eat well/' Mole 
said: "Very well." 

They start ; arrive at the river. Mole had made his tunnel, start- 
ing from their house down to the river. Fox went into the water ; 
he went swimming as far as in the middle of water. He returns ; 
gets ashore. 

Mole said : " I, when I get into the water, thou shalt not see me 
so soon." Fox said : " Get in ; let me see." Mole went in ; dived. 
He entered again into his tunnel ; he is walking. He arrives at 
their house; he gets out of the tunnel. He takes the eatables, 
which they had left, (he) and his chum ; he eats. He enters into 
the tunnel ; walks. He arrives in the river ; he emerges from under 
water. Says : " O fellow, Fox, let us go now." They start. 

They arrive at home ; they enter the house. Fox, where he had 
left the victuals, the victuals are eaten. Fox says : " O man, Mole, 
who ate our victuals ? " Mole said : " I don't know. We went both 
of us to bathe. How can I know him who ate ? " They are silent ; 

Morning, Fox says: "I am going to lie in wait of the fowls." 
Mole too said : "lam going for the flour." They separate. Where 
went Fox, he caught a mother-hen. He came to the house to cook. 
Mole also, where he went, he took flour. He returns ; enters into 
their house. He finds the other ; the fowl, he has cooked it already. 
They cooked the mush. Mole said: "O comrade, let us go first 
to bathe. When we come, we will eat well." Fox said : " By first 
going to bathe, we always find the victuals eaten." Mole said: 
"Then, let us not tarry there." The other assented. 

They started; arrived at the landing. Fox entered into the 
water ; he swam ; came ashore. Mole went in, too ; he dived under 
the water ; he is in his tunnel. He is walking ; he arrives at their 
house. He gets out on earth ; he eats the food. He enters again 
into his tunnel; he walks. He arrives at the river; he emerges; 
he is on the ground. Says : " Comrade, let us go now ! " 

They start ; they arrive at home. They enter in the house. Fox 
looks where he had set the food ; it is eaten. Says he : " O fellow, 
who ate our food ? " Mole said : " I don't know." Fox says : " That 
is why I said, saying, 'let us eat first; 1 thou saidst, 'let us go to 
bathe ; let us not tarry there/ Now, the victuals, they are eaten." 
They keep silent ; slept. 

206 Folk- Tales of Angola. 

Kiraeneraene, Mukenge uxi : " Erne ngiia mu muania mu kuata o 
sanji." Sute uxi : " Erne ngiia kii. Ha nganange kitaugana kat6 
mu muania, lelu ahetu ng& a sanga amuangana." Uakatuka. 

O Mukenge, ku ema ku axala, uxingeneka, uxi: "Iala mueniu, 
manii muene uala mu dia o makudia ? Ngiia ni kukenga kuoso ku 
ala mu kuijila." Ukenga mu iangu, usanga matumbu a Sute, 
atundu kVnzo id katd ku ngiji. Mukenge uxi : " Manii, ial'ii uala 
mu kuendela koxi a mavu." Uasu mubetu ; ua mu tela mu ngenda 
id. Uatundu-ku ; uai mu batemena o sanji. Uakuata kolombolo dia 
sanji; uiza ku bata. Atakanesa ni mukud; exi: "Tulambe kid 
makudia." Alambe. 

Sute uxi: "Tuie mu zoua." Mukenge uxi; "Ndoko." Aka- 
tuka; abixila ku ngiji. Mukenge uakutuka mu menia; uazouo; 
uatomboka. Sute ud uakutuka mu menia; uboba koxi a menia. 
Uabokona mur uina ud ; uenda. Ubixila ku mbandu a 'nzo i& ; uafu 
bu mubetu, u atele Mukenge. 

O Mukenge, bu tabu, bu axala, uatale muku&, uakutukile mu 
menia. Kitangana kiavulu k'amoneka. Uxi : " Ngir'ami." Uka- 
tuka ; ubixila kVnzo iL Ubokona m'o'nzo, utala makudia : te-u^. 553 
Ukondoloka ku xilu ; utala mubetu uazabuka.. Uiza-bu ; kamba did, 
Sute, uafu. Mukenge uxi : " Ial'ii, manii, muene udne mu ngi dia o 
jisanji jami ! " Ua mu kulula ; ua mu di. Mukenge uakaTd. 

Ngateletele kamusoso. Mukenge ni Sute : Sute o ufii ud ua kue- 
ndela koxi a mavu, n'adie o kudia, ku axi ni muku&, uene ua mu dia. 


Ngateletele Kolombolo dia sanji, uatonokene ukamba ni Mukenge. 
Kolombolo udne mu tunda ku bata; uia mu nangesa kamba did, 
Mukenge, iziia ioso. 

Kizu' eki„ uai mu mu nangesa, Mukenge uxi : " Eie, kamba diami 
Kolombolo, o kima kia ku fine bu kaxi ka mutue, ha u di kuata ni 
mukuenu, n'u mu teJdu, utua ? " Kolombolo uxi : " Eie, kamba 
diami, Mukenge, uatoba. Jiji jixitu; kt jikuama." Mukenge uxi: 
"Erne, ki ngene mu ki mona, uoma udne mu ngi kuata, ngixi 'o 
kima, ki ala nakiu kamba diami Kolombolo, ha ngala mu tonoka n'e, 
n'a ngi te-kiu, ngitua;' manii kana." Kolombolo uolela; atonoka. 
Kolombolo uai'd ku bata did. Mukenge uai'd ud mu dilundu did. 664 

Cock and Fox* 207 

Morning, Fox said : " I will go at noon to catch a fowl." Mole 
said : "lam going now. If I delayed as long as to noon, then the 
women, I should find them scattered." He started. 

Fox, behind where he stayed, reflects, saying: "This fellow, 
whether he is eating the victuals ? I will go to seek where he is 
coming in." He seeks in the grass ; he finds the mole-hills of Mole, 
starting from their house down to the river. Fox says : " Why, this 
fellow is walking under the ground." He cut a trap-stick ; he set it 
in his tunnel. He went hence ; went to lie in wait for a fowl. He 
caught a cock ; he comes home. He meets with the other ; they 
say : " Let us cook now the victuals." They cooked. 

Mole says : " Let us go to bathe." Fox said : " Let us go " They 
start ; they arrive at the river. Fox entered into the water ; swam ; 
came ashore. Mole too went into the water ; he dived under the 
water. He entered into his tunnel ; walks. He arrives to near by 
their house ; he dies in the trap, that Fox had set. 

Fox, at the landing where he stayed, looked for the other, who had 
gone into the water. A long time he appears not. Says he : "I 
am going." He starts ; arrives at their house. He goes into the 
house, looks for the food : here it is. He goes round to back of 
house ; looks at the trap ; it is up. He comes near ; his friend Mole 
is dead. Fox said: "This fellow, why, he was always eating my 
fowls ! " He scraped him ; he ate him. The Fox lived on. 

I have told the little tale. Fox and Mole : Mole, his thievery of 
walking underneath the ground to eat the food, that they left (he) 
and his comrade, the same killed him. Finished. 


I often tell of Cock, who played friendship with Fox. Cock used 
to go out from home ; he went to pass the time (at the house) of his 
friend, Fox, every day. 

One day, that he went to pass time with him, Fox said : " Thou, my 
friend Cock, the thing that is in the middle of thy head, if thou strug- 
glest with another, and thou hittest him (with) it, is he wounded ? n 
Cock said : " Thou, my friend Fox, art foolish. These (things) are 
flesh ; they do not wound." Fox said : " I, whenever I saw it, fear 
used to grasp me ; I said, ' the thing, that my friend Cock has, if I - 
am playing with him, and he hit me (with) it, I shall be wounded ; ' 
but no." Cock laughed; they played. Cock went to his house. 
Fox went also into his ant-hill. 654 

208 Folk -Tales of Angola. 

Mukenge uxingeneka, uxi: "O kamba diami, Kolombolo, ngene 
mu mu lenga ngixi 'ha ngi mu kuata, u ngi ta o kima ki6;' manii 
kana ; jixitu ngoho." Uazekele. 

Kuaki kimenemene, Kolombolo ueza ; ala mu tonoka. Mukenge 
uabiti ku dima dia Kolombolo; ua mu kuata bu xingu. Ala mu 
banga. Kolombolo uxi : " Hai ! u ngi banga kiebi ? eie/ kamba 
diami ! " Mukenge ua mu numata nguzu bu xingu ; ua mu jiba. 

Kolombolo uatonokene ukamba ni Mukenge. Mukenge, ki akexile, 
ukuata sanji ia mukaji, k'axikina kujiba dikolombolo, uxi: "Dingi 
kuama." Kia mu bekesa o kukuata makolombolo, Kolombolo muene 
ua di tobesa kua Mukenge, uxi : " Kiki ki kidi kima ; jixitu ngoho." 

Ngateletele kamusoso kami. Mahezu. 


Ngateletele Mbulu a Ngonga, uatonokene ukamba ni Kabulu. 

Kizu' eki Mbulu uxi : " Moso Kabulu 6 ! Zd tuie mu tonoka mu 
iangu ! " Akatuka ; abixila mu iangu ; ala mu tonoka. 

Mbulu uxi: "Erne, za ngisuame; eie, Kabulu, u ngi tukulula." 
Mbulu uai mu suama. Kabulu iu uiza ni kukenga. U mu sanga 
uabatama. Kabulu uxi: "Eie, Mbulu, uabatama baba." Mbulu 
uabalumuka ni kuolela. Mbulu uxi : 4i Ngisuama dingi." Uasuama. 
Kabulu iu uiza ni kukenga; ua mu sange dingi. Mbulu uabalu- 

Kabulu uxi : " Erne uS, za ngisuame. Eie, Mbulu, k'utena ku ngi 
mona." Mbulu uxi: "Erne ngu ku mona." Kabulu uai; uasuama 
mu dikungu ; uatuina mesu. Mbulu, iii uiza ni kukenga. Ubita bu 
dikungu; utala mu dikungu. Kabulu uatuina mesu mu dikungu. 
Mbulu, uoma ua mu kuata ; ualenge malusolo ni kudila, uxi : (i Eme, 
Mbulu 6 1 nga di uana isuma ! Isuma iahi iala ni mesu a kutala ? 
Eme, Mbulu 61 nga di uana isuma! Isuma iahi iala ni mesu a 

Kabulu uabalumuka ni kuolela, uxi: "Manii, Mbulu, u kioua? 
Ua' mu ia ni kudila? Eme nga ku batemena. Eie uazuela, uxi 
* ngitena ku ku mona ; ' ki ua ngi sange, uala mu lenga ni kudila f " 

Bene bu uasukila. Mahezu. 

Jackal and Hare. 209 

Fox thought, saying : " My friend, Cock, I used to flee him, saying, 
* if I seize him, he will hit me with his thing ; ' but no ; it is flesh 
only." He slept. 

There* shone the morning ; Cock came ; they are playing. Fox 
passed behind Cock ; he seized him by the neck. They are strug- 
gling. Cock says : " Shame ! how art thou handling me ? thou, my 
friend ! " Fox bit him hard in the neck ; he killed him. 

Cock played friendship with Fox. Fox, when he was (of old), he 
caught a female fowl, he would not kill a cock, saying : " He will hurt 
me." What caused him to catch cocks, (is that) Cock himself caused 
himself to be fooled by Fox, (by) saying : " This kills not anything ; 
it is flesh only." 

I have told my little tale. Finished. 


I will tell of Jackal of Ngonga, who played friendship with Hare. 

One day Jackal said : " Comrade Hare ! come let us go to play in 
the bush ! " They start ; they arrive in the bush ; they are playing. 

Jackal says: "I, let me hide; thou, Hare, shalt bring me out." 
Jackal went to hide. Hare, he comes with seeking. He finds him 
crouching. Hare says : u Thou, Jackal, art crouching here." Jackal 
stood up with laughing. Jackal said : " I shall hide again." He 
hid. Hare he came seeking ; he found him again. Jackal got up. 

Hare said : " I also, let me hide. Thou, Jackal, canst not see 
me." Jackal said : " I shall see thee." Hare went, hid in a hole; 
opened big eyes. Jackal, he comes seeking. He passes by the 
hole ; he looks into the hole. Hare opens big eyes in the hole. 
Jackal, fear took him; he fled in haste with crying, saying: "I, 
Jackal, oh ! I have met an omen ! What omen has eyes to look ? I, 
Jackal, oh ! I have met an omen! What omen has eyes to look ?" 

Hare got up with laughing, saying : " Why, Jackal, art thou silly ? 
Thou art going away crying ? I was hiding from thee. Thou spak- 
est, saying ' I can see thee ; ' when thou didst find me, thou art run- 
ning away crying ! " 

Thus far it reached. The end. 

210 Folk-Tales of Angola. 



" Kaxinjengele " mundu exi " hadia tu mu bana ungana." Muene 
uxi: "Kikala lelu." Mundu exi: "Tuala mu kenga o ilumbua ia 
ungana." Kaxinjengele uxi : " Erne, kikala lelu a lele." m Mundu 
exi: "Muene, tua mu ambela ngoho, tuxi 'tuala mu kenga o ilu- 
mbua' muene uxi 'kikala lelu;' manii, nguetu dingi ku mu ban* i. 55 * 
Ha tua mu ban' 4, k'atena kulanga o mundu." 

Kaxinjengele, ambele ku mu bana ungana. Muene uxi : " Kikala 
lelu." Kiaxalela kui atu: "Lelu a lele diafidisa Kaxinjengele o 
ungana." 557 

Ngateletele kamusoso. Mahezu. 



Na Mbua, amesenene ku mu lunduisa ungana. Akenga ima ioso 
ia ungana : kijinga, 558 mbasa, 559 maluselu, kiba kia mukaka. 660 Ima 
iatena ; exi : " Kiziia kiabixila kia kuhinga." 

Makot' osq atena; atuma jingamba ja ngoma ni dimba; eza. 
Azale jingandu, ni maxisa. B'andala kuxikama o ngana, abake-bu 
ngandu ; azale-bu dixisa ; ate-bu mbenza. 661 Exi : " Ngana ixikame." 
Uaxikama. Mundu uala mu uana makudia. 

Muene, na Mbua, ki amono petu ia sanji, luimbi lua mu kuata. 
Uabalumuka ni malusolo ; uainomona o petu ia sanji ; ualengela ku 
iangu. Mundu exi : " Ngana, i tuala mu lunduisa, ialenge ni petu 
ia sanji ku iangu ! " Mundu amuangana. 

Na Mbua, ejile ku mu hingisa ungana, mu konda dia ufii u6, 
ungana ua u lembua. 

Ngateletele kamusoso kami. Mahezu. 

Dog and the Kingship. 211 


" Squirrel," the people said, " directly, we (will) give him the king- 
ship." He said : " It shall be to-day." The people said : " We 
are looking for the insignia of the kingship." Squirrel said : " I, it 
shall be to-day, at once." The people said : " He, we only told him, 
saying * we are going to get the insignia/ he says ' it shall be to- 
day ' ; why, we will give it to him no more. If we gave him it, he 
Could not govern the people." 

Squirrel, they talked of giving him the kingship. He said : " It 
must be to-day." It remained among the people ; " To-day at once 
deprived Squirrel of the kingship." m 

I have told the little story. Finished. 


Mr. Dog, they wanted to invest him with the kingship. They 
sought all the things of royalty : the cap, 658 the sceptre, 559 the rings, 
the skin of mukaka. 560 The things are complete ; they say : " The 
day has come to install." 

The headmen all came in full ; they sent for the players of drum 
and marimba ; they have come. They spread coarse mats and fine 
mats. Where the lord is going to sit, they laid a coarse mat ; they 
spread on (it) a fine mat ; they set a chair m on. They say : " Let 
the lord sit down." He sat down. The people begin to divide the 

He, Mr, Dog» on seeing the breast of a fowl, greed grasped him. 
He stood up in haste ; took the breast of the fowl ; ran into the 
bush. The people said : " The lord, whom we are installing, has 
run away with the breast of the fowl into the bush ! " The people 

Mr. Dog, who was going to be invested with the kingship, because 
of his thievery, the kingship he lost it. 

I have told my little tale. Finished. 

212 Folk- Tales of Angola. 


Na Mbua uatonokene o ukamba ni Kulukubua. O Mbua uia rau 
nangesa Kulukubua iziia ioso. 

Kizu' eki, na Mbua uai mu nangesa kamba die Kulukubua. O 
Kulukubua uxi: "Enu, jimbua, mu£ne n'atu, enu muia mu kuata 
o jixitu mu iangu; enu mu£ne mu dia xitu iavulu." O na Mbua 
uxi: "Ki tugne mu dia xitu." O Kulukubua uxi: "Enu mu&ne mu 
ia mu tesa o jixitu, enu jimbua; enu mukuata o jixitu." O Mbua 
uxi: "Mungudinia 662 tuanda kuia mu tesa. Eie, Kulukubua, ki tu- 
tunda mu tesa, usambela bu muxi u<§, bu tu6ne mu uanena o jixitu. 
Erne ki nganda kukatula kaxitu, eie uatala ki a ngi bana o mbangala 
mu mutue." Azekele luiadi. 

Kuaki kimenemene ; atu exana o jimbua : "Tui'enu mu niangal" 
Abixila mu mbole ; ajiba jixitu ; eza b'Sne mu uanena. Ala mu 
uana. O Mbua uzangula kaxitu kofele. A mu bana mbangala 
ionene. Na Mbua ua di kola: "Ue! u6!" 

Uatalela o xingu bu lu dia muxi ; kupatele ku6 uataia ni mutue : 
" Manii, kidi, ki uatangele." 


Mbulu uene 6 mu iangu ni ndandu ie Imbua. Mbulu ha utuma 
Imbua, uxi: "Nd£ bu bata, uitakane-bu katubia. Ki uiza naku, 
tuximike kitumba kia iangu ; tukuate mahoho, tudie." Imbua uaxi- 

Uakatuka ; ubixila bu bata. Ubokola mVnzo ; uasange mubetu, 
uala mu disa mon' & funji. Imbua uaxikama; tubia, ngu6 ku tu 
nomona. Muhetu uadisa mon' £; uakolola imbia. Uanomona ma- 
tete; ua a bana Imbua. Imbua uadi; uxingeneka, uxi: "Manii, 
ng£ne mu fua ngoho ni nzala mu iangu; bu bata b'ala kudia kua 
mbote." Imbua uaxikam'6. 

O Mbulu, ku ema ku axala, uatale mukud, a mu tumu tubia; 

Mbulu, ki 6ne mu dila, atu exi: "Mbulu iadidi tu£!" Manii 
kana ; i£ne mu kuila, uxi : " Nga di uana, eme, Mbulu a Ngonga ; 
Imbua, nga mu tumine o tubia, ki asange o matete, a mu londola ; 
uakal'S kid." 

Dog and Jackal. 213 


Mr. Dog played friendship with Lizard. Dog goes to entertain 
Lizard all days. 

This day, Mr. Dog went to entertain his friend Lizard. Lizard 
says : " You, dogs, who are always with men, you go to catch the 
game in the bush ; you always eat much meat" Mr. Dog says : " We 
do not often eat meat." Lizard says : " You always go to hunt game, 
you dogs; you catch the game." Dog says: "The day after to- 
morrow we are to go a-hunting. Thou, Lizard, when we come from 
hunting, shalt climb on thy tree, where we usually divide the game. 
I, when I shall take a bit of meat, thou shalt see that they give me 
the staff on (my) head." They slept twice. 

Day breaks in morning ; the men call the dogs : " Let us go a-hunt- 
ing I " They arrive on game-ground ; they kill game ; they come 
where they are used to divide. They are dividing. Dog lifts a 
small bit of meat. They give him a heavy clubbing. Mr. Dog he 
yelled: «U6l u£!" 

He looked with (his) neck up to the tree; his friend nods with 
(his) head : " Why, truth, what thou didst say." 


Jackal used to be in the bush with his kinsman, Dog. Jackal 
then sends Dog, saying : u Go to the houses, to fetch some fire. 
When thou comest with it, we will burn the prairie of grass ; so as 
to catch locusts and eat." Dog agreed. 

He started ; arrived in the village. He enters a house ; finds a 
woman, who is feeding her child (with) mush. Dog sat down ; fire, 
he will not take it. The woman has fed her child ; she scrapes the 
pot. She takes mush ; she gives it to Dog. Dog eats ; thinks, say- 
ing : " Why, I am all the time just dying with hunger in the bush ; 
in the village there is good eating." The Dog settled (there). 

Jackal, behind where he stayed, looked for the other, who was 
sent for fire ; he does not appear. 

The Jackal, whenever he is howling, people say, "The Jackal is 
howling, tway ! " But no ; he is speaking, saying : " I am surprised, 
I, Jackal of Ngonga ; Dog, whom I sent for fire, when he found mush, 
he was seduced ; he stayed for good." 

214 Folk- Tabs of Angola. 

Atu, ki akexile mu sanzala, k'akexile ni jimbua* Kiabeka o 
jimbua, Mbulu uatumine Imbua o kutakana o tubia bu bata. Imbua, 
ki Sza bu bata, uasange-bu kudia; kua mu uabela. Iii u&ie kid 
n'atu. Mahezu. 


Kiombo* 68 uakexile ni ndandu i£ Ngulu mu muxitu. Ki akala,. 
Ngulu uxi: "Ngiia mu bata, ngdkala n'atu/' Kiombo uxi: "Mu 
bata k'uie-mu; azemba-mu o jixitu." Ngulu uxi: "Ngii'ami mu 
bata ; ngddia-jinga kudia, ku dia atu ; mu iangu muala mi£i ialulu." 

Ngulu uakatuka ; ubUila mu bata. A mu tungila kibanga ; uabo- 
kona; uakala. Uavualela mu bata; a mu kuata. Id a mu jib a, 
mukonda uaxi kid o mbutu. 

Ki 6ne mu di kola o ngulu, ki a i jiba, iSne mu kuila, ixi : " Kio- 
mbp ua ng'ambele, uxi ' mu embu, k'uie-mu ; ' erne ngixi * mu ene 
mu ngiia/ " 

Ki ixala kid ni kamueniu kofele, ixi : " Ngafu, ngafu, erne, Ngulu " 

Atu, ki akexile, k'akexile ni jingulu ; kiabeka o ngulu mu bata, o 
kudia, ku £ne mu di* atu, kuauaba. 



Ngateletele Nguadi, a di kuatele pata ni Mbaii. 

Nguadi uxi : " Eie, kamba Mbaxi, k'u&ne mu tena kulenga. Ki 
Sue mu kuiza o tubia mu ngongo, u&ne mu jokota." Mbaxi uxi : 
"Erne ki ngitena kujokota. Ujokof eie, Nguadi." Nguadi uxi: 
'* Erne ngala ni mabab' ami ; ngituka. Eie k'utena kutuka, k'utena 
kulenga ; ujokotela beniaba, kididi kimoxi." A di xib'i. 

Abange iziia ; kixibu kiSza. Matubia akuata mu ngongo. O ki- 
tumba, ki ala Mba&i ni Nguadi, a ki te mu tubia. Tubia tuazukama 
b'ala Mba&i ; Mbaxi uabokona mu dilundu. Tueza b'ala Nguadi ; 

Partridge and Turtle. 215 

The people, when they were in villages, had not any dogs. What 
brought the dogs, Jackal sent Dog to fetch fire in the village. Dog, 
when he came to the village, found food there; it pleased him. 
Now he lives with the people. Finished. 


Boar 663 used to be with his kinsman, Hog, in the forest. As they 
were, Hog said : " I am going to the village, to live with the men." 
Boar said : " To the village, do not go there ; there they hate the 
animals." Hog said : " I will go to the village ; I shall always eat 
the food, that men eat ; in the bush there are bitter plants." 

Hog started ; he arrives in the village. They built him a sty ; he 
entered ; stayed. He bred in the village ; they seized him. Now 
they kill him ; because he has already left seed. 

Whenever the hog squeaks, when they kill it, it is speaking, say- 
ing: "Boar, he told me, saying 'in the village, do not go there;' 
I said, * to the same I will go/ " 

When it is left already with little life, it says : " I die, I die, I, 

People, when they were, they had no hogs ; what brought the hogs 
to the habitations, (is) that the food, which the people are wont to eat, 
is good. 



I will tell of Partridge who had a discussion with Turtle. 

Partridge said: "Thou, friend Turtle, never canst run away. 
When the fire is coming into the land, thou art always burnt." 
Turtle said : " I cannot be burnt. Thou art burnt, thou, Partridge." 
Partridge said : " I have my wings ; I fly. Thou canst not fly, canst 
not run ; thou shalt burn just here, (in this) very same place." They 
were silent. 

They spent days ; the dry season came. The fires begin over the 
country. The bush, where are Turtle and Partridge, it is set on 
fire. The fire approaches where Turtle is ; Turtle gets into an ant> 

216 Folk- Tales of Angola. 

Nguadi ulenga; kt kuxikina. 664 Tubia tua mu zukaraa; umateka 
kutuka o tubia. Tubia tua mu kuata ; uajokota. 

Tubia tuabuila mu ngongo. O manianga, ejile mu kitumba, 
amuangana. Mbaxi uatubuka mu dilundu ; utala boxi ; Nguadi ua- 
jokota! Uxi: "Ai! moso Nguadi, ngakuatele n'6 o pata, uxi 'eie 
ujokota;' manii muene uajokota." 

Mbaii ua mu kuata mu kinama ; ua mu katula o lupisa, Ukala 
mu xika ni lupisa lua Nguadi, uxi : 

" Kalumbinga 665 ka Nguadi, 
Nguadi uafu, 
Kalumbinga kaxala." 

Nguadi uakuatele o pata ni Mbaxi; Nguadi uajokota; o Mbaxi 


Ngateletele Zundu a Kumboto, uasakenene 666 ahetu aiadi. Mu- 
hatu iii, ua mu tungila ku tunda ; muku£, ua mu tungila ku luiji. 
Muene, bu nangu 667 diS bu kaxi. 

Ahetu ateleka funji, kiiadi kii ; iabila kumoxi. Muhetu ua dikota 
uakatula mukunji, uxi: "Nd£ Htakane pai enu!" Muhatu ua 
ndenge u6 uazangula mukunji, uxi: "Kitakane pai enu!" 

Akunji akatuka ; abixila kumoxi. Iiiuxi: "Akutumu." 688 Mu- 
ku& uxi: "A ku tumu." Kazundu 669 uxi: "Ngibanga kiebi? Ahetu 
aiadi a ngi tumu. Ha ngituama o kuia kui dikota, ndenge uxi 'uai 
hanji kui na mvuale ;' o ki ngituama o kuia kui ndenge, dikota uxi : 
*uai hanji kui kate 6T0 i6J " Kazundu ukala mu kuimbila, uxi : 

" NgatangalaiM ! OT1 NgatangalalV? ! 
NgatangalalM ! NgatangalalM ! " 

Kazundu uasakenene ahetu aiadi; ateleka funji kumoxi. A mu 
tumina kumoxi. Zundu uxi: "Ngibanga kiebi?" Iii ki fine mu 
dila: Ku6-ku6! ku6-ku6! atu exi: "Dizundu diala mu dila." 
Manii kana; diala mu kuila, dixi: 


Frog and his Two Wives. 217 

hill. It comes where Partridge is ; Partridge runs ; it will not (do). 
The fire comes nearer him ; he begins to fly from the fire. The fire 
catches him ; he is burnt. 

The fire came to end in country. The hunters, who had come to 
the fire-hunt, have scattered. Turtle comes out of the ant-hill ; he 
looks on ground ; Partridge is burnt ! He says : " What ! comrade 
Partridge, I had with him that discussion, he saying ' thou shalt be 
burnt; but he himself was burnt." 

Turtle took him by the leg ; he took off from him a spur. He 
begins to play with the spur of Partridge, saying : 

" Little horn of Partridge, 
Partridge is dead, 
The little horn is left." 

Partridge had a discussion with Turtle; Partridge was burnt; 
Turtle escaped. 


I will tell of Frog Kumboto, who married two wives. This wife, 
he built for her on the East ; the other, he built for her on the West. 
He, his favorite place 662 (was) in the middle. 

The wives cooked mush, both of them ; it was done at the same 
time. The head-wife took a messenger, saying : " Go and fetch your 
father ! " The inferior wife also took up a messenger, saying : " Go 
and fetch your father ! " 

The messengers started ; they arrived at the same (time). One 
said : "They sent for thee/* The other said : " They sent for thee." 
Frog said : " How shall I do ? Both wives sent for me. If I begin 
by going to the superior, the inferior will say * thou wentest first to 
the head-wife ; ' but if I begin by going to the inferior, the superior 
will say * thou wentest first to thy sweetheart.' " Frog began to sing, 

saying : 

" I am in trouble ! I am in trouble ! 
I am in trouble! I am in trouble 2 " 

Frog had married two wives ; they cooked mush at the same time. 
They sent for him at the same time. Frog said : " How shall I do ? " 
He whenever he is croaking : Ku6-ku6 ! ku6-ku6 ! people say : " The 
frog is croaking." But no ; he is speaking, saying : 

" I am in trouble 1 " 

21S Folk' Tales of Angola. 


Ngateletele Nianga dia Ngenga, mutu uakexile dinianga; uasa- 
kanene ahetu aiadi. Uene ni jimbua jS jiiadi ; ia mukaji ni ia 
ndumbe. Ualozele jixitu; utala k'ala mu loza dingi ; uxi: "Ngi- 
xana kimbanda pala ku ngi idika umbanda ua kuloza," 

Uexana kimbanda, Kimbanda kiaidika umbanda; uabu. Ha ki 
mu ambela ijila, uxi : "Ha uazekele m'o'nzo ia dikota, usambela mu 
kisumbula; ha uazekele mVnzo ia ndenge, k' usambela mu kisu- 
mbula ; uxikama ku dilundu." Dinianga uaxikina. U6ne mu loza o 

Kizu' eki, uakatuka ni jimbua jd jiiadi Uabixila mu tutu; uai- 
dika kisumbula ; uasambela. Jimbua jaxikama boxi dia kisumbula. 
Kitangana, mb&mbi ieza. Utudika uta ; uloza mb&mbl Mbdmbi 
iabu ; jimbua jezubidisa. Muene umateka kutuluka ; k'atena. Uala 
mu banga mu muxi ni kutuluka ; ualembua. O dikumbi diafu kid. 

Imbua i£, ia ndumbe, ixi ku muxima u£ : " Ha nga di xiba, o ngana 
iami k'atena kutuluka." Iambela ngana iS, ixi : " Takula dikiia boxi, 
tu ku bane mueniu ; k'uile uxi ' nga di uana.' " Dinianga uasonona 
dikiia boxi. Imbua ia di zangula ; iakoka muxi. O imbua ia mukaji 
iambata muxi ; eza n'L A u imika ku kisumbula. Imbua ia ndumbe 
iambela ngana iS, ixi: "Diota kinama ku muxi." Dinianga uate 
kinama ku muxi ; uatuluka. 

Uatale mMmbi i& ; iabu. Ua i sese ; ua i kutu bu kiba. Jimbua 
j£ jixi : " Eie, ngana ietu, ki tuandala ku ku ambela, k'uile, uxi ' nga- 
mono kisuma.' Eie uakolomuene kimbanda. Kiki, ki a ku bange- 
lele o kimbanda, ua ku bele ijila. Lelu, eie uajimbila o kijila; 
uanaminina mu lu dia muxi. Etu tua ku tulula. O ki tuazuela 
kia, eie uevu. O ima ioso u i iva-jinga, ki izuela. Ki zuela o sanji, 
u k' ivua ; ki zuela o hombo, u k* ivua ; ki zuela o 'mbua, u k' ivua ; 
ki zuela kanjila mu iangu, u k' ivua. Uivua ngoho ; u di xib'& Ha 
ui ki tangela mutu ni mukuenu, ufua." Nianga dia Ngenga uxi : 
"Kiauaba." Uazangula mb&mbi i& ; uabixila ku bata. Ubokona 
m'o'nzo; uazekele. 

Kimenemene, ateleka funji. Uanomona xitu ; uebake bu dilonga 
ni muzonge ni funji. Uabana jimbua j& Ahetu exi : " Palahi ubela 

Nianga dia Ngenga and his Dogs. 219 


I will tell of Nianga dia Ngenga, a man who was a hunter ; who 
married two wives. He had his two dogs ; a female and a male. 
He shot game ; he sees he is not shooting any more, says : " I will 
call a medicine-man to prepare me a medicine for shooting." 

He called the medicine-man. The medicine-man prepared a med- 
icine; it is ready. Then he tells him precepts, saying: "If thou 
sleptest in the house of the elder, thou shalt climb into the tree-seat. 
If thou sleptest in the house of the younger, thou shalt not climb 
into the tree -seat; thou shalt sit on a termite- hill." Dinianga 
assented. He keeps on shooting game. 

One day, he started with both his dogs. He arrived in bush ; he 
arranged the tree-seat ; climbed. The dogs sat under the tree-seat, 
A while, the deer comes. He shoulders the gun ; he shoots the 
deer. The deer fell ; the dogs finished it. He begins to get down ; 
he cannot. He is struggling on the tree, to get down ; he gives in. 
The sun is dead already. 

His dog, the male, says in his heart : " If I keep silent, my master 
cannot come down/' He tells his master, saying; "Throw the 
hatchet down, that we save thy life ; do not think, saying * I met a 
bad sign.' " Dinianga let the hatchet drop on the ground. The dog 
took it up ; he felled a tree. The female dog carried the tree ; they 
come with it. They set it up to the tree-seat. The male dog tells 
his master, saying : " Step (with thy) foot on (this) pole/' Dinianga 
set (his) foot on the pole ; he came down. 

He flayed his deer ; it is finished. He cut it open ; he bound 
it into the skin. His dogs say: "Thou, our master, what we are 
going to tell thee, do not think, saying : ' I have seen a bad omen.' 
Thou didst call a medicine-man. Now, when he made (medicine) 
for thee, the medicine-man, he gave thee injunctions. To-day thou 
didst forget the injunction; thou didst stick up in the tree. We 
have taken thee down. What we have spoken now, thou hast heard. 
All things, thou shalt ever hear them when they speak. What the 
fowl speaks, thou shalt hear it ; what the goat speaks, thou shalt 
hear it ; (what) the dog says, thou shalt hear it ; what the little bird 
speaks in the bush, thou shalt hear it. Thou slialt only hear ; thou 
shalt hold thy peace. If thou tell it to any one else, thou shalt die." 
Nianga dia Ngenga said : "Very well." He took up his deer; he 
arrived at home. He entered the house ; slept. 

Morning, they cook the mush. He took meat ; he put it in & 
plate with gravy and mush. He gave to his dogs. The wives said : 

220 Folk- Tales of Angola. 

o jimbua o xitu ioso eii ? " Muene uxi : " Mukonda jene ji ngala mu 
kuenda najiu." Ahetu a di xib'4. O xitu iamukud, Dinianga ua i 
uanesa aku& bu sanzala. Akal'i ku iziia. 

O Dinianga, ki £ne mu zuela o ibaku, u£ne mu kuiva. Ua di 

Kizu* eki, uaxikama bu kanga ni jimbua j$ jiiadi, ja mu kondoloka. 
O muhatu uS ua dikota uala bu kinu ; uala mu zuka. O jisanji jala 
mu di fetela ni hombo, ixi : " Musonii uala mu kuiza. Lelu, sanji, 
andala ku ku jiba." O sanji jixi : "A ku jib* eie, u hombo, uakulu." 
Hombo ixi: "Atuama ku ku jiba, eie sanji; o mungu n'a ngi jiba 
km* erne." 

O Dinianga, uala mu kuivua, uala mu kuolela ; manii ukou* 6 uala 
mu kuiza. O muhatu 6, ki evu ngan'4 uala mu kolela, 672 usakuka 
ku mu tala. Ki atala mu kanga, manii t uala mu kuiza, uazuata 

Muhatu uxi : " Eie, ngan'etu, uala mu kuolela manii etu, uala mu 
kuiza, uazuata makoza." Diiala uxi: "Muene, manii enu, kf ngu 
mu mono, ku ala mu kuijila. Erne ngolela mak' ami engi, u ngaxi- 
ngeneka." Muhatu uxi: "Makutu 6 ! manii etu ua mu olela." Mu- 
hatu uambela manii 4, uxi: "Eie, manii etu, uamona kukindana, 
holome 6 ua ku olela." Manii 4, ki £vu kiki, kia mu iibila; uxi: 
"Holome ami, ua ngi xingi." Ukouakimii mVnzo ia mon' 6 ngufi 
kubokona-mu dingi. Utula inzo iengi mu sanzala. Mon' 6 uateleka 
kudia; ubana manii 4. Manii 4 nguS. 

Muhatu ua di kuata ni ngan' 4, uxi : " Eie uaxingi manii etu." 
Ngan* 4 uxi : " Hanji ngamateka ku ku ambela, ngixi : * mak* ami engi 
ngaxingeneka/ " Muhatu uxi : " Erne, kikala u ngi tangela o maka, u 
uaxingeneka. Ha k'u ngi tangeP 4, manii etu ua mu olela.'* Diiala 
uxi: "Tuzeke; mungu ngizuela." Azekele. 

Kimenemene, diiala uatumu kuixana aku4 mu sanzala; atena. 
Diiala uxi : " Enu, akuetu, ivuenu ki ngizuela ; mukonda ngandala 
kufu* ami. O kalunga kami, ki mu ka tukumuke." Uxi: "Enu, 
akuetu, nga di longa ufunu uami ua unianga. Erne ngexanene ki- 
rn banda; ua ngi bangelele umbanda; ua ngi bele ijila; uxi: *ha 
uazekele mVnzo ia ndenge, k'usambele mu kisumbula/ Ngai mu 
nianga ni jimbua jami jiiadi. Ngajimbila kijila, ki a ngi bele kimba- 
nda. Ngalozo mb4mbi ; mbdmbi iabu boxi. Erne ki ngitena kutu- 
luka. O jimbua jami jabatula muxi ; ngatuluka. Ha ji ng 9 ambela, 

Nianga dia Ngenga and his Dogs. 221 

"Why givest thou the dogs all that meat?" He said: "Because 
they are (those) with whom I always go out." The women are silent 
The other meat, Dinianga he divided it to the others in the village. 
They lived on some days. 

Dinianga, whenever animals were speaking, he always heard. He 
held his peace. 

One day, he is seated outside with his two dogs who are around 
him. His wife, the principal, is at the mortar ; she is pounding* 
The fowls begin to whisper with the goat, who says : " A visitor is 
coming. To-day, fowl, they will kill thee/' The fowls said : "They 
will kill thee, thou goat, so fat." The goat said: "They will first 
kill thee, thou chicken ; to-morrow then they will kill me, me too." 

Dinianga, who was hearing, begins to laugh ; however, his mother 
in-law is coming. His wife, when she hears her master, who is 
laughing, she turns round to look at him. When she looks in the 
distance, her mother is coming wearing rags. 

The woman says : ** Thou, my master, art laughing at my mother, 
who is coming, wearing rags." The man said : " She, thy mother, 
I saw her not, where she was coming. I laughed about my own 
affairs, different, that I was thinking." The wife says : " Thy lies ! 
my mother thou didst laugh at her." The woman tells her mother, 
saying: "Thou, my mother, who comest to visit, thy son-in-law has 
laughed at thee." Her mother, when she heard this, it displeased 
her, she said : " My son-in-law, thou hast insulted me." The mother* 
in-law, in the house of her daughter, she refuses to enter there 
any more. She puts up at another house in the village. Her 
daughter cooks the food ; she gives (it) to her mother. Her mother 

The woman grapples with her master, saying: "Thou hast insulted 
my mother." Her master says: "But now, I began to tell thee, 
saying, 'matters of mine, others, I was thinking.'" The woman 
said : " I, it shall be thou tellest me the matters, that thou wast 
thinking. If thou tellest me not them, my mother, thou didst laugh 
at her." The man said : " Let us sleep ; to-morrow I shall speak." 
They slept. 

Morning, the man sent to call the other people in the village ; 
they come in full. The man said : " You, our folks, listen to what 
I speak ; for I am going to die. My death, do not remember it." 
He says: "You, our people, I learnt my craft of hunting. I called 
a medicine-man; he made for me a medicine; he gave me rules, 
saying, ' If thou didst sleep in house of younger, do not climb into 
tree-seat/ I went a-hunting with both my dogs. I forgot the rule, 
that the medicine-man had given me. I shot a deer ; the deer fell 
on ground. I cannot get down. My dogs, they cut a tree ; I got 

222 Folk- Tales of Angola. 

jixi: 'tua ku tulula mu kisumbula. O ki zuela-jinga o jixitu, uk' 
ivua. K'u ki tangele mutu; ha uk ki tangela mutu, ufua/ Eme, 
kiene ki ngaiikina. Erne ngfine ami. O mazd, o jisanji ha jala mu 
di fetela ni hombo. Erne nga j* ivu; ni ngolela Erne k! nggjfa 
ngixi ' ukou'ami uala mu kuiza ; ' ngolela jisanji. Muhatu ami usa- 
kuka ; utala manii &, uala mu kuiza. Uxi : ' Manii etu ua mu olela.* 
Ngixi 'kana/ Uxi: 'Kikala u ngi tangela kioso ki uolela.' Enu, 
akuetu, o kijila, ki a ngi bana o jimbua jami, jixi 'ki tuzuela, 678 k'u 
ki tangele mutu/ o lelu muhatu ami, id ua ngi jijidika, uxi 'ngi 
tangele ki uolela/ Kiene ki nga m' ixanena, enu akuetu. Ngand^la 
kufu'ami. Mahezu enu." Aku& exi : " A Nzambi." 

Dinianga dibalumuka ; ubokona m Vnzo ie ; unanga kitangana kia 
ndumba. Muhetu £ ubokona m'o'nzo ; u mu sanga uafu kid. 

Jindandu ja Dinianga jixi : " Eie, muhetu, eie uajiba ndandu ietu; 
mukonda eie, ha k'u mu jijidikile, hinu k'afu; mu fute." m Malemba 
a muhatu exi : " Tuf uta kikuii ? " Ene exi : " Mu tu f uta ngombe 
jisamanu." Malemba a muhatu anomona ngombe jisamanu; afutu. 

Nianga dia Ngenga uasakenene muhatu & Ki aia mu nianga, 
uajimbidile o kijila; jimbua j£, jiji ja mu bele o mueniu. Jixi: 
"K'u ki tangele mutu." O kiziia, ki a mu jijidika o muhatu, kiene 
ki a ki kunda, kiene kiztia kid kia kufua. O jimbua j£ uS, j a file ni 
ngana id kumoxi. 

Ha tuamesena o kuta, tuta dingi ; ha tuarnesena o kuzeka, tuzeka. 
Mahezu enu ! 



Mbanza Kitamba kia Xiba, soba iakexile mu 'Asanji, uatungisa 
l>ata di£; uakal'd. O ki akala, kuku j£, W6 mbanza Muhongo, uafu. 
A mu f undu ; adidi tambi ; iabu. 

Mbanza Kitamba uxi: "Ki afu kuku jami, erne ngi di kota; o 
sanzala iami ue, kana mutu ubanga-bu kima. An 9 a ndenge k'akola; 
ahetu k'azuku ; kana mutu uzuela bu sanzala." O makota exi : 
4i Mbanza, o muhetu uafu ; uxi ' bu sanzala k'azuela ; erne Id ngidi, 

King Kitamba kia Xiba. 223 

down. Then they tell me, saying, ' We have got thee down from 
the tree-seat. Whatever animals speak, thou shalt hear it. Do not 
tell it to anybody ; if thou tellest it to any one, thou shalt die/ I, 
the same, I agreed to it. I lived on. Yesterday, the fowls, they are 
whispering with the goat. I heard them ; and I laughed. I knew 
not to think ' my mother-in-law is coming ; ' I laughed (about) the 
fowls. My wife turns round ; she sees her mother, who is coming. 
She says: 'My mother, thou didst laugh at her/ I said: 'No.' 
She said : 'It shall be, thou tellest whatever thou didst laugh about.' 
You, our people, the rule, which my dogs gave me, saying, * what 
we speak, thou shalt not tell it to any one/ to-day, my wife, she has 
forced me (to break), saying, 'tell me what thou didst laugh at/ 
Therefore I called you, you, our people. I am going to die, I have 
finished/' The people said : " With God/' 

Dinianga stands up ; he enters his house ; he stays a long time. 
His wife enters the house ; she finds him dead already. 

The kinsmen of Dinianga say : " Thou, woman, thou hast killed 
our kinsman ; for thou, if thou hadst not forced him, now he would 
not be dead; pay (for) him," 674 The uncles of the woman said: 
<( We shall pay how much ? " They said : " You shall pay us cattle 
six (heads)." The uncles of the woman took the six cattle ; they 
have paid. 

Nianga dia Ngenga had married his wife. When he went a-hunt- 
ing, he forgot the injunction ; his dogs, these saved his life. They 
said : " Thou shalt not tell it to any one." The day, when the 
woman forced him, that same (day) that he told it, that same (was) 
his day of dying. His dogs too, they died with their master, 

If we want to tell, let us tell more ; if we want to sleep, let us 
sleep. Finished. 


Mbanza (King) Kitamba kia Xiba, a chief who was at Kasanji, 
had built his village ; he lived on. When he was thus, his head-wife, 
Queen Muhongo, died. They buried her; they wailed the mourn- 
ing ; it ended. 

Mbanza Kitamba said : " Since my head-wife died, I shall mourn ; 
my village too, no man shall do anything therein. The young peo- 
ple shall not shout ; the women shall not pound ; no one shall speak 
in the village." The head-men said : "Master, the woman is dead ; 

224 Folk- Tales of Angola. 

kt nginu, ki ngizuela ; * etu kiWa tu ki mona." Muene, mbanza, uxi : 
"Ha muamesena, muxi erne ngolela, ngizuela, bu sanzala azuela, 
kikala mui ngi takenena kuku jami, mbanza Muhongo." Makot' 
exi : " Mbanza, o mutu uaf u kid ; tu mu takana kiebi ? " Muene uxi : 
" Ha kf mutena ku mu takana, eme ngala ni kikoto ; bu sanzala iami, 
kana mutu uzuela-bu." 

Makota a di zuelesa mu di&, exi : " Tukengienu kimbanda." 
Atumu kimbanda ; mukolomono ua kimbanda, uta. Kimbanda kie- 
za ; teleku i6, mama ia ngombe. Kimbanda uxi : " Tangenu, i mua 
ngi tiimina/' Exi : " Mbanz' a kuku Muhongo uafu ; o mbanza Ki- 
tamba uxi 'ngi di kota; bu sanzala kana mutu uzuela-bu; ha mua- 
mesena kuzuela, mui ngi takenena kuku jami, mbanza Muhongo.' 
Kiene ki tua ku tumina, eie, kimbanda, n'ua mu takana, mbanz* a 
kuku, ku 'Alunga ; mundu n'usanguluka." < 

Kimbanda uxi : '• Kiauaba." Uabiti mu ngongo ni kubanda ; ua- 
bake kinu kia umbanda bu kanga, uxi : " Mbanza muene eze, azoue ; 
mundu uoso uzoua." Mbanza uazouo; mundu uoso uazouo. Ki- 
mbanda uxi : " Kandenu kina mu kijima kiami, bu dijiku." Akande 
kina; kiabu. 

Uakutuka mu kina ni kana kd, k'ejile naku. Uambela muhetu 
u6, uxi; "Iztia ioso, k'uzuatele ponda; u di kumba 676 ngoho. Iziia 
ioso, uta-jinga menia bu jiku beniaba." Muhatu uaxikina. Kimba- 
nda uxi : " Vumbikenu-kiu." A ki vumbika, ni kimbanda ni mon' 6 ; 
a ki balela, kala ki buakexile o dijiku diene." AkaT&. Muhatu u£ne 
mu ta o menia bu jiku, iziia ioso. 

O kimbanda, ki akutuka mu kina, muakubuka njila ionene. Ua- 
kuata mu njila ; muene uatuamena, mon' £ uaxala ku ema. Enda 
kitangana; ab&ila ku mbandu a sanzala; kuene ku 'Alunga-ngombe. 
Kimbanda utala mu kaxi kia sanzala ; mbanza Muhongo iunid, uala 
mu tunga ngalu. Ubixila b'ala mbanza Muhongo; mbanza Muho- 
ngo usakula mesu. Utala mutu, uala mu kuiza, uxi : " Eie, uala mu 
kuiza, uatundu kuebi ?" Kimbanda uxi : " Eie muene, nga ku takana. 
Hanji ki uafua, mbanza Kitamba ngu£ kudia, ngu6 kunua, nguS 
kuzuela. Bu sanzala k'azuku, k'azuela; uxi 'ha ngizuela, ha ngi- 
dia, kitakane-enu kuku jami.' Kiene kia ngi beka kunu. Mahezu." 

Mbanz' a kuku uxi: "Kiauaba. ZA utale iunid; 677 nanii uaxi- 
kama?" Kimbanda uxi: "Kt nga mu ijfa." Mbanz' a kuku uxi: 
"Muene na 'Alunga-ngombe; muene uSne mu tu dia, etu ene oso." 

King Kitamba kia Xiba. 225 

thou sayest, ' In village they shall not speak ; t will not eat, not 
drink; not speak;' we never yet saw this." He, the king, said: 
" If you desire, that I laugh, (that) I talk, (that) in the village they 
talk, it shall be (that) you bring me my head-wife, Queen Muhongo." 
The head-men say : " King, the person is now dead ; how can we 
fetch her ? " He said : " If ye cannot fetch her, I am in mourning ; 
in my village, no person shall talk." 

The head-men consult among themselves, saying : " Let us seek 
a medicine-man." They send for the medicine-man ; the calling- 
present to the doctor (is) a gun. The doctor has come ; his cooking 
(is) a cow. The doctor said : " Tell, what you sent me for." They 
said : " The head-queen Muhongo is dead ; King Kitamba says, ' I 
will mourn ; in the village no one shall talk ; if you want to talk, 
you must fetch me my head-wife, Queen Muhongo/ Therefore it is 
we sent for thee, thee, the doctor, that thou f etchest her, the head- 
queen, from Kalunga; that the people may rejoice." 

The doctor said : "All right." He went through the country 
gathering herbs; he set a medicine-mortar outside, saying: "The 
king, he shall come (and) wash ; all the people shall wash." The 
chief washed ; all the people washed. The doctor said : " Dig ye a 
grave in my guest-hut, at the fire-place." They dug the grave ; it is 

He entered the grave with his little child, which had come with 
him. He told his wife, saying : " All days, do not wear a girdle ; 
thou shalt tuck in only. 676 All days thou shalt constantly put water 
on the fire-place here," The woman assented. The doctor said; 
" Cover ye it up." They filled it up, with the doctor and his child ; 
they rammed it down as when there was the fire-place itself. They 
lived on. The wife always puts the water on the fire-place, all days. 

The doctor, when he got into the grave, there opened a large 
road. He starts on the road ; he goes ahead ; his child walks be* 
hind. They walk a while ; they arrive beside a village ; that is at 
Kalunga-ngombe's. The doctor looks into the middle of the village ; 
Queen Muhpngo is yonder; she is sewing a basket. He arrives 
where Queen Muhongo is ; Queen Muhongo turns (her) eyes. She 
sees a man who is coming, she says : " Thou, who art coming, 
whence comest thou?" The doctor said: "Thou, thyself, I have 
sought thee. Since thou art dead, King Kitamba will not eat, will 
not drink, will not speak. In the village they pound not; they 
speak not ; he says, ' If I shall talk, if I eat, go ye and fetch my 
head-wife.' That is what brought me here. I have spoken." 

The head-queen said: "Very well. Come look at that one; who is 
it sitting ? " The doctor said : " I know him not." The head-queen 
said: "He is Lord Kalunga-ngombe ; he is always consuming us, 

226 Folk* Tales of Angola. 

Uxi dingi: "Q iunid, nanii? uala bu lubambu." Kimbanda ixxii 
" Ua di fu ni mbanza Kitamba, nga mu xi ku ngatundu," Mbanz' 
a kuku uxi: "Muene mbanza Kitamba; muene ku lu dia mundu 
k'ala-ku dingi; kuakambe mivu ikuxi, 578 mbanza uandala kufua. 
Eie, kimbanda, ueza mu ngi takana, etu, kunu ku 'Alunga, kl ku&ie 
mu kuiza mutu, n'avutuka dingi. Aba luselu luami, lu a ngi fundile 
nalu ; manii ki uia koko, k'a ku kuatese makutu, exi 'k'uele-ku/ O 
mbanza muene, k'ua mu tangela-kiu, uxi c nga ku sange kid ku 'Alu- 
nga.'" Ua di xib'd. Uxi dingi : "Eie muene, kimbanda, k! ngitena 
ku ku bana kudia kunu. Ha uadi kunu, k'utena dingi kuvutuka." 
Kimbanda uxi : " Kiauaba," Uasuluka. 

Ubi&ila b'akutukila mu kina ni mon* £, uendele n'& O muhatu, 
uaxala ku kanga, u&ne mu ta o menia bu jiku. Kizu' eki utala bu 
jiku: b'a di bulu misula. Kitangana, utala: mutue ua kimbanda 
uatundu. Kimbanda utakula maku ku kanga; uafomoka; id ku 
kanga. Ukuata mona mu lukuaku; ua mu te ku kanga. Mona 
utala ku dikumbi ; uambuka. Kimbanda uai mu iangu ; uabande. 
Ueza ; ua mu sukula. Mona uatukumuka. Azekele. 

Kimenemene, kimbanda uxi : " Enu, makota a sanzala, roua ngi 
takanene, izenu baba, ngikunde ku ngendele." Makota atena; ua- 
kundu ioso, i a mu kundila mbanz' a kuku. Kimbanda uxi : " Ma- 
hezu. Ngi kuenu kid." Makot' Sxi: "Kiauaba." Anomona abik' 
aiadi ; a mu ku. Kimbanda uai'£ ku bata diS, 

Makota akundila mbanza, exi: "Kimbanda kia di kundu, kixi 
' ngendele ku 'Alunga-ngombe. Mbanz* a kuku nga mu sange, ngixi 
"hanji ki uafua, mbanza k'£ne mu dia, k'Sne mu nua; iza, tuie." 
Mbanz' a kuku ua ngi vutuila, uxi " etu kunu, kl ku&ne mu kuiza 
mutu, n'avutuka dingi. Luselu luami lulu, ambata-lu, k'a ku mone 
makutu," ' Kiene ki a tu kundila kimbanda. Eie, mbanza, mahezu. 
Luselu lueniulu, lu afundile nalu mbanz' a kuku." Mbanza uxi : 
" Kidi ; luene." 

Ki abange ku iztia, mbanza iii udia ; mbanza Iii unua. Akuata ku 
mivu, mbanza uafu. Adidi tambi ; iamuangana. 

Mbanza Kitamba kia Xiba mu 'Asanji uaxia mak* &. 

King Kitamba kia Xida. 227 

us all." She said again : " He yonder, who (is he) ? who is in the 
chain." The doctor said : " He looks like King Kitamba, whom I 
left where I came from." The queen said : " He is King Kitamba. 
He is in the world not any longer ; there lacks how many years, 678 
the chief will die. Thou, doctor, who earnest to fetch me, we, here 
in Kalunga, never comes one here to return again. Take my arm- 
ring, that they buried me with ; that when thou goest there, they 
accuse thee not of lying, saying, 'thou wentest not there.' The 
chief himself, do not tell it him, saying, «I found thee already in 
Kalunga/" She paused. She said again: "Thou thyself, doctor, 
I cannot give thee to eat here. If thou eatest here, thou canst 
return no more." The doctor said : " Well." He departed. 

He arrives (at the place) where he got into the grave with his 
child, that he went with. The woman, who stayed on earth, kept 
putting water on the fire-place. One day, she looks at the fire-place : 
there are cracks breaking. A while, she looks: the head of the 
doctor has come out. The doctor throws (his) arms outside; he 
gets out ; he is on ground He takes the child by the arm ; he sets 
him on ground. The child looks at the sun ; he faints. The doctor 
goes to the bush ; he gathers herbs. He comes ; he washes him. 
The son comes to. They slept. 

In morning, the doctor says : " You, head-men of the town, who 
fetched me, come here that I report where I went." The head-men 
all come ; he reports everything that the head-queen had told him. 
The doctor said : " Finished. Pay me now." The head-men said : 
" Well." They took two slaves ; they paid him. The doctor went 
to his home. 

The head-men reported to the chief, saying: "The doctor re- 
ported, saying, «I went to Kalunga-ngombe's. The chiefs wife, 
I found her, said, " Since thou didst die, the chief does not eat, 
does not drink \ come, let us go." The queen returned to me, say- 
ing, "We, here, there comes not a person, to return any more. 
This my arm-ring, take it (along), that they see thee not (with) 
lies." ' That is what the doctor reported to us. Thou, king, we have 
spoken. The ring is here, which they buried the queen with." The 
chief said: "Truth; (it is) the same." 

When they spent a few days, the chief, he eats ; the chief, he 
drinks. They spent a few years, the chief died. They wailed the 
funeral ; they scattered. 

King Kitamba kia Xiba in Kasanji left this story. 

228 Folk- Tales of Angola. 


Mon* a diiala a mu bakele ngunji kuala 679 lemba di6, ngunji ia 
ngombe. 680 Akal'l 

Lemba dig uafu ; kana ku mu kula. 581 Pai & uatu ; kana ku mu 
kula. Ndandu j6 joso jafu ; kana mutu uatena ku mu kula. K'ungu- 
nji kuene udima ; uxanga ; utaba. Id a mu beta, O ngana j£ ja 
ngunji k'a mu zuika kima. 582 Uzunga ni makoza, n'ende ni ku di 
didila mu iangu. Uxi : " Ngala mu tala hadi iavulu, mu konda dia 
kukamba ndandu iami, u ngi kula." Uakal'6. O ki a mu banene 
lemba di6 ku ngunji, mon' a ndenge, o kiki ueza pesa 683 ia diiala. 
U6ne mu kalakala o ubika. 

Kizu' eki, uia ku kilu; uanjuua nzoji kuma Ngiji iala mu mu 
ambela, ixi: "Mungu mu kimenemene, atu k'ajikula 16a, 584 di me- 
neke bu tabu. Ima itatu, i usanga-bu, kioso ki k ku uabela, k&no- 
mone. Kota o ngonga; ha o ima iiadi, ndenge." Mon' a diiala 
utukumuka ku kilu : nzoji. Uxingeneka ; uxi : " Nzoji, i nganjuua, 
iende kiebi ? " m Ua di xib'fi. 

Uabange izua itatu; kia kauana, uanjiua 587 dingi; Ngiji ixi: 
"Eie, nga ku ambelele, ngixi 'mungu mu kimenemene, di meneke 
bu tabu. Kioso ki & ku uabela, kanomone.' O kiki, mu konda 
diahi k'uele-bu ?" Ngiji ia di xib'6. 

Mon' a diiala utukumuka : nzoji. O kuma kuamateka ngoho o 
kukia. Ubalumuka, ene oso kiliia ajikula. Ukutuka mu njila; ubi- 
xila bu tabu. Uemana ku mbandu a menia. Katangana* utala kita 
kia mata kiala mu kuiza ku tandu a menia. O mazulu 588 a a beteka 
koxi a menia, o ihunji iatalela muJu ; ua di xiba. Utala dingi : ma- 
kuba aiadi a fazenda ala mu kuiza ku tandu a menia ; asomboka. 
Katangana dingi, utala: kangonga ka keza; 589 kabiiila b'emana. 
Kene ue kemana. U ka kuata; uvutuka ku bata. Ubixila ku 
mbandu a bata; uasu kakisasa. Uabeta kangonga; ua ka sueka 
mu kisata kia *nzo. Uabokona mVnzo; ua di xib'£. 

Ngana j£ jixi: "Diabu, 690 zangula ditemu; uia mu dima. Ki 
uzumbuka mu dima, uiza ni kita kia jihunii." Uazangula ditemu ; 

The Young Man and the River. 229 


A young man was given as a pledge by his uncle, the pledge of 
an ox. 680 They lived on. 

His uncle died ; there is none to redeem him. 581 His father died ; 
there is none to redeem him. His relatives all died ; no person was 
able to redeem him. In bondship, there he hoes ; he cuts wood ; 
he gets water. Now they beat him. His masters of bondship, they 
do not dress him at all. He goes about in rags, to walk and cry to 
himself in the bush. He says : " I am seeing great misery, because 
of lacking a relative of mine, who (can) redeem me." He lived on. 
When his uncle gave him as a pledge, (he was) a child ; but now 
he has become a young man. 688 He keeps on doing (his) slavery 

One day, he goes to sleep ; he dreams a dream, that the River is 
speaking to him, saying : " To-morrow in morning, (when) the peo- 
ple have not opened yet, 684 be early at the landing. Three things, 
that thou shalt find there, whichever pleases thee, take. The best 
(is) the ngonga-basket; 686 as to the other two things, (they are) in- 
ferior." The young man awakes from sleep : (it is) a dream. He 
thinks, says: "The dream, that I dreamt, it meant what?" 686 He 
kept quiet. 

He spent three days ; on the fourth, he dreamt again, the River 
saying : V Thou, I have told thee, saying, * to-morrow in the morn- 
ing, be early at the landing. The thing that pleases thee, take/ 
Now, because of what didst thou not go there?" The River 

The young man awakes : a dream. Outside it was just beginning 
to, dawn. He gets up ; they all have not yet opened. He enters the 
rpad ; arrives at the landing. He stands at the side of the water. 
A moment, he sees a bundle of guns that is coming on top of the 
water. The muzzles 588 are downward under the water, the butt- 
ends are looking upwards ; he keeps quiet. He looks again ; two 
bales of cotton cloth are coming on top of the water ; they pass by. 
A moment again, he looks: a small basket is coming; 689 it arrives 
Where he stands. It also stands (still). He takes it ; returns home. 
He arrived at the side of the house ; he cut a small twig. He struck 
the basket ; he hid it in the grass-wall of the house. He went into 
the house ; kept quiet. 

His masters said : " Devil, 690 take up the hoe ; go to till. When 
thou leavest.the tilling, thou shalt come with a bundle of fire-sticks." 

230 Folk- Tales of Angola. 

uai ku mabia. Uadimi ; uazumbuka. Uaxanga ; uakutu. Uaza- 
ngula ; ubixila bu bata. " Uatula jihunii ; ua di xiba ; uazekele. 

Kimenemene, uxi: "Ngitala hanji moxi a ngonga." U i jikula: 
jipelu joso muene mu jala. Uajika dingi ; uabake. Uai mu xanga ; 
ueza, uatula. Exi: "Nd6 bu tabu/' Uai, uatabe; ueza, uatula. 
Kumbi diafu ; uzeka. Uanjiua ala mu mu idika mixi ia umbanda, 
exi : " Ki uia mu saka mahaxi a nganji, o mixi i& kinganji. Uoso uala 
ni fidila, 591 muxi u§ ua kinganji. O umbanda ua jisoba, u u banga 
kinganji ni kingahji." A di xiba ; muene utukumuka : nzoji. 

Ubalumuka ; uai mu mabia. Uakalakala ; ueza ku bata* Uazeka 
iziia iiadi. Bu sanzala b'eza atu aiadi, ala mu sota kimbanda. Muene 
uala mVnzcf, atu aiadi ala rau zuela ni ngana i& ia ngunji. 

Ngana i& uxi : u Etu baba, kl b'ene kimbanda. Ndenu k&sotienn. 
kuengi." Muene, mon* a diiala, utubuka mVnzo ; uibula atu aiadi, 
uxi : " Ngana, ubaxi uahi, u akata mueza mu sotela o kimbanda ? " 
Atu aiadi exi : " Uhaxi, ui u sanga eie muene." Uxi : " Ngi bani- 
enu mukolomono." Exi : " Mukolomono kikuxi ? " Muene uxi : 
"Pesa." 692 Exi: "Tuaxikina." A mu bana o pesa. O ngana ie 
ia ungunji uxi : " Iu ua di metena. Eie muene, hanji ki tudne 
adi, 693 o muxi ua dibuka k'ua u iji ; 5M o umbanda ua kusaka o haxi, 
u u sanga kuebi?" Muene uxi: "Ngana, ngafikisa ngoho." O 
ngana i6 ia ngunji uambela atu aiadi, uxi: "Ha k'a u tena 590 ki 
mu betienu ; mukonda ua di metena." Akatuka n'£ ; abixila ku 
bata, ku ala o haxi. 

Ambela o haxi, exi : " Kimbanda, tueza nakiu." Muene, kimba- 
nda, uatale o haxi, uxi: "Ngu mu tena ku mu saka." Uakuata 
k'umbanda iziia ioso. Boso b'a mu kambe, a mu idika ku kilii. Mu 
makuinii aiadi a kizua haxi ieluka. Kimbanda uxi: "Haxi ia di 
sanze kid ; ngi kuenu, ngii'ami." Exi : " Kikue ki£ kikuii ? " Uxi : 
"Seseme ia ngombe." Axikina; mukonda o imbanda ioso ia mu 
lembuele, muene ua mu tena. A mu ku ; uvutuka ku bata di&. 

Usanga ngana i£ ia ungunji. Ngana i£ u mu ibula, uxi : •' Umba- 
nda uotena?" Uxi: "Ngotena; haxi ieluka; a ngi ku seseme ia 
ngombe." Ngana i£ uxi : " Kiauaba." Uatambula seseme i£ ia 
ngombe. Akal'i ku izda. 

Kueza dingi atu mu kenga kimbanda. Uai n*& ; uasake ; a mu 
futu dingi seseme ia ngombe. Ueza ku bata ; uafumana kii ixi ioso. 
Exi : " Muene kimbanda kia kidi." 

The Young Man and the River. 231 

He took up the hoe; he went to the fields. He hoed; he left 
(hoeing). He cut wood ; he bound (it). He took (it) up ; he arrived 
at home. He laid down the fire-sticks ; kept quiet ; slept. 

Morning, he says : " I will look first inside of the basket." He 
opens it: medicine-things all complete are in it. He closed it 
again ; laid it aside. He went to cut wood ; came, laid (it) down. 
They say : " Go to the landing." He went, bailed ; came, set down. 
The sun died ; he goes to sleep. He dreams (that) they are show- 
ing him the plants of medicine, saying, " When thou goest to cure 
such diseases, the plants are such. Whoever has sores, his plant is 
such a one. The medicine of chiefs, thou shalt make it this way 
and this way." They are silent ; he wakes up : a dream. 

He gets up ; goes to the fields. He has worked ; has come home. 
He slept two days. In yillage, there have come two persons who 
are seeking a doctor. He is in the house, the two persons are 
speaking with his master of bondship. 

His master says : " We, here, there is not a doctor. Go ye, and 
seek elsewhere." He, the young man, goes out of the house; asks 
the two men, saying : " Gentlemen, which sickness is ailing (him) 
for whom you come to seek a doctor ? " The two men said : " The 
sickness, thou shalt find it thyself." He says : " Ye give me the 
calling -fee." They say: "The fee is how much?" He said: 
"A piece." 692 They said: "We agree." They give him the piece. 
His master of bondship said : " This (one) is presumptuous. Thou 
indeed, ever since we are two, 59a the plant of the thread-worm thou 
knowest it not ; M the medicine to cure the sick man, where wilt 
thou find it ? " He said : " Master, I am learning only." His mas- 
ter of bondship told the two men, saying : " If he does not master 
it, 596 beat him ; because he was presumptuous." They started with 
bun ; they arrived at house where was the patient 

They tell the patient, saying : " The doctor, we have come with 
him." He, the doctor, looked at the patient, said: "I can cure 
him." He begins to doctor every day. Where it fails him, he is 
shown in sleep. In twenty days, the patient is safe. The doctor 
says : " The patient is already well ; pay me, that I may go." They 
say : " Thy pay, ,how much ? " Says he : "A heifer." They agree, 
because all the doctors had given him up, (but) he mastered him. 
They paid him ; he returned to his home. 

He finds his master of bondship. His master asks him, saying : 
"The medicine, couldst thou (do) it?" Says he: "I could; the 
patient is cured; they paid me a heifer." His master says: "All 
right" He took his heifer. They lived on some days. 

There came again people to seek a doctor. He went with them ; 
he cured ; they paid him again a heifer. He came home ; now he 
is famous (in) all the land. They say : " He is a doctor of truth." 

232 Folk- Tales of Angola* 

Uabange mivu itatu; uala kia mu ngombe jisamanu, Uxinge- 
neka, uxi: "Ngi di kula kid/" Uibula ngana ie ia ungunji, uxi: 
" Ngamesena ngii'ami kuoso ku ngamono ; ngi di kula kikuxi ? " 
Ngana ie uxi : " Beka mama jitatu ja ngombe." m Ua mu bana-jiu ; 
uatundu-bu.. Uai ixi i£ iengi ia mu uabela. Uatungu; uasakana; 
uakaFS mu banga maumbanda. Mu mivu isamanu uala ni kibanga 
kia jingombe javulu ; ueza kinjenge. 

Mukuetu, a mu bakele ungunji, ha ukala mu tala hadi iavulu, 
Ngiji ia mu bele umbanda. Iii uakalakelele o jingombe ; ua di ku- 
dile ; uakitukile kid mutu uonene, uafumana. " Unjenge uatundile 
m'umbanda." Mu kizua kia lelu, kiaxalela kid sabu ; 

" Dim^ ! ni bu mulolo ; 
Zuel'£ ! ni bu kisuke ; 
Ndenge utudika b'asoko." 697 

Eme ngateletele misoso ni misoso, ha muevu, hudi! Mu kanu 
muaxala dimi ni mazu. 698 Uaxangene, ukuta ; uadimine ; uzumbuka. 
Uejile o kuenda, uila : "ngii'ami." 699 Mahezu enu. 



" Azokela mu 'itumba ; mbangi, 
Tu ji kuatela bu madimi." wo 

Kingungu a Njila uazangula uta, uxi ; " Ngiia mu loza." Uabixila 
mu muxitu ; uala mu zomba o jinzamba. Ua ji zukama ; ualozo 
nzamba imoxi; iabu boxi. 

O Ngundu a Ndala uevu o uta ua Kingungu a Njila. Uala mu 
tala : " Nanii ualozo kuku ? " Uabixila b'ala o nzamba ia Kingungu 
a Njila, Muene u£ ualozo-ko, uxi : " Nzamba iami." 

Kingungu a Njila ueza ; uxi : " Nzamba iami ifii ; ua ngi sange 
naiu. Eie, palahi uzuela, uxi, 'nzamba iami , ? ,> Ha a di kuata 
jimvunda ja nzamba. Exi; ''Tuie ku bata, tuakdfunde ! " 

Kingungu a Njila uai ku nganji; uaxitala. Exana Ngundu a 
Ndala, exi: "Fundenu." Kingungu a Njila uafundu mu ajibila 
nzamba. O Ngundu a Ndala uafundu u£. O nganji uxi : " Milo- 
nga, 601 ngi i batula kiebi ? Kl iala mbangi, uamono muoso uazuela 

Kingungu a Njila and Ngundu a Ndala. 233 

He spent three years ; he is already at six cattle. He considers, 
says : " I will redeem myself now/' He asks his master of bond- 
ship, saying: "I want to go wherever I choose; I shall redeem myself 
for how much ? " His master said : " Bring three mother cows." m 
He gave him them; he left there. He went to another country 
that pleased him. He built; married ; lived on, practising medicine. 
In six years he has a herd of many cattle ; he has come to be a rich 

Our friend, who had been put in bondship, and had to see much 
misery, River gave to him medicine. He earned the cattle ; he 
redeemed himself; he soon became a great man, celebrated. "Wealth 
came from medicine." In the day of to-day, it has become already a 

proverb : 

" Hoe on ! even to the tree ; 
Speak on ! even to the end ; 
A youth must stretch as high as he can reach." m 

I have told stories and stories; if you have heard, hush! In 
mouth there remain tongue and teeth. 6 ® 8 He who has cut wood, 
binds ; he who has done hoeing, leaves work. He who came to go, 
says, " I am going." m Finished. 


" They quarrelled in the bush ; witnesses, 
We get them from (their) tongues." m 

Kingungu a Njila took up (his) gun, saying : " I will go a-shoot- 
ing." He arrived in forest ; he is stalking the elephants. He ap- 
proached them ; he shot one elephant ; it fell on ground. 

Ngundu a Ndala heard the gun of Kingungu a Njila. He is look- 
ing, "Who has shot here?" He arrives where is the elephant of 
Kingungu a Njila. He too shot (it) again, saying: "The elephant 
(is) mine." 

Kingungu a Njila came; said: "This (is) my elephant; thou 
foundest me with it. Thou, why speakest thou, saying ' the elephant 
is mine' ?" Then they begin a quarrel about the elephant. They 
say : u Let us go home ; there let us plead ! " 

Kingungu a Njila went to So and So ; he accused. They call 
Ngundu a Ndala; they say r" Plead ye." Kingungu a Njila ex- 
plained how he killed the elephant. Ngundu a Ndala pleaded too. 
So and So said : "The case, how shall I judge it? There is no wit- 

234 Folk- Tales of Angola. 

o kidi ni muoso uazuela o makutu." Uxi : "Ndenu ku bata. Milo- 
nga, mungu ngi i batula ; mukonda muhatu ami k'ala-bu." Amua- 
ngana. Kumbi diatoloka. 

Kingungu a Njila uai bu nzamba i£ ; o Ngundu a Ndala ueza u£. 
O Kingungu a Njtla uakuata mu dila, uxi: "Nza — nzamba ifii, 
nzamba, iami ! " O Ngundu a Ndala u6 uakuata mu dila, uxi : 
"Nzamba iiii, nzamba iami! Nzamba iiii, nzamba iami!" 602 Uadi- 
dile uola imoxi. Uatundu-ku. 

Kingungu a Njila uakuata mu dila : " Nzamba iiii, nzamba iami ! 
Nzamba iiii, nzamba iami ! " Uazekele beniobo ni kudila. 

Kimenemene kiaki. A exana : " Zenu kid mu funda." O Kingu- 
ngu a Njila uafundu mu ene, mu afundile raazd. O Ngundu a Ndala 
uafundu makutu. O nganji uibula o jipunga, uxi ; " Enu, muazekele 
ni Kingungu a Njtla, ni Ngundu a Ndala, lelu nanii uazekele ni 
kudila kat£ kuaki?" O jipunga jixi: " Kingungu a Njila uazekele 
ni kudila. O Ngundu a Ndala maza uadidi uola imoxi." 

O nganji uxi: "Kingungu a Njtla uandala kulunga." Eza kid 
mu batula o milonga. O nganji uxi : " Eie, Kingungu a Njtla ualu- 
ngu ; eie, Ngundu a Ndala uabele. Mukuenu uamesenene ku mu 
tambula ngoho o nzamba iS." 

Bene, bu tua u ivila. Mahezu. 


Muadiakimi ua diiala uexile ni mon* & ua muhatu umoxi, jina difi 
nga Samba. Mon' 6, ndumba dia mala dia mu mesene. Pai & 
k'axikan£ ku mu bana. Ki buiza diiala, pai £. u mu binga mb&mbi ia 
mueniu. Mala moso muene, mamesenene mon* fi, anga ma di tuna, 
kuma: "O mb&mbi ia mueniu, kt tu i monetu." 

Kiziia kimoxi, butukuluka mala maiadi, exi : " Tueza kui muadi- 
akimi, uavua mon* £ nga Samba." Muadiakimi anga utunda, anga a 
di menekena n'& Uebudisa se : " Inii i nuandala ? " Umoxi anga 
u mu ambela : " Ngeza kubinga mon'£, nga mu mesena." Usakukila 
mukui ; u mu ibudisa uS ia mu beka. Mukui anga u mu ambela 
kuma : " Ngeza mu kubinga mon'6 ; nga mu mesena ukala muku'a- 
valu kami. M 

Kuala o pai 4 kuma: "O muhatu umoxi Nueza ku mu binga 

Two Men, One Woman* 235 

ness who saw which one spoke the truth and which one spoke un- 
truth." Says : " Go ye home. The case, to-mqrrow I shall decide 
it; because my wife is not here/' They separate; the sun goes 

Kingungu a Njila went to his elephant ; Ngundu a Ndala came 
too. Kingungu a Njila begins to cry, saying : " This, this elephant 
(is) my elephant!" Ngungu a Ndala too begins to cry, saying; 
" This elephant (is) my elephant ! This elephant (is) my ele- 
phant ! " ** He cried one hour. He went away. 

Kingungu a Njila still kept on crying: "This elephant (is) my 
elephant ! This elephant (is) my elephant ! " He laid (all night) 
there crying. 

The morning shone. They call them: "Come now to plead." 
Kingungu a Njila pleaded the same as he pleaded yesterday. 
Ngundu a Ndala pleaded falsely. So and So asks the messengers, 
saying : " You, who stayed over night with Kingungu a Njila and 
Ngundu a Ndala, now who laid all night crying until dawn ?" The 
messengers said : " Kingungu a Njila, he laid all . night crying. 
Ngundu a Ndala yesterday cried one hour." 

So and So says : " Kingungu a Njila is going to win." They have 
come to decide the case. So and So says : " Thou, Kingungu a 
Njila art right ; thou, Ngundu a Ndala art wrong. The other wanted 
to take wrongly his elephant." 

Thus far, that we have heard it. The end. 


An Elderly man had one daughter ; her name (was) nga Samba. 
This daughter, a number of men wanted her. Her father would not 
give her. When there comes a man, her father demands of him a 
living deer. The men, each and all, who wanted his daughter, then 
they refuse, saying : " The living deer, we cannot get it." 

One day, there appear two men, saying : " We have come to the 
old man who owns a daughter, nga Samba." The man then comes 
out, and they greet each other. He asks them, saying : " What is 
it you wish ? " One of them says to him : " I have come to ask for 
thy daughter, whom I want" He turns to the other ; he asks him 
also what brought him. The other tells him, saying : " I have come 
to ask for thy daughter ; I want her, (that) she be my consort." 

Then her father says : " The girl is one. You have come to ask 

236 Folk* Tales of Angola. 

kiiadi kienu. Eme-ze ngu mukua-mona umoxi ua muhatu; ngty 
niami ni ana kiiadi. Uoso ua ngi bekela o mMmbi ia mueniu, 
muene ngu mu ba mon' ami," Anga ai' £. 

O mu njila, mu akexile mu kuendela, anga umoxi uzuela kuma : 
"Mungu, ng&sota o mMmbi ia mueniu mu muxitu." Kuala uamu- 
ku£ : " Eme uami, mungu ngiia mu sota o mMmbi. Etu mungu 
tutakana bebi, pala kuia mu sota o mbambi ? " Mukud anga u mu 
ambela: "Mungu tutakana bu muxixi 604 ua kanga." Anga ai' k; 
kala mutu ku bata di£. Anga azeka. 

Mu 'amenemene, abalumuka, azuata, ni jinjangu jd ; anga aia mu 
takana pala kusota o mMmbi ia mueniu. Ki a di sangele, anga aia 
kat6 mu muxitu. 

Atakana ni mMmbi ; amateka ku i kaia. Umoxi uakaie, uabuila ; 
k'aten£ dingi kulenga. Uixi : " O muhatu 6 u ngi dia o mueniu. 
Ngimona paxi mu konda dia muhetu ? Ki ngu mu beka ku bata, se 
ufua, ng&sota uengi ? Nguami kulenga dingi kukuata mMmbi ia 
mueniu. Eme nuka nga ki muene, muhatu a mu lemba i&b&mbi io 
mueniu. Ngikinga mukuetu, se ualembua, ni tui'etu." 

Ki abange kitangana, umona mukud, id uiza ni mMmbi uekutu. 
Ki azuba ku mu sueta, uixi : " Moso, mbdmbi ua i kuata muene ? * ? 
Kuala mukud : " Ngekuata. Muhatu mueni6 ua ngi uabela kinene. 
Andaxf m ngajozeka mu muxitu, diku<£ m ku i ambula ku i kuata/' 

Anga ai' d kui muadiakimi, uavuala o mon' a muhatu. A mu bekela 
o mMmbi. Kuala o muadiakimi : " O mMmbi, kalenu naiu ; nudie 
hanji. Tute-ke o maka." Anga utuma ku a lambela o kudia. 

O ki azubile o kudia, muadiakimi 6, uavuala mon* & ua muhatu, 
anga uixana adiakimi kiuana, anga u a ambela, uixi : " Eme ngene 
ni mona a muhatu; ngavualami mona ua diiala. Eme ngabinda- 
mena holome ia mbote, iauaba o muxima. Iene nganobingila m o 
mMmbi ia mueniu. O jingan' eji maza ejile, kiiadi kid, mu binga 
mon' ami ; anga ng' a ambela kuma € eme ngu mukua-mona umoxi ua 
muhatu ; o uoso ua mu mesena, a ngi bekele o mMmbi ia mueniu.' 
Lelu ii eza naiu. Ejile kiiadi mu binga o muhatu ; umoxi ngd 
uabeka o mbdmbi. O uamukud, inii ia mu bangesa k'ez& ni mMmbi ? 
Enu, nu adiakimi ni akuetu, enu muene nga nu bana mon' ami ua 
muhatu. Solenu o holome ietu bu kiiadi aba." 

Adiakimi, ia ebudisa o jingan' eji jiiadi ja mala, exi ; " O mazi, 
nuejile mu binga o muhatu, kiiadi kienu; o lelu, umoxi ueza ni 
mMmbi ; o uamukud, inii ia mu bangesa k'ezfi naiu ? " 

Kuala o jingan* eji jiiadi ja mala, exi: "Tuendele mu muxitu mu 
sota o jimMmbi, kiiadi kietu, anga tu ji mona. O mukuetu uakaiele, 

Two Men % One Woman. 237 

her, two of you. I now am possessor of one daughter (only) ; I have 
not two children. He, who brings me the living deer ; the same, I 
will give him my daughter." And they go away. 

On the road, on which they were walking, one speaks, saying : " To- 
morrow, I will seek the living deer in the forest." Then the other : 
" I too, to-morrow I will go to seek the deer. Where shall we meet 
to-morrow, to go and seek the deer ? " The other then says to him : 
" To-morrow we will meet at the muxixi-tree, 60 * outside (the forest)." 
And they go, each one to his home. And they sleep. 

In early morning, they rise, dress, with their machetes ; and they 
go to meet for seeking the living deer. When they found each 
other, then they go until (they are) in the forest. 

They come across a deer ; they begin to pursue it. One pursued, 
got tired ; he cannot run any more. Says : " That woman will de- 
stroy my life. Shall I suffer distress because of a woman ? If I 
bring her home, if she dies, would I seek another ? I will not run 
again to catch a living deer. I never saw it, (that) a girl was wooed 
(with) a living deer. I will await my comrade, whether he gives up, 
that we may go." 

When he had spent a while, he sees the other, who comes with 
a deer bound. When he had completed approaching, he says: 
" Friend, the deer, didst thou catch it indeed ? " Then the other : 
" I caught it. That girl delights me much. Rather I would sleep 
in forest, than to fail to catch it." 

And they go to the man, who begat the young woman. They 
bring him the deer. Then the old man: "The deer, keep ye it; 
eat, please. Directly we will talk the matter over." And he orders 
to cook the food for them. 

When they had done eating, this old man, who begat his daugh- 
ter, then calls four old men, and says to them, saying : " I have one 
daughter ; I did not beget a son. I need a good son-in-law, gentle 
of heart. Therefore I always demand a living deer. These gentle- 
men came yesterday, two of them, to ask for my daughter, and I 
told them saying ' I am possessor of one daughter ; he who wants 
her let him bring me a living deer.' To-day these have come with 
it. They two came to ask for the girl ; one only brought the deer. 
The other, what has moved him, that he did not come with a deer? 
You, aged men and neighbors, to you indeed I have given my daugh- 
ter. Choose ye our son-in-law among these two." 

The aged men, they ask these two gentlemen, saying : " Yester- 
day you came to ask for the girl, two of you ; to-day, one came with 
the deer ; the other, what has caused him not to come with it ? " 

Then these two gentlemen said: "We went into the forest to 
seek deers, both of us, and we saw them. My comrade pursued and 

238 Folk -Tales of Angola. 

anga ulembua ; erne, o mon* enu ua ngi uabela kinene, ni ku muxitna, 
anga ngikaia o mMmbi kat6 buoso bu iabuididile, Anga ngi i kuata ; 
ngi i kuta ; anga ngisanga mukuetu bu abuidila. Mukuetu 16 ueza 
ng6 ku ngi beka." 

Kuala adiakimi ia exi : " Eie, ngana, ualembuele o mMmbi, kituxi 
kianii kiobangesele kulembua o kuata o mMmbi, se mon' etu ua mu 
mesena?" "Eme nuka ngamuene, muhatu a mu lemba mMmbi. 
Ngendele ni mukuetu mu sota o mMmbi, xila ngajo ku i kuata O 
ki ngamuene kulenga kiavulu, ngixi « kana ; muhatu 6 u ngi dia o 
mueniu. Ahatu avulu &* Anga ngixikam' ami kukinga mukuetu, 
se ulembua o kukaia o mMmbi, n' eze ni tui'etu. Ngimona mu- 
kuetu uaiokuiza ni mMmbi uekutu. Eme ngeza ngo ku mu beka, 
Ki ngezami dingi kui mon' enu." 

Kuala adiakimi : "Eie, ualembuele o kukuata o mMmbi, eie muene 
u holome etu. O ngan* <5, uakuata o mMmbi, aie naiu> &kedi'& anga 
^kesumbis'^; mukonda mukua-muxima uonene. Se uamesena ku* 
jiba, lelu ujiba ; k'evu£ mutu u mu bazela, anga u mu bana milongi. 
O mon' etu, se tua mu bana n£, n'ate kituxi, o ki ondo ku mu beta, 
k'evud mutu u mu bingila. Nguetu n£ ; ai'e, O ngan* 6, ualembua 
o mMmbi, muene holome etu ; mukonda, o mon' etu ki andota ki- 
tuxi, o ki tuiza ku mu zokelela, muene u tu ivua. Anga se uexile 
ni njinda iavulu, o ki a tu mona, njinda i mu bua, Muene holome 
etu ia mbote, tua mu mono." 


Kiziia kimoxi, m' usuku, ukouakimi ni holome S exile bu kanga 
mu sungila. O kitombe kiavudile, anga ukouakimi imana bu axika- 
mene, uixi : " Holome ami, ndoko tu&zeke etu ! Kuala kitombe Ida 
kifefeteF 6 disu-badi" m O holome £ anga uxala ni jisonii, kuma 
uafile o disu dimoxi ; anga u di xib*£. 

O kizda kimoxi, ki ejile o dieji, akala dingi mu sungila bu kanga, 
hVkouakimi ni holome. O holome anga uarabela ukou' e : " Muadi 
6, ndoko tu&zeke etu ; mukonda kuala dieji dia dibala t6! di tu banga 
kiaiiba bu kanga, bu tuala." ^ 

A Father4n-Law and his Son4n*Law. 239 

gave up ; I, your daughter charmed me much, even to the heart, and 
I pursued the deer till it gave in. And I caught it ; I bound it ; and 
joined my comrade where he got tired. My comrade, he came only 
to accompany me." 

Then the aged men say : " Thou, sir, who gavest up the deer, 
what crime caused thee to get tired of catching the deer, if thou 
didst want our daughter ? " " I never saw, that they wooed a girl 
(with) a deer, I went with my comrade to seek a deer, perhaps I 
might catch it. When I saw the great running, I said c No, that 
woman will cost my life. Women are plentiful.' And I sat down 
to await my comrade, (to see) whether he would give up chasing the 
deer, and come, so that we might go. I saw my companion coming 
with the deer bound. I have only come to accompany him. I have 
not come again to your daughter." 

Then the aged men : " Thou, who gavest up catching the deer, 
thou art our son-in-law. This gentleman, who caught the deer, he 
may go with it ; he may eat it or may sell it ; for he is a man of 
great heart. If he wants to kill, he kills at once ; he does not listen 
to one who scolds him, or gives him advice. Our daughter, if we 
gave her to him, and she did wrong, when he would beat her, he 
would not hear (one) who entreats for her. We do not want him ; 
let him go. This gentleman, who gave up the deer, he (is) our son- 
in-Uw ; because, our daughter, when she does wrong, when we come 
to pacify him, he will listen to us. Although he were in great anger, 
when he sees us, his anger will cease. He is our good son-in-law, 
whom we have chosen." 


One day at night, a father-in-law and his son-in-law were outside 
spending the evening. The darkness grew great and the father-in- 
law stood up whence he sat, saying : " My son-in-law, let us go to 
sleep ! There is a darkness like the gloom of a blind eye." 608 His 
son-in-law then remained with shame, for he was dead of one eye ; 
but he kept quiet. 

One day, when moonshine had come, they are again gossiping 
outside, both the father-in-law and the son-in-law. The son-in-law 
then tells his father-in-law : " O sir, let us go to sleep ; for there is 
a moonlight of bald-head shine ! w that will do us harm outside, 
where we are." 

240 Folk- Tales of Angola. 

O'kouakimi anga ui'e mu o'nzo ifi. Ngu£ dingi ku di xalesa kia- 
mbote ni holome e. Holome & u£ anga ui'e m'o'nzo i&, 

Mu iziia itatu, o'kouakimi uixana adiakimi kisamanu, ni muene 
sambuadi. Uixi : " Eme ngamesena ku ng' ivila malebu, m' a ngi 
bele holome ami." Adiakimi anga atuma kuixana o holome. O 
ki ejile, ukouakimi anga uzuela: "Enu, jingana, anokuamba kiki 
'b'ala musumbe, 610 k'utele-bu hasa.' Aba, holome ami, kiziia ki- 
moxi, tuala bu kanga mu sungila, uamono dieji diatu, ngu& ku ng' 
ambela kuma ' ndoko, tu&zeke etu ; 9 u ng' ambela ni muxima ua ku 
ng' amba, uixi ' kuala dieji dia dibala t<§ ! ndoko tuazeke etu, ukou' 
ami; mukonda o dieji edi di tu banga kiaiiba/ Anda, kate ni lelu 
akale d ni mon* ami ; suke eme ki ngi kamba diai-&, mu malebu m* a 
ngi bana. Eme ngi mukua-dibala ; uazuela 'dibala t£F K' eme 
ami ua ngi xingi ? Iene nga di tunina o ukamba ni muene." 

Kuala o holome : " Eme ngajo ki ambami, se ukou' ami k'adia- 
ngediS ku ngi xing' eme. O kiziia kimoxi, mu kitombe, tuala bu 
kanga mu sungila, o'kou' ami ua ng' ambelele uixi: 'ndoko, tu&ze- 
ke etu; mukonda kuala kitombe kia kifefetel' 6 disu-badi/ Eme 
ngafu o disu dimoxi; k'a ngi xingiami kienieki, enu jingana?" 
"Kidi ; uoxingile. Ai ! o holome £, uafu o disu dimoxi, uiza kuamba 
o dizu' edi mu kitombe ! Se muene uazuelele o dieji dia dibala t6, 
uavutuila i uadiangele ku mu amba. Kiki, ki nukale mu unguma, 
ni holome ni ukouakimi. Eie, ukouakimi, k'uente mon' a diiala ; 
mon' 6 ua diiala holome 4. E' 6U muene uadiangele ku mu xinga ; 
muene io uavutuila ue. Kalenu nu makamba. O mak' ama, ki nuie 
namu ; katulenu-mu ku muxima. Mukonda eie, u muadiakimi, uatua- 
menena ; o ndenge, io uovutuila. Nguetu ku di zemba mu konda 
dia im* eii. Bekenu .ualende ; tunue. Nguetu maka maiiba kala 
momo. Eie muene ua ki ambe 'bu ala musumbe, k' utele-bu hasa.' 
Uejfa kuma o holome 6 uafu o disu ; ua mu ta-bu ; o lelu, ki ovu- 
tuila, k&kala kituxi ? " 

Ene anga axala mu ukamba, ni holome nVkouakimi. 

A Father4n-Law and his Son4n-Law. 241 

The father-in-law then goes into his house. He will no more wish 
good-by nicely to his son-in-law. His son-in-law also then goes 
away into his house. 

In three days, the father-in-law calls six aged men, seven with 
himself. Says : " I want to be heard about the insult, which my 
son-in-law gave me/' The aged men then send to call the son-in- 
law. When he came, the father-in-law then spake : " You, gentle- 
men, they are wont to say this (proverb), ' Where is a bought one, do 
not there refer to it/ But, my son-in-law, one day, we were outside 
spending the night, he sees the moonlight set in, he will not speak 
to me, sayijig, ' let us go to sleep ; ' he speaks to me, with a heart to 
offend me, saying, ' there is a moonlight of bald-head shine ! let us 
go to sleep, my father-in-law, for this moonlight, it will do us harm.' 
Therefore, until to-day let him be with my daughter ; but I am not 
his friend, because of insults which he gave me. I am bald-headed, 
he said ' bald-head shine/ Me, did he not insult me ? Therefore I 
reject the friendship with him." 

Then the son-in-law : " I would not have said it, if my father-in- 
law had not been first in insulting me. One day, after dark, we are 
outside gossiping, my father-in-law told me, saying : ' Come let us 
go to sleep ; for there is a darkness as the gloom of a blind eye/ I 
am dead of one eye ; did he not insult me thus, you gentlemen ? " 
* Truth ; he insulted thee. Why ! thy son-in-law, who is dead of 
one eye, thou comest to say this saying about the darkness ! If he 
said the moonlight of bald-head shine ! he returned what thou be- 
gannest to tell him. Thus be not in enmity, both son-in-law and 
father-in-law. Thou, father-in-law, hast no son ; thy son, (it) is thy 
son-in-law. Thou thyself wast first in offending him ; he then re- 
torted to thee also. Be ye friends. This affair, do not go away with 
it ; take it out of (your) heart. Because thou, the aged, wast the 
first, the younger he paid thee back. We will not hate each other 
because of these things. Bring rum ; let us drink. We will have 
no bad words like those. Thou thyself hast said it, ' Where is a 
bought one, do not refer to it/ Thou knewest that thy son-in-law is 
one-eyed ; thou didst refer to it ; now when he pays it back, shall it 
be a crime ? " 

They then remained in friendship, both the son-in-law and the 

242 Folk" Tales of Angola. 


Mon' a diiala uakatukile mu njila; ubixila mu kaxi kia njila* 
Usanga kabolongonio 612 ka mutue ua mutu. Ene oso &ne mu ka 
somboka beniaba. O muene, ki abixila-bu, u ka beta mbamba, uxi: 
" Eie, kutoba kua ku di." Kabolongonio kexi : " Erne, kutoba !:ua 
ngi di ; eie, hadia kudimuka ku ku dia." Mon' a diiala uxi : ** Nga 
di uana kisuma; ku ngejile kuia, ngivutuka-ku kid. O mutue ua 
mutu ua ngi zuelela ! " 

Ha uvutuka ; ubixila ku bata. Usanga aku& n'adiakimi, uxi : 
" Enu, jingana, nga di uana kisuma." Adiakimi exi : " Kisuma kfls- 
hi ? " Uxi : " O mutue ua mutu ua ngi zuelela." Mundu exi 1 
" Ial'6, uatange makutu. Etu ene oso, bene bu tuene mu kuso- 
mboka o mutue. Kiliia tu u ivua ki uzuela; eie, mutue ua ku 
zuelela kiebi ? " Muene uxi : " Tui'enu. Ki ngi u beta mbamba,. 
ha ki uzuela, erne, ngi batulienu mutue." Exi : " Kiauaba." 

Mundu akatuka n'& ; abixila bu kididi ; a u 613 sange. Mon* a 
diiala ua u beta mbamba : " Kutoba kua ku di." Mutue ua di xib'£. 
Ua u beta dingi lua kaiadi, uxi : " Kutoba kua ku di." Mutue ua di 
xib'& Mundu exi : " Ial'6 ! uatange makutu." A mu batula mutue. 
Ki azuba ku mu batula, kabolongonio kexi : " Erne, kutoba kua ngi 
dia; eie, unjimu ua ku jiba." Mundu exi: "Manii, tua mu jiba 
ngoho ; mutue ua mutu uazuela." 

O mon' a diiala uasangele mutue ua mutu, ha u u beta, uxi;. 
"Kutoba kua ku di." O mutue ua mutu uxi: "Eie, hadia kudi- 
muka ku ku dia." O unjimu ni uoua, ioso iasokela. O mon' a 
diiala, unjimu u6 ua mu dia. 



Mala aiadi, njungu ni mumbundu, a di kuatele jipata. 

O njungu ixi: "Erne, mVnzo iami, ki muakambe kima. Iene 
ioso ngala nam." Mumbundu uxi : * Makutu I mVnzo i£, ngikenga- 
mu kima, ki ngi ki mono." Njungu uxi: "Enu, ambundu, muaka- 
mbe o ima ioso ; erne ki ngikenga kima." 

The White Man and the Negro. 245 


A young man started on a journey ; he arrived in middle of the 
path. He finds a skull of the head of a person. They all used to 
pass it by there. But he, when he arrived there, he struck it (with) 
staff, saying: "Thou, foolishness has killed thee." The skull said; 
" I, foolishness has killed me ; thou, soon smartness shall kill thee." 
The young man said : " I have met an omen ; where I was to go, I 
will (not go, but) return hence at once. The head of a person has 
spoken to me ! " 

And he returned; arrived at home. He finds others, old men,, 
says : " You, gentlemen, I have met an ominous wonder." The old 
men said : " What omen ? " He says : " The head of a person has 
spoken to me." The people say: "O man, thou hast told a lie. 
We all of us, at same place we are wont to pass by the head. We 
never yet heard it speak; how has the head spoken to thee ?" He 
said : " Let us go. When I beat it (with) staff, if it does not speak, 
I, cut off my head." They say : " All right." 

The crowd starts with him ; they arrive at the place ; they found 
it. The young man beat it (with) his staff : " Foolishness has killed 
thee." The head kept silent. He beat it again, the second time, 
saying : " Foolishness has killed thee." The head kept silent The 
crowd say: " O man ! thou didst tell a lie." They cut off his head. 
When they finished cutting it off, the skull said : " I, foolishness has 
killed me; thou, smartness has killed thee." The people said; 
" Why, we killed him unjustly ; the head of a person has spoken." 

The young man found the head of a person, and he beat it, say- 
ing : " Foolishness has killed thee." The head of the person said : 
^Thou, soon smartness shall kill thee." Wits and foolishness, all 
are equal. The young man, his wits killed him. 



Two men, a white man and a negro, had a discussion. 

The white man said : " I, in my house there is lacking nothing, 
I have all (things)." The negro said : "Untruth ! In thy house, I 
look for a thing, I do not find it." The white man said: "You, 
negroes, you lack all things ; I have to look for nothing." 

244 Folk- Tales of Angola. 

Mumbundu uaxikin'd ; uai ku bata did. Ubanga mbeji. Ualeke 
o dixisa did ; uala mu di tunga. Ubixila mu kaxi ka dixisa ; ibua 
iabu. Kana dingi kuma, ku anomona o ibeta iakukuta. 614 Uxi: 
44 Ngibanga kiebi ? Ngiia m'o'nzo ia mundele, n' a ngi bane o ibua ; 
ngizube dixisa." 

Uabalumuka ; ubixila ku mundele, uxi : " Ngana, ngabindama ku 
ngatundu." Njungu uxi : " Uabindemena-hi ? " Muene uxi : " Nga- 
leke dixisa ; dia ngi batukila. 615 Ngixi ' ngiia m'o'nzo, mu ala o ima 
ioso ; mundele a ngi bane tuibua ; ngizube o dixisa diami" 

Mundele u mu tala ; uolela. Ubokona mu loja ; utala-mu : ibua 
k! iala-mu. Uxi : " Mumbundu, uazediua." Unomona hama ia mu- 
kuta ; u i bana mumbundu. 

O pata, i akuatele njungu ni mumbundu, mumbundu ualungile, 
njungu uabele. 


Mala aiadLatonokene ukamba. Ene mu di nangesa izua ioso. 

Kizu* eki, muku'£ ueza mu nangesa muku'A; ala mu ta raaka. 
Muku'4 uxi: "O hoji jeza mu ngongo; eie, kamba diami, k'o'nzo 
jika-jinga-ku. K'ukole, mukonda hoji ieza." Muku'4 uxi: "Hoji 
ki itena kubokona mVnzo; ngala ni uta uami, ni ngumba iamL" 
Muku'£ uolela, uxi: "Uatange makutu. O hoji, k'utena kubanga 
nam." Muene uxi: " Ngibanga naiu." Olela; ate maka. A di 
xib'&; amuangana. 

Manii, o muku'd uatambula umbanda ua hoji a hitu. 617 Abange 
mbeji. O muku'i, uatambula o umbanda, uxi: "Ngiia ku& kamba 
diami, uakuatele pata." 

Uatundu m'usuku ; ubixidila bu kanga dia kamba die. Uakituka 
hoji ; uadidi moxi ; uadidi iadi. Uajikula o 'nzo ia kamba did ni 
home. Uasange kamba did, iii uazek'd. U mu zangula; ua mu 
takula koko. Uamuange o kibatulua. Uatubuka bu kanga ; uamua- 
nge inzo. Kamba did uaxala mu kanga dia ngoho. O hitu iavutuka 
ku bata die ; uakituka mutu. Azekele. 

The Lion is Strong ; so is Friendship Strong. 245 

The negro assented ; went to his house. He spent a month. He 
wove his mat ; he is sewing it. He arrives in the middle of the mat ; 
the cords give out. There is no more a place where he can take the 
dry cords. 614 He says : " How shall I do ? I will go to the house 
of the white man, that he give me the cords, that I may finish the 

He arose ; arrives at the white man's, says : " Sir, I am in need (at 
the place) whence I come." The white man says : " What needest 
thou ? " He says : " I was weaving a mat ; it gave out 615 I said, ' I 
will go to the house, in which are all things ; the white man that he 
give me a few cords, that I may finish my mat." 

The white man looks at him ; he laughs. He goes into the store ; 
he looks in it : there are no cords in it. He says : " Negro, thou art 
lucky." He takes a hundred macutas ; he gives them to the negro. 

The discussion, that the white man had with the negro, the negro 
won (it), the white man lost (it). 


STRONG. 616 

Two men played friendship. They are passing time (with) each 
other all days. 

One day, one comes to pass time (with) the other ; they are chat- 
ting. One says : " The lions have come in vicinity ; thou, my friend, 
the house, shut it always. Do not shout, because the lion has come." 
The other says : " The lion cannot enter the house ; I have my gun 
and my spear." The other laughed, saying : " Thou toldest a lie. 
The lion, thou canst not fight with him." He says: "I can fight 
with him." They laugh; they chat. They become silent; they 
separate. ' 

But the other got a medicine of lion-man. They passed a month. 
The other, who got the medicine, says : " I will go to my friend, who 
had doubts." 

He went out at night ; arrives outside of his friend's. He be- 
comes a lion ; he roars once ; he roars twice. He opens the house 
of his friend with one fist. He finds his friend, who is sleeping. 
He lifts him ; he throws him out. He destroys the partition. He 
gets outside ; destroys the house. His friend remained in a wasted 
place. The lion-man returns to his home; he becomes a man. 
They slept. 

246 Folk- Tales of Angola. 

Kuma kuaki, uxi : " Ngiia mu menekena kamba diami." Ua mu 
sange. Kamba did uxi : " Aiu6 ! hoji iejile m'usuku ; ia ngi mua~ 
ngena inzo. Erne, ia ngi takula koko." Kamba did uolela, uxi : 
"Kamba diami, k'u i lozela-hi? ni u i toma ni ngumba?" Ate 
maka; a di xib'<L 

Kamba did uxi : " Kamba diami, hoji ikola ; ukamba ukola." Pata 
jabu, ji a di kuatele kamba ni kamba. 



NEKA.* 18 

Mala aiadi a di lukile jina dimoxi. Iii uxi : " Erne Ndala ia mu- 
tunge a uhete." Muku'd uxi : " Erne Ndala ia mutunge a kusane- 

Exi: "Tuia mu uenji." Azangula; abixila mu Jcaxi ka njila. 
Mvula ieza. Atula, exi : " Tutunge enu jifundu ! " 

Ndala ia mutunge a kusaneneka uatungu mu kusaneiieka ; uabo* 
kona fundu id, O Ndala ia mutunge a uhete uala mu tunga uhete. 
Mvula ieza; ia mu jibila bu kanga. O Ndala ia mutunge a kusane- 
neka ueluk'd ; mukonda o fundu ie iabu kid ; ia mu xitila ki eza a 


Mala aiadi akexile mu kuenda mu njila. Abixila mu kaxi ka 
njila ; asange ngemi ia maluvu ; exi : " Tu bane maluvu ! " 

Ngemi uxi : " Ha ngi mi bana maluvu, ngi tangelienu majin' 
enu ! " Uadianga uxi : " Erne Kututunda." Uaxalele ku ema uxi : 
"Erne Kutuia." 619 Ngemi ia maluvu uxi: "Eie, Kututunda, uala 
ni jina dia mbote ; eie, Kutuia, uazuela uaku. Nguami ku ku bana 

A di kuatele jimvunda; aia mu funda. Asange nganji; afundu. 
Nganji uxi : u Kutuia ualungu, ngemi iabele ; mukonda ku tuatundu 
kid, ki tutena kumona-ku dingi kima. O kima, tu ki sanga, kiala 
ku tuala mu ia," 


The Past and the Future. 247 

Morning shone, he says: "I will go to visit my friend." He 
finds him. His friend says : " Alas ! The lion came in the night ; 
he has destroyed the house ; me, he threw me out there." His friend 
laughs, says: "My friend, thou shottest him not, why? nor didst 
thou pierce him with the spear ? " They talked ; kept quiet. 

His friend said: "My friend, the lion is strong; friendship is 
strong." The argument ceased, which friend and friend had with 
each other. 



OF HASTE. 6 * 8 

Two men called themselves on£ name. This one said : " I (am) 
Nd&la, the builder of ability." The other said : "lam Ndala, the 
builder of haste." 

They say : " We will go to trade." They start ; they arrive in 
middle of road. A storm comes. They stop, saying : " Let u$ build 
grass-huts ! " 

Ndala, the builder of haste, built in haste ; he entered into his 
hut. Ndala, the builder of ability is building carefully. The storm 
comes ; it kills him outside. Ndala, the builder of haste escaped ; 
because his hut was finished ; it sheltered him when the storm came 


Two men were walking on road. They arrived in midst of road ; 
they found a tapper of palm-wine ; they say : " Give us palm-wine !" 

The tapper says : " If I give you palm-wine, tell me your names ! " 
The first said : " I am Whence-we-come." He who remained behind 
said : " I am Where-we-go." 619 The tapper of palm-wine said : 
" Thou, Whence-we-come, hast a beautiful name ; thou, Where-we-go, 
spakest evil. I will not give thee palm-wine." 

They began to quarrel ; they go to be judged. They find So and 
So ; they plead. So and So says : " Where-we-go is right, the tapper 
is wrbng ; because, where we have already left, we cannot thence 
get anything more. The thing that we shall find> is where we are 
going to." 


248 Folk- Tales of Angola. 


Ngunza Kilundu kia Ngunza 620 uexile ni ndenge £ Maka. Muene 
uendele mu Luanda ; ki atula mu Luanda^ o nzoji ia mu loto, kuma : 
"0 ndenge 6, Maka, uafu." 

Ubixila bu bata, uibula manii &, kuma : " O kalunga, kadi Maka, 
kanii ? " Uixi : " Ngan' 'Alunga-ngombe ua mu di." Uixi : " Poji, 
o ngan' 'Alunga-ngombe, ngondo ku di kuata n' fi." 

Uai bu Luangu, 621 anga usudisa o kibetu kia felu, ni musuanu (P) 622 
uS ; ua ki te b'axaxi ka dikikengele (?). 622 Uabatama mu divunda ni 
uta ue. 

Kubanga katangana, uiva bu kibetu b'ala ku di kola kuma: 
"Ngifa, ngifa." O muene uakatula o uta, uandala o kuloza. Uixi: 
u K'u ngi loze; z4 u ngi jitule." Uixi: "Ki ng' u jitula, eie 
nanii ? " Uixi : " Erne Kalunga-ngombe." " Eie Kalunga-ngombe, 
ua ngi dila ndenge ami Maka ? " O muene, Kalunga-ngombe, uixi : 
"Erne ngfiniami mu dia ng6; £ne ku ngi bekerami. Poji, ngu ku 
bana iziia iuana ; kia katanu nd£ u&takane ndenge 6 ku \Alunga." 

Uia ku 'Alunga; o Kalunga-ngombe u mu tambulula; axikama. 
Kitangana, kuiza mutu ; Kalunga-ngombe u mu ibula : " Inii ia ku 
di?" Uixi: "Ku kanga ngakexile mu mona jimbongo; iene, i a 
ngi louela." Kufua dingi mutu, u mu ibula, uixi : " Inii ia ku di ? " 
Uixi: " Ulumba 628 ua ngi di, uonganala mala andalele kusokana." 

Uixi : " Uamono, Ngunza Kilundu kia Ngunza, kt erne ami ng£ne 
mu dia mutu; ifuxi ia Ndongo 624 i£ne ku ngi bekerami. Kala 
kiki, ndate ku Milunga (?) «* uitakane ndenge 6 Maka." Uia-ku; 
u di menekena ni ndenge 6. U mu ambela o kuia, kuma: "Eie, 
ngeza ku 'u takana, pala kui* etu ku kanga." Erne Maka uixi: 
" Ngiiami dingi, mukonda ku ' Alunga kuabeta o kota ; i ngamona 
kuku, ku kanga kaxi eme ngi i mona ? " 

Ngunza Kilundu kia Ngunza ukuata mu njila ia kuia. O Kalunga- 
ngombe u mu bana o jimbutu ja fadinia, mas' a kindele, mas' a mbala, 
kazemba, 626 uangela, kinzonji, 627 kabulu, kajii, makunde a hasa, 627 
fejd, kingululu, 626 diniungu, diniangua, 627 meld, maxixila, 626 kingombo 
makeka, 626 mapudipudi, 626 dikoko, mulalanza, mudimd, pala kuikuna 
ku kanga. Anga u mu ambela : " Mu nake dieziia, erne ngiia ka 'u 
menekena bu bata di&" 

Ngunza Kilundu kia Ngunza. 249 


Ngunza Kilundu kia Ngunza flao was with his younger (brother) 
Maka. He went to Loanda ; when he arrived at Loanda, a dream 
warned him, saying: "Thy younger, Maka, is dead." 

He arrives at home, asks his mother, saying : " The death that 
killed Maka, what (was it) ? " She says : " Ngana Kalunga-ngombe, 
he killed him/' He says: "Then, Ngana Kalunga-ngombe, I will 
fight with him," 

He went to Luango 621 and ordered a trap of iron with its mu- 
suanu ; m he put that in middle of dikikengele. 622 He lurks in the 
thicket with his gun. 

After a while, he hears in the trap, there is (one) calling, saying : 
"I am dying, dying/' He takes the gun and wants to fire. (The 
other) says : " Do not shoot me ; come to free me." Says : " That I 
free thee, who art thou ? " Says : "lam Kalunga-ngombe." " Thou 
art Kalunga-ngombe who killed my younger Maka ? " He, Kalunga- 
ngombe, says : "lam not ever killing wantonly ; people are brought 
to me. Well, I give thee four days ; on the fifth, go and fetch thy 
younger in Kalunga (Hades)." 

He goes to Kalunga ; Kalunga-ngombe receives him ; they sit down, 
A while, there comes a person ; Kalunga-ngombe asks him : " What 
(was it that) killed thee ?" Says : " On earth I was owning riches ; 
because of them they bewitched me." There dying again a person, 
he asks her, saying: "What has killed thee?" Says: "Vanity 628 
has killed me, to beguile men who wanted to marry." 

Ngana Kalunga-ngombe says : " Thou seest, Ngunza Kilundu kia 
Ngunza, not I am ever killing mankind; the hosts of Ndongo 624 
they are brought to me. Therefore, go to Milunga 625 and fetch 
thy younger, Maka." He goes there, exchanges greetings with his 
younger. He mentions him the going, saying : "Thou, I have come 
to fetch thee, for us to go on. earth." Then Maka says : "I won't 
go again, because in Kalunga it surpasses in excellence ; what I have 
here, on earth perchance shall I have it ? " 

Ngunza Kilundu kia Ngunza takes the path of going. Kalunga- 
ngombe gives him seeds of manioc, maize, Kaffir corn, kazemba, 828 
uangela, kinzonji-bean, kabulu, cashew, makunde-beans, 627 beans, 
kingululu, 629 squash, pumpkin, melon, mashishila, 626 okra, makeka, 628 
mapudipudi,* 26 cocoa-palm, orange-tree, lemons, for to plant on earth. 
And he tells him : « In eight (of) days, I will go to visit thee at thy 

250 Folk-Tales of Angola* 

Ki aia, usanga Ngunza ualenge 6 bu bata, uaia ku tunda ; anga 
u ran kaiela. Utubuila ba mutu a Ludi dia Suku ; u mu ibuia. Mutu 
a Ludi dia Suku 628 uixi: "O Ngunza JCilundu kia Ngunza uabita o 
kiziia ki tuakuna o masa, kiki tuala ku a 62 ® dia/' Ubitakana;-uia 
bu bata dia mutu a Ludi dia Suku diamukui. Bene b'asanga Ngu- 
nza Kilundu kia Ngtaza* ; uixi : " Eie, Ngunza Kilundu kia Ngunza, 
ngondo ku 'u jiba." Ngunza uixi : " K'uten'ami ku ngi jiba, mu- 
konda ngoteami kituxi. Eie uene mu ila : € £ne ku ngi bekel'ami, 
ngidiami mutu.' Aba, pala ku ngi kela ku tunda ku ngez'ami, mu 
konda dianii?" O muene, Kalunga-ngombe, ukatula o diselembe 
did pala ku mu ta-diu. O Ngunza Kilundu kia Ngunza uabiluka 

Iabekesa o Ngunza Kilundu kia Ngunza kubiluka kituta. 

Ngunza Kilundu kia Ngunza. 251 

When he goes, he finds Ngunza has fled from home, has gone to 
the east ; and he follows him. He appears at man Ludi dia Suku's ; 
he inquires of him. Man Ludi dia Suku, 628 says: "Ngunza Kilundu 
kia Ngunza passed (here) on the day that we planted the corn, 
(which) now we are eating." He passed on ; went to the house of 
man Ludi dia Suku, another. There he finds Ngunza Kilundu kia 
Ngunza, says : " Thou, Ngunza Kilundu kia Ngunza, I am going to 
kill thee." Ngunza says : " Thou canst not kill me, because I did 
no crime against thee. Thou ever sayest : ' People are brought to 
me, I don't kill any one/ Well now, to pursue me to the east 
where I have come, for which reason ? " He, Kalunga-ngombe, 
takes off his hatchet for to cast it (at) him. But Ngunza Kilundu 
kia Ngunza turned a Kituta spirit. 

(That is) what caused Ngunza Kilundu kia Ngunza to become a 
Kituta spirit 



Informant. This story comes from Joao Borges Cezar, an educated mulatto- 
holding a responsible office on the large sugar-cane plantation and distillery of 
Bom-Jesus on the Kuanza River, southeast of Loanda. The informant handed me 
the story in his own writing, and I perused it with him so as to ascertain the 
reading and meaning of certain words. 

Dialect. The informant speaks the pure Loanda dialect; but he is also 
acquainted with many inland forms of speech. His work brings him daily into 
contact with Kisama people and the plantation servants, who are gathered from 
all parts of the Loanda interior. 

Comparative. A folk-lorist will easily recognize in this story a well-nigh 
universal theme of folk tales. A female rival, by a criminal trick, substitutes her- 
self for a girl who is going to be joined to her lover. Finally, however, the crime 
is discovered ; the victims are restored to each other, and the criminal woman is 
put to death. 

In Portuguese folk-lore we find the same fundamental outline in the story u As 
tres cidras do amor," ably treated by Theophilo Braga in his " Contos tradidonaes 
do Povo portuguez," vol. ii. p. 197. In Basile's " Pentamerone " it is found in the 
story of Zoza, who corresponds to our Fenda Maria, That the story is of foreign 
origin is proved by the fact that, as far as ascertained, it is current only among 
the half-civilized natives of, or from, Loanda. The names of the dramatis per- 
sonae alone would prove nothing ; for the natives of Angola and Kongo have for 
more than three centuries been using Portuguese proper names. Excepting the 
outline and some episodes, everything about the story, the characters, the scenery, 
and the scenes, is purely Angolan ; and no native has the least suspicion that this 
story contains any foreign element. 

As to locating its foreign source, it is not easy to decide whether Portugal or 
Italy is to be preferred. The Portuguese have been in Angola for about four 
hundred years, and the first thought is to ascribe its importation to them. 

The possibility of an Italian origin is suggested by the presence, in Loanda, of 
a small Italian colony whose history we may be excused for chronicling here. 
In the beginning of this century, after Napoleon's fall, a number of Italian soldiers 
belonging to his army were deported to Portugal, and thence came to Loanda, 
where they enlisted in the colonial Portuguese troops. After serving their term, 
those who survived started into private business, and, owing to their proverbial 
economy and perseverance, most of them did well. All took native women to 
wives, and they left a generation of mulattoes, in some of whom the fire of the old 
Napoleonic soldiers is not quite extinct. So my friend, General Geraldo Victor, 
now so famous in native song, is the son of one of those Italians and prides him* 
self in his indirect connection with Napoleon's history. Most, if not all, the 
Italian colonists were natives of Naples and Calabria. 

For centuries, too, Italian Capuchins have worked in Angola as missionaries, 

254 Folk- Tales of Angola. 

and Italian coral dealers have been making, and still make, thousands of dollars 
by hawking their merchandise through the native villages. 

It is interesting to note the difference between our two versions of the story. 

In number one the heroine is the only daughter of her mother, whose name she 
bears ; in number two, she is the youngest of three sisters, and the mother is 
not mentioned. According to number one, a passer-by informs Fenda Maria of 
Milanda's existence and captivity, without seeing her. According to number two, 
she gets the news from a passing shepherd with whom she speaks face to face. 
In number one the instructions for the liberation of Milanda are given by God; 
in number two they are given by the shepherd, etc. 

Some parts of this story also appear in number three. Comparing the elements 
of the present tale with those of foreign folk-lore, we notice the following : — 

The speaking mirror, or a mirror revealing secrets, occurs in Portuguese and 
other tales, and is to this day to be seen for money in European country fairs, 
where many educated lovers consult it with as much credulity as the African con- 
sults his doctors. 

In divination, the diviner sometimes looks steadily into a mirror, until, accord- 
ing to popular belief, the face of the culprit appears instead of his own. All the 
fetish-images of the Kongo nation wear, incrustated on the stomach, a piece of 
looking-glass, which answers the same purpose. 

The initial episode of the mother's jealousy is also that of "Os sapatinhos 
encantados," p. 84, of " Contos Populares Portuguezes," by F. Adolpho Coelho, 
and of " A mulher e a filha bonita," by Sylvio Romero ; though the fundamental 
theme of these two stories is not that of Fenda Maria but that of Gubernatis' 
" La crudel matrigna." 

The magic box (kalubungu) or calabash, or sack, or egg, or other object, which 
on being opened lets out sometimes all sorts of riches, at other times all sorts of 
pests, seems to be familiar to the folk-lore of all races. 

In Africa, we have traced it in the folk-lore of the Ama-zulu, Ova-herero, Ma- 
lunda, in the Sudan, and up the coast to Sierra Leone. Compare the kalubungu 
in other Angolan stories of this volume ; and in Henrique Carvalho's " Lingua 
da Lunda," pp. 276 and 277, the calabashes, out of which issue once riches and 
people, another time wild beings that destroy whatever they meet. 

The old woman who pounds with one side of the body is not distinctly described 
as being only one half of a person cut lengthwise ; but she strongly reminds one 
of the, half -men who often appear in. folk-lore. See in the story of Sudika-mbambi, 
the woman whose upper half only appears, and the half-men in Dr. Callaway's 
*' Nursery Tales,* 1 p. 199. 

The guarding lion, out of whose jaws the key of the palace must be taken, and 
the series of rooms with their prisoners and other wonderful contents, occur in 
the folk-tales of so many nations that it seems useless to indicate definite places. 
The "palace" is not African; but a deep den with many recesses, or a row of 
rooms or single-story houses, might be. 

The scene where Fele Milanda surprises Fenda Maria in her secret practices 
and then marries her, reminds one of the Zulu story on p. 308 of Callaway's 
* Nursery Tales," where a girl conjures up various things by means of a brass 
rod ; she is watched and . caught by the chief (whom an old woman assists) and 
finally becomes his wife. 

Our story contains also fragments of purely Angolan tales ; and the journey of 
Fele Milanda to Europe is evidently an Angolan addition. 

1. Erne ngatehtele. Every mu-soso, or fictitious tale, is supposed to be intro- 
duced by this word. The infinitive of the verb is ku-ta. The reduplication indi- 
cates repetition of the act The meaning is the same as that of the habitual 

Notes. 255 

ngene mu fa, or. ngeniota, 1. e., I am wont to tell, am in the habit of telling, 1 
often tell. Thus, tod, from ku-ba, to give, ngdbelebele, I often gave, or give. See 
Ki-mbundu Grammar, pp. 99, 100. It is generally used with monosyllabic verbs> 
and consists simply of the reduplication of preterit II., or <& the radical, as the 
case maybe. Concerning the idiom, "to put a story w f of "to tell a story," and 
other idiomatic uses of ku-ta, see Grammar, p. 117. 

2. Fenda. An old title, equivalent to " Lady," and given only -t& Women of 
.noble family. It is not known at Malange ; nor is it used in the modern Loanda 
dialect ; but the adults remember its meaning. Ngana is the word now in use 
for "Master, Mr., Mistress, Mrs., Miss, Sir, Madam, Lord, or Lad}." Ngana 
and Fenda not being synonymous, their joint use is admissible. Fumu was 
formerly used in Loanda to express Lord or Lady ; thus fumu ami equalled my 
Lord, my Lady. It was used with or without the name of the person, and was 
applicable to either sex; while Fenda was exclusively feminine. Fumu is mill 
used by the Ba-kongo or Axi-kongo, the Ma-hungu, the Ma-holo, and the Mbamba 
tribe, as title of a chief or elder. Mu-adi, pi. adi or a-muadi, is the word now 
generally used by the A-mbundu for designating any superior of either sex. Fetu 
(with the name) is the contrary of mu-adi, and signifies plebeian, mean, con- 
temptible fellow. It is an insult. 

3. Uauaba, from ku-uaba> signifies both beautiful and good. When physical 
beauty and moral beauty are to be distinguished, they say ua-uaba o polo, liter- 
ally, " is beautiful (as to) the face ; " ua-uaba ku muxima, literally, " is beautiful 
at heart." 

4. The idiom uauaba kfa mu uabelA, to indicate superlative, unsurpassed 
beauty, is not used in Malange. Thus also for unusually fine dressing, uakembe 
k'a mu kembeld. 

5. Uakexidi i, the same as uakexile i, see Grammar, p. 104. It is what I call 
the emphatic conjugation ; but the German word M gemiithlich " gives a much 
better idea of the function of this form than the word emphatic. The verbal act 
or state must be thought as affecting the subject, who, therefore, has a conscious 
feeling of it. This conjugation might also be called the " subjective " or a senti- 
mental" conjugation. 

6. Inga, the same as anga, interchangeably used in Loanda for "or" and 
"and," or "then." See Grammar, p. 115. In the interior its equivalent is ba\ 
or ha. 

7. The idiom, "if this be the ninth, the other is the tenth," by which Loanda 
people indicate superlative excellence, is not known at Malange. 

&. Putu, the native abbreviation of Portugal, which was for nearly two cen- 
turies the only European country known to the Angolans. As the Portuguese 
were the first whites with whom the Angolans came in contact, and as the natives 
take at first all whites to be kinsmen, the name Putu was extended to all " white 
man's land," and the word mukua-Putu, i. e., " Putu-man," is often tised for any 
white man, irrespective of nationality. Thus my native lad from Malange called 
America Putu ia 1-ngeleji, i. e., the Putu of the English. In Angola, when a white 
man is found not to be a Portuguese, he is called a Ki-ngeleji^ pi. I-ngeieji, from 
the Portuguese " Inglez." Thus Dr. Pogge, Lieut. Wissmann, Dr. Biichner, and 
the other German explorers of the Angolan Hinterland were called- I-ngeleji, and 
the same appellation attaches to the Belgians of the Kongo State; with whom the 
Angolans have intercourse at Luluaburg, on the upper Kassai River. The Dutch 
are also known to some as a separate nation and called Landeji, from the Portu- 
guese " Olandez." As soon as the Portuguese are to be distinguished from the 
other white nationalities they are called Jtyultukeji, sing. Pultukeji, from " Por- 
tuguez." The compound sound It being contrary to Ki-mbundu euphony, the form 

256 Folk- Tales of Angola. 

Putukeji vf\\\ soon supersede the former. An American is called Mefe&anu, pL 
A-melekanu, or yi-melekanu; also Mukua-Mdleka, pi. Akua-MMeka. 

9. The denial refers to the last question, ngaiibat The word mbd gives 
greater force to the negation. Uakebula, or uakobula, is a habitual verb-form of 
Loanda; it is not used in Malange. 

10. U-jukula = u-jikulaj compare ku-jutuna = ku-jituna; old K-imbundu kiu- 
ma = modern ki-ma, etc. 

11. Jlfd'nzo, literally, "in the house;" signifying "room," because this is 
inside, and part of, the house. 

12. Mu ene equals "in which habitually is or was, are or were ; " to be dis- 
tinguished from rnuene meaning "he, she, it," or "self" or "indeed." See 
Grammar, pp. 107, 109. 

13. Kana equals emphatic " no." Here it means " I won't have that ! this shall 
not be ! " 

14. Ku4ombuela is a difficult word. In some places it means to neglect ; in 
other places, on the contrary, to be concerned, interested in (something). 

15. Ku baf oko equals ku dibaf oko, see Grammar,, p. 88. 

16. Maseka y word used in colonial, or Creole, Portuguese; probably a contrac- 
tion of " ama secca," i. e., dry nurse. 

17. JVfanena, from the Portuguese " janella." 

18. Ku-bitixila, from ku-bita, a compound causative and relative verb. See 
Grammar, pp. 95 and 96. 

19. Mori 1 a ngana, used as one word, pi. atC aji-ngana, applies only to children 
of educated whites or mulattoes. 

20. Vondadi, from the Portuguese "vontade." 

21. Patata, from Portuguese "praia," meaning beach. The place meant here 
is the fish-market of Loanda, situated at the foot of the hill on which stands the 
Fort Sao Miguel. Next to it is the quadrilateral building in which the corn- 
market is held. The whole lower city is sometimes called Palaia. 

22. Di-zungu signifies a hole, to see, or pass, through ; di-kungu means a hole 
with no other exit than the entrance. 

23. Ki-paleiu 7 from the Portuguese " parede." 

24. The -i- of ku-d-sumba indicates change of place ; hence also distance. Ket 
has the same function. In this work the locative d is distinguished by the grave 
accent. See Grammar, pp. 46 and 47. 

25. When they eat sugar-cane, the natives hold one end of the cane in the left 
hand, and peel the other end with a knife held by the right hand. Then they 
sharply hit the peeled portion so as to sever it, all but a few fibres, from the main 
cane. This loose piece is then bitten off. When the cane is short, or the left 
hand is near the peeled end, there is danger of hitting a finger instead of the 

26. Uexile, abbreviation of uakexile, irregular preterit II. of ku-kala. 

27. Fele Milanda^ the same as the Portuguese " Felix Miranda." 

28. Tandu (£*), is the Portuguese " tanto" 

29. Ma-diabu, from Portuguese " diabo," that is, devil. See note 69. 

30. Ikanduy probably from the Portuguese "encanto," i. e., charm, spell. See 
in Capello and Ivens' "De Benguella is terras de Yacca," Lisbon, 1881, vol. i. 
p. 109, the word mo-ikanzu as designating the quarters of the vassals in a Kioko 
king's town. Ikanzu has also the latter meaning in the interior of Benguella 

31. Kalubungu is a magic box, which plays an important rdle in many Angolan 
legends. A glance at the references given in the index under kalubungu will give 
a pretty adequate idea of the functions of this box. The etymology of the word 

Notes. 257 

is uncertain. Mbungu, or lu-mbungu when a single one is meant, is the Ki-mbundu 
for the bamboo-tree and any piece of it. The snuff-boxes are called ji-mbungu % 
sing, mbungu, irrespective of the material, because most of them are made of a 
bamboo cane of some kind or other. 

32. Kola nuts are so nourishing and toning up that the natives take an extra 
supply of them whenever they have heavy marches or any fatiguing work before 
them. In the Loanda district, the natives eat kola nuts and native ginger 
together, especially in the early morning. Most of the kola nuts and ginger 
which is sold in the Loanda market comes from the Cazengo mountains. The 
kola nuts and ginger have an interesting symbolic meaning. In Loanda, when a 
man wants to court a girl or woman, he sends her a message. If she accedes to 
his wishes, she sends him a kola nut and a piece of ginger carefully wrapped up 
in a handkerchief which is folded triangularly in the shape of a heart. 

33. Jinjibidi, from Portuguese " gengibre." 

34. Ku-kuata makanda mu njila, a Loanda idiom for walking fast and steadily, 
as on a long journey. In Malange the idiom is used for following in the footsteps 
of another, but only in the literal sense ; uala mu ngi kuata makand^ ami equals 
*' he is following me." 

35. Kua signifies "to where is or was (this or that) ; " ku would be only "to." 

36. Map $ or maie is a Loanda idiom, which agrees by its pronominal suffix 
with the subject. Thus, erne . . . maP ami; eie . . . map i; muene . . . map ij 
ttu . . . maPetuj enu . . . maPenuj ene . • . maP a* Its meaning corresponds 
to the English " on and on." Sometimes it also means " to continue." In Malange 
the emphatic conjugation is used in its place. 

37. Kitanga> a loathsome syphilitic disease. Beginning with the sexual parts, 
small and purulent tumors break out all over the body, face and hands not ex- 
cepted, and often leave hideous sores. Native doctors say they can cure it by 
washing the sores with a decoction of certain leaves and by applying the ground 
root-bark of certain trees on the sores. ♦ 

38. Ku-kulala< from Portuguese " curar." It means less to cure, to heal, than 
to treat, to nurse, to give or take medicine. 

39. Funji is the staff of life of the A-mbundu. It is made by stirring manioc 
flour into boiling water. It is very sticky, not unlike tapioca, and is always eaten 
with a gravy, or broth, made with fish or scraps of meat. 

40. ManongonongOn Compare this with ji-nongonongo, i. e., riddles (Loanda 
dialect), and ma-nongo, sing, di-nongo, which on the Kuanza River signifies a jest- 
ing or sarcastic saying, while in Malange it means an insult. The verb is ku- 
nongena, on the Kuanza equal to "to mock, jest;" in Malange equal to "to 

41. Future III. See Grammar p. 47. 

42. lama iama kid, an idiom of both Loanda and the interior, indicating 
plenty, crowd, swarm. It consists of the repetition of the noun, of which a great 
number is intended to be predicated, followed by kid. 

43. Iidi, from ku-ila, to do, to say, to think. See Grammar, p. 108. 

44. Kololo, from Portuguese "corridor," meaning the hall or passageway at 
the entrance of a house. On either side of the kololo there is a bedroom. 

45. About the numerals, see Grammar, pp. 19-25. 

46. About the cohortative subjunctive, see Grammar, pp. 68-72. 

47* Uabene, abbreviation of uabanene, preterit II. of ku-bana; uabele is pre- 
terit II. of the abbreviated form ku-ba of the same verb. 

48. KuS? abbreviation of kuebit used at Loanda and inland ; also kiit for 
kiebi t j in Loanda nif for naniit 

49. Miland 1 d f Accentuated d at the end of an interrogative sentence is, with 

258 Folk- Tales of Angola. 

the rising intonation, the only audible or visible sign of interrogation; for the 
construction of an interrogative is identical with that of a positive sentence. 

50. Pojij from Portuguese " pois." 

51. Ngongo means either world, land, country, or hardship, misfortune, misery* 
Mutu uendao ngongo may be taken either as "one who walks the world over," 
or "one who stands hardships." 

52. Ngbmono, contraction of nga ku mono* 

53. Ku dibanga, of events "to happen, to turn out (like this)." 

54. It seems difficult to conceive how tobacco can be a drink. But in Ki- 
mbundu instead of saying "to smoke tobacco" one says "to drink tobacco.'* 
Smoke, is classified with the liquids. Moreover, tobacco-smoking is held by the 
A-mbundu to be a. stimulant for any physical exertion. 

$$. That is, which is surrounded by birds, or, which birds are surrounding. 

56. Ku is here a kind of indefinite pronoun, suffixed to the verb. 

57. Sabalalu y from Portuguese " sobrado," i. e., upper floor, story. Sdbalalu 
is used fpr a house that has more than one floor, and for any grand building, tower, 
palace r 

58. Di~kanga is any piece of bare ground. Hence di-kanga dia 9 nzo, or dia 
bata } fqr the space around the house, especially in front, that is kept clean of grass. 
Hence, also, di-kanga dia milonga^ or kanga dia kubatuila y for the place where 
the judges meet in court Dikanga also signifies space between two objects, and 
distance. In this sense, it is used adverbially and corresponds then to our " far." 
Bu kanga is " in, the cleared space around the house ; " figuratively it is used to 
signify " outside " in general. 

59. Literally, " her heart does not accept, i. e., refuses." The contrary : muxi- 
ma ua mu xikana means "he, or she, feels capable of doing the work before 
him, or her." 

60. Ji-mosdy from the Portuguese " moga," meaning girl, lassie ; applied espe- 
cially to young mulatto women. 

61. Ku Hiadi\ for ku kitadi. The k- of the prefixes ka- and ki- is often dropped, 
for euphony's sake, after any one of the locatives mu> bu 9 ku x e. g., ku 'Aiunga 
for ku Kahtnga, mu 'Alunga for mu Kalunga. 

62. N'amu; in the interior they say n4. 

63. Uezalesela, from ku-izala, to get filled ; causative and relative combined* 
See Grammar, pp. 90-97. 

64. Di-sanga is a large porous water-jug of a- plain pattern without handle; 
mu-dingi is a small porous jug, used only for drinking-water, often provided with 
a handle^and made after a more elaborate pattern. See note 67. 

6$. Kamasoxi, from ma-soxi, meaning tears ; a proper noun formed by prefixing 
Ka-. See Grammar, p. 127. It is customary in Angola for the master to give his 
new slave a new name. 

66. Ku-zend-alala % medial verb, from ku-zend-eleka, meaning to incline. There 
is a parallel medial form ku-zend-ama^ from ku-zend-eka* 

6y. Di-tangi differs from the di-sanga only by its larger size. See note 64. 

68. Kamadia, diminutive of Madia. Ka- before a proper name is generally 
belittling, scornful, and most of the slaves' names are prefixed with it. Thus, 
Ka-nzud means John (the slave) *, nga Nzud means John (the free). In this case, 
simply by calling her mistress Ka-madfa, Kamasoxi stigmatizes her as a slave. 

69. Diabu = devil ; borrowed from the Portuguese. It does not mean our 
Satan, of whom the educated natives alone have soma; idea, but any bad Spirit of 
the white man's mythology, and figuratively any wicked person. It is the most 
common insult, and is a favorite expression of native slaveholders in rebuking 
jtheir slaves. The origin of the expression is to be found in the blasphemous,. 

Notes. 259 

but ever recurring, Portuguese phrase, " O diabo te carregue!" meaning "May 
the devil carry you off!" or, "Go to the devil!" This accounts for the answer 
a native generally gives, when addressed that way : Diabu dibita bu-lu, i. e., " the 
devil passes overhead." This expression, again, refers to the flying stars, which 
the Loanda natives call ma-diabu, singular diabu. 

69. Mbanielu, from Portuguese "banheira," meaning "bath-tub." 

70. Preterit III., because the buying is thought of as having been done long ago, 
Not pret. II., because there is no reference to an event contemporaneous with 
the act of buying. Ua mu sumbu, pret. I., would imply that the buying had just 
taken place. See Grammar, p. 44. In the following nga mu sumbile ku Putu y 
the pret. II. is correct, because the thought is, "I bought her when I was in 

71 Ji§; the same as ji ; jiami '= jami j jietu —jetu, etc. Both spellings are 
admissible. The pronunciation is practically the same, as the 4* between j and 
a vowel is not heard in fluent speech. 

72. EtC oso muene, the same as ene oso 1 i. e., they all ; muene intensifies the 
idea which it qualifies. Here it means " they all, without exception." 

73. Loko, from Portuguese "logo;" telasu, from Port, "terraco;" lelasd, from 
Port. "rela$ao." 

74. An? a mi-xaxiniu, sing, tnort a mu-xaxiniu; in Malange, mon* a musa- 
siniu. These dolls are made of rags, etc., by little A-mbundu girls, and used in 
playing, just as dolls are by our girls in civilization. In the far interior, where 
rags are not common, the dolls are made of corncobs, corn-silk, and such like, and 
called art a masa, sing, mot? a dtsa, i. e., corn-baby. Native little girls are very 
fond of imitating their mothers in all their maternal functions. They will tie 
their dolls on the back like babies, put on appropriate fruits to simulate the 
mother's breasts, and even go apart into the grass with would-be midwives to per- 
form all rites that accompany childbirth in their respective tribes. 

75. The objects here mentioned are evidently fictitious and supposed to have 
magic powers. 

76. Fesay from Portuguese "festa," equal to French "fete," rejoicings. This 
concise way of expressing a whole sentence simply by a series of infinitives, all 
pronounced with great emphasis, produces quite a rhetorical effect. 

77. O ua ngi bene, the third person of a verb used substantively* This is done 
quite frequently. 

?8. Mundele. Strictly speaking muttdele, from ku-eela, meaning "to be white, 
or light-colored," should be used only for white persons. But, as a term of 
respect, it has been extended l^y the natives to light mulattoes, and even to pure 
blacks, provided they dress in European style. In the interior mundele is inter- 
preted in Portuguese by " um preto de sapatos," i. e., " a negro wearing, or owning, 
shoes." Thus, most of the Mbaka people (Ambaquistas) style themselves, and 
are called by the surrounding tribes, mi-ndeh, i. e., " white men." Mundele, as 
now used, applies, therefore, to white people and civilized natives* When a white 
man is to be distinguished from the negroes as a race, he is called njungu, pi. 
ji-njungu. This word is the same as the rn-zungu of the East Coast. In the 
present case, Fenda Maria must not be understood to be a white woman, but a 

79. Ku o vaMa. The vowel standi? for a ku, meaning u they thee." 

80. Usenga. In Loanda ku-senga means to buy in a shop or market ; in Ma- 
lange, on the contrary, it signifies to sell. K^senga, with another intonation, 
aJso means *to dismiss a wife." 

8*. Papdlo, from Portuguese u vapor," i.e., steam, steamer. 
82. Ku-tembalala, from Portuguese "lembrar."* The Kwnbundu word -for 
remembering is ku-tukumuka. 

260 Folk- Tales of Angola. 

83. Kabiiangu, from Portuguese "capitao;" naviiu, or naviu^ from Portu* 
guese "navio. 1 ' 

84. Padi is the same as the Portuguese " par ; " bixa, Portuguese " bicha ; " 
ulu, Port, "ouro;" ma-diatnande, Port, "diamante;" volota, Port, "volta;" 
nela, Port. «anel." 

85. Sandu, from Portuguese " santo," i. e., saint. Combining the Catholic 
custom of calling a child after the saint on whose day it is born with the native 
custom of naming a child after the di-hamba or di-bamba (spirit) to whose influ- 
ence the birth is ascribed, and of considering the children born under the same 
spirit as related in that spirit, the A-mbundu call a namesake a sandu; and two 
namesakes, when they meet, are morally bound to treat each other as brothers or 
cousins. Examples of this name-brotherhood will occur in several parts of these 
stories. Another word for namesake is xald, in colonial Portuguese "xara\" 
This seems to be of Brazilian origin. 

86. Ku-batesa. In Malange, this signifies to accompany a child or infirm adult 
to where he is going, and assist him in walking. 

87. Xila. This xila is not used in Malange, nor is kaxi, its Malange synonym, 
used in Loanda. The usual meaning is not " lest," but " may be, perhaps." 

88. Naiu* See Grammar, p. 86. 

89. This se or ha in the interior, is not the conditional se or ha y nor " whether," 
but serves to introduce a direct or indirect quotation. It corresponds, therefore, 
to kuma or -ixi, and to our colon with quotation marks. 

90. Ku mu sekesa. Its first meaning is " to cause him or her to lie down ; " 
but it is also used by some for "to sleep with him or her" (in the same hut or 

91. This sentence shows how Ki-mbundu is susceptible of complicated periods, 
without obscurity. 

92. This kid, with the pret. I., indicates immediate, almost simultaneous action. 
Cf. in Zulu, Callaway's " Nursery Tales," p. 50, foot-note. 

93. Iofetale, past participle of ku-fetala, which is simply the Portuguese " en- 
feitar," i. e., to adorn. For participle, see Grammar, p. 84. 

94. Ku-kemba signifies " to dress in best attire, to adorn, to bedeck." 

95. Ku-funda, that is, to plead. The relative ku-fundila is to plead before 
(court), or because of, concerning, etc. 

96. M* oso for mu oso. 

97. When an Angolan has suffered wrong, he goes and lodges a complaint 
before a judge of his choice, or before the chief of the tribe (as repeatedly de- 
scribed in these stories), or he resorts to the spirits, and calls on them for redress, 
often also for the punishment of the culprit. For this purpose, he goes to some 
one who is known as being possessed of this or that spirit, and lays the case 
before him, or rather, through him before the spirit he represents. Then the 
spirit is asked to either restore the stolen object, or force the debtor to pay, or to 
visit the murderer or ill-treater with death or sickness, and so forth. The spirit's 
medium listens gravely to the adjuration, but says nothing in reply. Sometimes 
the adjuration is, as in the present case, simply a kind of affidavit, either to prove 
one's innocence, when accused, or to prove one's right to complain. The medium 
receives a reward only in case the object in view is attained. Such a medium is 
called kimbanda kia dihamba, as distinguished from the kimbanda Ma kusaka % 
or physician who cures diseases. The act of bringing some evil on a real or 
imaginary offender through the medium of a spirit is called ku-loua. This kurloua 
in self-defence is lawful, but the secret use of spirits for killing or hurting others, 
which is called ku-loua pulu (bewitching), constitutes the greatest crime a man can 
be guilty of, and is invariably punished with death. The witch or wizard is called 
muloji. See note 135. 

Notes. 261 

98. Kaxaxi. In the interior the form kaxi is preferred ; as the stories in the 
Mbaka dialect show. 

99. Musulaj also called muanji in the interior. 

100. Ku di nzosalela, relative of ku di mosala, which comes from the Portu- 
guese " almocar," to breakfast. The form ku-lumosala was the first to evolve ; 
but, as the Ki-mbundu radical is never more than dissyllabic, and -lumosa would 
be trisyllabic, the popular ear preferred to change lu into di (cf . ku-ludika = ku- 
didika\ and to consider the verb as reflexive. The final -ala {ku di mos-ald) 
would then be taken as a derivative suffix. 

1 01. Kalakatald, from Portuguese "alcatrao." 

102. Kualutu, from Portuguese " quarto ; " in Ki-mbundu nftfrno. In previ- 
ous instances hudlutu was written with the tonic accent on the antepenult, but 
the accent on the penult is also admissible. 

103. Kana. The answer "no," in reply to the question "where?" sounds 
strange to a European, but not so to the African, who at once understands that 
the question implied the accusation "you have kept the key." 

104. Uidi piJ from ku4la pi! that is, to say or act pi! that is, to be silent, 
speechless. Pi! is our " hush ! " 

105. Ku-telekala^ from Portuguese " entregar." 

106. Elelenu! literally, "laugh ye!" used as an interjection for "they laugh." 
This elelenu corresponds almost to hurrah ! The imperative is used here to indK 
cate the surprise of the spectators, the outburst of sympathy, and the story-teller's 
own concurrence with the feelings he is relating. 

107. Ku-jikatd) the same as ku-jikota or ku-jokota, i. e., to be charred, to be 
burnt (of food). 

108. U di xisa-ku. This detail is purely African. It reappears at the end of 
Nga Nzu£ and his slave Kanzu£, which is still unpublished. Anointing one's 
self with the charcoal of burnt flesh or bone, either human or animal, is a gen- 
eral custom among Africans. It is supposed to act as a preservative against the 
enemy, or ill-disposed spirit ; here, possibly, against the vengeance of the victim's 
nzutnbi, or " ghost." Callaway repeatedly mentions such use of animal or human 
charcoal in his work on Zulu folk-lore. 

109. Ku-kazala, from Portuguese " casar," is used only of the Christian, mono- 
gamous, marriage. To marry in native fashion is ku-sokana (Loanda dialect) or 
ku-sakana (inland dialect). 

no. Adia nguingi, aseiala musolo is a Ki-mbundu saying which signifies 
" living in plenty and free from care," hence " living in happiness." Nguingi, in 
Portuguese "bagre," is the Clarias Anguillaris y which, in some places of the 
Kuanza River, grows to an extraordinary size. They are caught by means of fish- 
ing baskets (rni-zHa), hooks, or spears. Cut open, sun-dried, and inserted in a split 
stick, they are offered for sale in every native market and constitute the most popu- 
lar condiment with funji (cassava-mush). 

in. Ngateletele^ etc., is the customary formula with which a fictitious tale 
closes. The expression " whether good or bad " means " it is your business to 
judge whether my story was nice or not. As for me, I have done my part, and 
whatever your judgment may be, it is all right." The diminutive form ka-mtisoso, 
which is applied to even the longest tale, is an instance of the conscious self- 
depreciation, which seems to constitute the essence of politeness, and which is 
more common among Africans than among uncivilized Aryans, excepting perhaps 
the Slavs. 

262 Folk-Tales of Angola. 


Informant and Dialect. This version was dictated by Adelina da Camara, 
an educated native lady of light complexion, and the life-companion of the editor 
of a native paper, himself a mulatto. She speaks the purest Loanda Ki-mbundu 
that I have heard, pronouncing every syllable so distinctly that I hardly ever had 
to ask her to repeat a word, while this would continually be the case with men. 
In Angola, as in most times and places, the higher-class women give the standard 
for pronunciation and idiomatic expression. Loanda women have a way of " sing- 
ing " Ki-mbundu, which makes it quite as musical as the best modulated Italian of 
a Toscanese or Pisan ** contadina." 

To the informant's honor be it said that, unlike so many others, she is not 
ashamed of her native tongue, lore, and color. 

Her father, Innocencio Mattoso da Camara, though white, is a native of Loanda, 
has held many high government offices, and is connected with an influential 
Portuguese family. 

112. Uexile. See note 26. Compare the genitive in umoxi, ua ndenge, one, 
the younger, with Fenda Madia, dia mona, Fenda Maria, the daughter. 

113. Mubidij shepherd, herdsman; verbal noun from ku-bila, to herd cattle. 
The name of mu~bidi, pi. a-bidi, is also given to the Loango people, akua-LuangUy 
scattered between Kongo and Kuanza as wandering blacksmiths, and recently 
much talked of in connection with the " Dembos," situated between the Nzenza 
(Bengo) and Ndanji (Dande) rivers. Since the war of 1872 these Dembos (six 
native chiefs) have been independent : a di tuma (they manage themselves), as the 
natives say. On the fertile plain between Kangenie (Canguenhe) and the moun- 
tain called Maravilha, they have allowed a large party of these A-bidi or akua- 
Luangu to settle as guests. But, like the Hebrews in Egypt, the A-bidi have 
multiplied so fast, that quite recently they conceived the plan of dictating to their 
hosts. With a view to this, they sent delegates to the governor-general at Lo- 
anda requesting him to reinstate Portuguese authorities,, as in the time before the 
war. To this the governor acquiesced, and a new chefe was sent in 1890, with a 
small force, to reoccupy the concelho of the Dembos, lost in 1872. What the 
result will be, is not sure ; but a renewal of hostilities with the Dembos is much 
feared by a portion of the Loandenses. It is not impossible that a Loango man 
is meant by the mu-bidi of our story. 

114. Nganga is here synonymous with mu-loji y " wizard, witch." The Roman 
Catholic priests and missionaries are also called ji-nganga, with or without the 
qualification ja Nzambu The meaning of nganga ia Nzambi is therefore " wizard 
of God." 

115. Udidilej the subjunctive consequent on a preceding imperative indicates a 
mild imperative. 

1 1 6. Munume and mulume are equally correct. 

117. A di ambata; this means " they walk arm in arm,*' in European fashion* 

118. Ku-biluka and ku-kituka are synonymous for " being transformed." 

119. Ku di tuma corresponds exactly to the Portuguese " governar~se." 

120. " When I come," i. e., back to where we are. In Ki-mbundu coming refers 
to the place occupied at the time by the one who speaks. 

121. yi-ngondo, literally "coppers," i. e., copper ornaments. 

122. Nguantiy a most singular contraction of ngongo ami (my misery) used as a 
verb to signify refusal. See my Grammar, pp. 105 and 158; also the full form in 
Bentley's Kongo Dictionary, p. 374. 

1 23. Mu-nzenza is a slave recently bought, and therefore not yet initiated in 

Notes. 265 

the ways of his civilized or semi-civilized master. Mu-nzenza, with a slightly 
different intonation, is also used in Loanda to indicate lack of water in a well, e. g., 
Mu Manianga muala munzenza. 

124. Ngu, instead of ngi, is preferred when followed by the infixed pronoun mu 
or ku* This is a case of progressive vowel attraction. See Grammar, p. 151. 

125. ICemuenU contracted from k^a i muene-i> according to euphonic rule 
a + / = e. Ku-mona is frequently used for ku-sanga, to find, and for the result of 
finding, viz., getting and possessing. 

126. Bu polo ia or mu polo ia is, "in the presence of;" ku polo is "in front, 
ahead ; " mu polo is " in the face, on the forehead ; " but bu polo alone (without 
ia) is used for the region of the pudenda, and must be avoided. 

127. Sauidi, from Portuguese "saude." 

128. Ka-nzo, diminutive of i-nzo. See Grammar, p. 8. The initial vowel of 
inzo does not coalesce in e with the -a preceding it, because it is an ancient article, 
hence no integral part of the word. Cf . 'nzo. 

129. Ng 1 o muenene, contraction of nga ku muenene. Muenene is Preterit II. 
of the relative verb ku-muena, from ku-mona, to see, which in this case means " to 
experience." See Grammar, p. 91. 

130- The clause in brackets was added at my suggestion, so as to make the 
connection clearer to the foreign mind. For the natives both the full and the 
elliptic forms are correct and intelligible. 

131. Ngi batujudienu, the same as ngi batujule enu (see Grammar, p. 75). Ku- 
batujula is the frequentative verb of ku-batula* It means, not only the action of 
cutting frequently, repeatedly, but also the result," cutting into small pieces." See 
Grammar, p. 99. 

132. Pangajala, from ku-pangajala, iterative or frequentative form of ku-pa- 
ngala, which is an adaptation of the colonial Portuguese "pancar," " dar pancadas." 
On p. 99 of the Grammar the iteratives -ajala, -ajana of verbs ending in -ala, -ana 
were not given because they do not occur frequently. 

133. Mosuku, the same as ma-usuku, pi. of u-suku. According to euphonic 
rule a -f- u = b\ 

134. Ku di bangesa {kala) means " to feign," literally " to cause one's self to 
be or act like." 

135. So salavande / is an oath. It is evidently of Portuguese origin, as is 
shown by the form of the word and by the fact that the expression is not used 
inland ; but it is not easy to determine the Portuguese original- Salavande may 
be a corruption of " salvante," which is an antiquated synonym of " salvando," 
"salvo," i. e., except, or of " Salvador." What so means is still more obscure; is 
it the Portuguese "so* " only, or the Creole contraction so of " Senhor," i. e., Lord ? 
The most popular oath among all A-mbundu is Xingepai etu ia mungua y i. e., 
" Let my godfather be insulted ! " See note 97. 

136. Ngakale erne J means " But for me ! " The full form is hi ngakale erne / 
The whole sentence is elliptic, the suppressed words being equal to " the issue, or 
the result, would have been quite different." Sometimes the form kiakale emef 
is used. 

137. Ku-zubidisa^ a combined relative and causative of ku-zuba. See Gram- 
mar, pp. 91 and 96. 

138. Ka-tutu, diminutive of ki-tutu, which signifies any cracked vessel, as 
gourd, jug, pot, box, etc. It should not be confounded with ki-menga which is 
not the cracked whole, but the uncracked fragment of an earthen vessel, whether 
pot or jug ! The ki-menga is generally used as a frying pan. Ki-menga, there- 
fore, is a potsherd, and ki-tutu a cracked vessel, or any broken, worn-out article. 

139. Uadia *nii? uanua 9 nii? What's the use of eating and drinking? i. e., 
of living ? 

264 Folk-Tales of Angola. 

140. Mu, relative pronoun of ma-kutu in the objective (accusative) case. See 
Grammar, p. 95. 

141. Ki-zomba is the dancing-place, and also the dancing party. It is not the 
act or the way of dancing ; this is called u-kininu. Ki-zomba kia Ngola, or kia 
Kisama, or kia Lubolo signifies, therefore, the dancing-place or the dancing com- 
pany (also called di-bandela, i. e., flag) of the Ngola, Kisama, or Lubolo people. 
Ukininu ua Ngola, or Kisama, or Lubolo signifies the peculiar dance of the 
Ngola, Kisama, or Lubolo tribes. 

142. Bama means any definite place on earth ; kuma, any place in the open air ; 
muma, any place within an inclosed space. See Grammar, p. 66 and 87. 

143. Ujitu is either honor, respect, politeness, or the token of it, namely, a pres* 
ent, an invitation, and the like. It also means "fear to do wrong" and "virtue." 

144. The Portuguese in Angola take only two meals, one called "almo£o" 
(breakfast), the other " jantar " (dinner). The first is taken between 9.30 and 1 1 
a. M., the latter between 6 and 7.30 p. m. Hence, in the present case, Vidiji 
Milanda goes out at about 8 p. M. 

145. Kiabeta. The verb is impersonal. The unexpressed subject is kima, thing, 
or kiki, this thing. The prefixes ku, bu, and mu also form impersonal verbs, as 
they are sometimes called in European and other languages. In Ki-mbundu it is 
simply an elliptic conjugation, the general subjects mutu, kima, kuma, bama % 
muma, being sufficiently indicated by the context and the concord. 

146. Seia, from Portuguese " selha." 

147. Ku-longa, pronounced as any foreigner, except a Frenchman, would, means, 
to teach. Ku-ldnga> with less stress on the penult and a slower enunciation of the 
first and last syllables, means " to load." It is used of loading a gun, a canoe, a 
carrying basket, packing a box, etc. Ku di longa, to teach one's self, is used for 
" learning, studying ; " ku di Idnga, to load one's self, for embarking or seating 
one's self in any inclosure, as a carriage, a boat, etc. 

148. Muhatu ua Nzambi does not mean that the woman is divine either in 
beauty or goodness, no more than muxi ua Nzambi means a divine tree. It is 
simply a sentimental way of expressing one's self ; implying, as a rule, that the 
person, plant, or thing thus qualified is considered as dependent solely on God, 
being unassisted, uncultivated, or abandoned by men. Ki-mbundu phrases re- 
mind one constantly that "man's extremity is God's opportunity." 

149. Mu palaia, in Loanda, is used for " in the lower part of the city," or 
" down-town ; " while ku palaia or bu palaia is specifically " on, to, or by, the 
shore, or beach, or fish-market." See note 21. 

150. NT umoxi seems incorrect as referring to di-sanga, but it is preferred to 
the regular ni dimoxi; probably for euphony's sake. 

151. Buexile; bu kanga is understood as subject. See note 145. 

152. It is not quite clear whether Fenda Maria simply calls the things by their 
names, or gives them the order to act what their names imply. A slight differ- 
ence in intonation, or punctuation, gives it one meaning or the other. 

153. That all kindled themselves is not to be taken literally. When the lamp 
was lit, all were seen acting in the light. 

154. The informant dictated here "takes a goat from the pen to throw at all 
things flaming." I confess that I cannot understand what this goat has to do with 
the story. 

155. Selende* Though all natives I have asked failed to recognize the Portu- 
guese origin of the word, I am positive that it is simply the word " accidente ; " and 
the idiom uabana selende corresponds to the Portuguese " deu-lhe um accidente." 

Notes. 265 

NO* 11. 

Informant. His name was " Piolho," which is the Portuguese equivalent for 
louse. This nickname he owed to the filth and abjection to which his foible for 
rum had reduced him. He was working as a rope-maker at Bom-Jesus, on the 
Kuanza River, his native place. In the war against Humbe, back of Mossam- 
edes, where he served as a Portuguese soldier, he had been crippled for life. He 
was the first man whom I could by small remuneration induce to dictate a few 
folk tales. In all his abjection, he was as punctilious as the proverbial Spanish 
beggar. Several times he punished me by interrupting the dictation in the most 
interesting part of a story, because a question, a tone in the voice, or an innocent 
word had offended his susceptibility. So the present story was left incomplete by 
him, and the last portion had to be obtained by letter from America. A former 
pupil of my Loanda school, who was then employed at Bom-Jesus, wrote it down 
for me. His name is Domingos de Lemos. 

Dialect. It is that of the lower Kuanza about Bom-Jesus, which but slightly 
differs from that of Loanda. The informant seems to. have some peculiar expres- 
sions of his own, or which, at least, are not in general use. 

Comparative. This story is originally that of the " Cenerentola," the univer- 
sality of which has been traced up by Gubernatis in his " Florilegio delle novelline 
popolari," p. 5, and by Henry Chasle Coste. In the folk-lore of Portugal, Madeira, 
and Brazil it is current under various names and in various versions. The version 
nearest related to ours is the Brazilian on p. 52 of " Contos populares do Brazil," 
by Sylvio Romero. But, as in the case of No. 1 (Fenda Maria), the fundamental idea 
of exotic origin, in this story, has been so perfectly covered with Angola foliage 
and blossoms, that science alone can detect the imported elements, and no native 
would believe that this mu-soso is not entirely Angolan. The mention of Kima- 
lauezu kia Tumb' a Ndala, the great central figure around whom almost all native 
folk-lore clusters, and whose daughter the heroine is said to be, as also the episode 
of the Ma-kishi, connect this story with those in which either Kimalauezu or the 
Ma-kishi play an important role. By the marriage with the child of the governor 
it is also related to No. III. 

156. Kinoueza kia Tumb 1 * a Ndala. In Loanda he is generally called Kima- 
lauezu or Kimalezu kia Tum& a Ndala , while in the Mbaka, and other inland 
dialects his name is pronounced Kimanaueze kia Tumb* a Ndala. He is a purely 
mythic figure, but may have once been a historic personage. Much of what the 
natives say of him corresponds with what the Ama-zulu tell of their U-nkulunkulu, 
but no reverence attaches to his name. 

157. Maxila, This is a kind of palanquin with either side open or screened 
by curtains. It is used by the whites and well-to-do natives in the Portuguese 
towns of West Africa. For long marches through the bush, it is replaced by 
the " tipoia," which is a hammock hanging from a strong bamboo pole, to which a 
dais or canopy is fixed so as to protect from sun and rain. The fact that Nzud 
uses a maxila shows that his residence was in the neighborhood of Loanda, in 
what is now called in colonial Portuguese "os Muceques." See note 162. 

158. Paxiiu is the Portuguese "passeio," a tour, a walk, or ride, for pleasure, 
to a moderately distant place. 

159. Nzud is the native pronunciation of the Portuguese u Joao," i. e., John, 
and Nzuana that of " Joana," i. e., Joan, Jane. 

160. Nguvulu comes from the Portuguese " governador," but applies only to 
the governor - general at Loanda. Ngola^ in native parlance, represents the 
ancient native kingdom of Ngola (in Portuguese "Angola") whose beoinda«e* 

266 Folk -Tales of Angola. 

pretty exactly correspond to those of the present District of Loanda. The origi- 
nal, and still independent, tribe of Ngola has withdrawn to the river Hamba, one 
of the affluents of the Kuangu, where the ancient court of Ngola Kiluanji kia 
Samba is still kept with undiminished pride, but with greatly reduced power. 
Nguvulu mua Ngola, Governor in Angola, is used along with nguvulu ia Ngola, 
governor of Angola. The nguvulu is the representative, in Africa, of Muene- 
Putu, the king of Portugal. 

161. Ku lu dia mundu is the same as ku di-lu dia mundu, that is, on, above, 
over the world. It is also pronounced k?o lo dia ?nundu, in which case the prefix 
di of di-lu is replaced by the article o, and the following u of the monosyllable lu 
becomes also o by progressive vocalic attraction ; thus : A~' o lo dia mundu. 

162* Mu-seke, correctly used, signifies " a sandy place " and is derived from the 
same radical (ku-seka) as ki-sek-ele, sand. In the Loanda dialect, however, the 
word has come to mean "a field," with the plural mi-seke for "fields." Ku niu- 
seke signifies " to, or at, one field ; " ku mlseke, to the fields ; thus ku miseke ia 
Kamama, to the fields of Kamama. Mu museke, or mu miseke is " within a field 
or fields.^ In Loanda-Portuguese "muceque" is now used for "country-house, 
summer-house, villa," and " os muceques " is the name given to the inhabited 
country around the city of Loanda, where the well-to-do whites and natives have 
their country-houses. 

163. La will be found only in the stories told by " Piolho." He uses it exactly 
like ba or ha of the Mbaka dialect. It is probably an abbreviation of kala* See 
note 174. In English it is to be translated by "if, whether, or." 

164. Kulemba. Concerning marriage ceremonies, see the story of the Four 
Uouas, and that of the Daughter of Sun and Moon. 

165. K*eM, the same as k'aiU, from ku-ila, to say or do. 

166. Nguamami for nguamiami is again one of the peculiarities of Piolho's 
diction. As to the governors refusing the present, it is becoming to the white 
man, who makes all the metal money, the cloth money, and the bead money, to be 
generous, especially on such an occasion; for, as the saying goes, " mundele ufu- 
menena kubana, tfafumenena kuzela; diiaki dia sanji ue diazela," i. e., "the 
white man owes his fame to his liberality, not to his whiteness ;" for the egg of the 
hen, too, is white." 

167. Akiki or o kiki is composed of the old euphonic article o or a and the 
demonstrative pronoun, first degree, of class III., singular, which is often used 
for " now " and " but." Kitangana is probably understood, kitangana kiki, this 


168. K?t-xanga (ji-kumii) comprises (1) going to the bush, (2) cutting the wood 
and binding it into a bundle, (3) carrying it home. As the cutting is^ done with a 
poor native hatchet, or an iron trade-machete, the task is rather laborious. 

169. Ngamela, from Portuguese "gamella." It is a vessel made of the same 
wood and shape as a canoe, only smaller and sometimes shallow. It is used for 
washing clothes, for feeding pigs, for carrying fish (in Loanda),^ for holding all 
sorts of things. Very small imitations of canoes are also used, with other things, 
as medicinal charms (u-mbanda) consecrated to the spirit Ngiji (River) for the 
purpose of ku-vuala 9 i. e. ? breeding ; but only in the case of barren, or not suffi- 
ciently prolific, women. Men use natural medicines which are sold by the native 
doctors {i-mbanda). The native word for all these small canoes, used as vessels, is 
ulungu or uatu, the same as for the real canoe. See p. 68. 

170. Tabu or di-tabu is a place on the edge of a river or lagoon, where the 
reeds, which obstruct the banks of ail rivers and lakes unless these are pressed in 
between bare rocks, have been cleared away, so as to allow the canoes to land, 
and the women to bail out water and do their washing. As the tall grass of the 

Notes. 267 

banks is generally infested by crocodiles, these cleared spaces are the only rela- 
tively safe places for approaching the water's edge; for there the crocodile is 
likely to be detected before he can strike. The colonial Portuguese call such 
places " portos," i. e., ports, havens. I translate tabu by landing-place, or simply 
by landing. 

171. Mulemba. This tree is the Ficus psilapoga of Welwitsch. It is a favorite 
tree for shade, and thrives in the driest and sandiest soil. It is much like the 
banyan-tree of India- 

172. Aiui / This is the interjection of pain, sorrow, mourning; like the Ger- 
man "ach!" It is never a threat as "woe to!" but merely a complaint. It is 
really composed of at and ui or ui; the latter being the vocative, the at an inter- 
jection for sharp, thrusting, physical pain, or unexpected offence. 

173. Tunc? ami, " since me." This is an unusual construction, but very appro- 
priate and graphic. In emotion and sobbing, it is natural to leave different clauses 
of a proposition incomplete, and to announce them in another order than when 
cold reason dictates. 

174. Kala signifies usually "like, as." " Piolho " gives it sometimes the 
meaning of u but, however, yet." See note 163. The meaning of the unfinished 
clause is : Since I was born, I never did any washing, but now they send me to 

175. NgatC ami instead of the regular ngana iami. (See note 166.) In Loanda 
the only form used, besides the regular one, is ngar? iami, which is applicable to 
any master or mistress. In Malange and Mbaka ngan % ami is used exclusively 
by a slave-wife in addressing or mentioning her husband, and signifies therefore 
" my husban,d and lord." 

176. A-kama. Inland, where the language is purer, mu-kama is used only foi 
a slave-wife of a polygamist {hongo). A free wife is called ki-hunjt or mu-kajL 
Among the free wives of a polygamist there is a further distinction between the 
wife who married first and those who followed her. The first has authority over 
the others, and is called kota dia hongo (the great (wife) of the polygamist), th£ 
others are called ji-ndenge ja hongo (the smaller, inferior (wives) of the polyga- 
mist). The head-wife alone has a right to the title of mukua-dibata (master or 
mistress of the house), which she shares with her husband ; and the head-wife of 
a chief alone is called na mvuale (queen). A mu-kama is never called mu-kaji 
by either husband or other people ; he says mukam > ami, the others say tnukanC 
a nganji (the mukama of So-and-So). Nor does the mukama call her man mu- 
lume ami or munume etu; this is the privilege of the ki-hunjL She calls him 
ngatf ami or ngana iami, if he has only one mukama, or ngana ietu if he has 

In the coast-towns, mu-kama is now used, almost indiscriminately, for any 
servant girl above ten years who has been bought, or "redeemed," as people say 
since slave-dealing has ceased to be publicly honorable. This free use of mu- 
kama is silently witnessing against the moral (?) behavior of civilized masters, 
white or colored, in the " centres of civilization." 

177. Maid. The term expresses vigorous or hearty continuation of an action 
described in the preceding verb. Thus, kola maii! shout on, and loud ! Su- 
ngenu mai-enuf pull on, and hard! In the present case, Fenda Maria means 
to say this : I never washed the clothes (the slave girte always washed), let them 
continue to wash ! See note 36. 

178. Lelo, instead of lelu. Final -0 for final -u is often heard in the interior, 
where, in some places, the use of one or the other is merely a matter of taste. 

179. U-ngana, from ngana (see Grammar, p. 123), signifies in the first place 
" the quality, dignity, and office of being a ngana, i. e., a free person, one having 

268 Folk- Tales of Angola. 

authority," Keeping this first meaning in view, the word u-ngana is also used for 
chiefship, honor, glory, grandeur, majesty, splendor, for mastership, freedom,, 
liberty (ufolo\ for kingdom, reign, government, and body politic. 

1 80. Umbanda ndenge* U-mbanda is derived from ki-mbanda, by prefix u~, as 
u-ngana is from ngana. Umbanda is : (1) The faculty, science, art> office, busi* 
ness (a) of healing by means of natural medicines (remedies) or supernatural med- 
icines {charms); (b) of divining the unknown by consulting the shades of the 
deceased, or the genii, demons, who are spirits neither human nor divine ; (c) of 
inducing these human and non-human spirits to influence men and nature for 
human weal or woe. (2) The forces at work in healing, divining, and in the 
influence of spirits. (3) The objects (charms) which are supposed to establish 
and determine the connection between the spirits and the physical world. When 
used to designate these objects, the word umbanda admits of a plural form, ma- 
umbanda. Natural remedies for healing sickness, however, are not called ma~ 
umbanda^ but mi-longo. 

As to the meaning of the saying umbanda ndenge y in our text, it is somewhat 
obscure. There is a proverb, masunga kota, umbanda ndengej literally, wits are 
superior (greater, stronger), medicines (charms) are inferior (smaller, weaker)- 
The meaning is : natural and acquired ability will protect and exalt a man much 
more than charms or superstition. In other words, a man endowed with wisdom, 
but deprived of charms (amulets), is better off than a stupid man with any amount 
of charms. The relation of umbanda ndenge, in our text, to the words preceding 
it, may be made intelligible by the following paraphrase : Thou art engaged in a 
struggle with contrary influences (umbanda)} but thou shalt conquer one day 
(according to the saying), umbanda is surpassed by masunga. By stretching the 
saying a little — and African sayings are very elastic — it can also be made to- 
mean that a just cause will finally triumph over ill-will, and innocence or virtue 
come out victorious over its enemies. 

181. What a comforting power there is in being " loused " no one can imagine, 
who has not seen the blissful expression on the face of the Loanda girl, when, her 
head sweetly resting on another's lap, she is being relieved of her troublesome 
customers. It is a token of friendship to catch another's lice ; and not an atom 
of shame attaches to those concerned. Aa the operator is pretty sure to be him- 
self invaded by the tiny host, he or she often does the work gratuitously, with the 
understanding that the kindness will be returned (reciprocity). Among others 
than friends, it is customary to give a compensation. In Loanda, the average 
charge is from one and one half to three cents, according to the amount of trouble 
and risk incurred. One day, on dismissing my school at Loanda (to which only 
paying pupils were admitted), I noticed some trouble between two scholars and 
inquired after the reason. With a whining voice a little fellow replied : " So-and- 
So refuses to catch my lice." He considered that a great breach of school-fellow- 
ship. At Malange, a big fat worm, called katotola-jina (the lice-crusher), and 
which builds a most interesting nest, is used by the natives as louse-catcher. 
Placed on the wool of the head, it introduces its tiny head and strong claws into- 
the tangled hair, ferrets out, and devours the unwelcome guests. When it has 
done its work, it is, without thanks, cast back into the bush. 

182. Lopa is the Portuguese " roupa." 

183. To tell a lie in .self-defence, to cheat within certain limits, and to steal 
trifles in favor of a friend, are not condemned by the native standard of morality ; 
but, when found out or caught in the act, the author of such an act may feel 
ashamed of his lack of shrewdness. 

184. Papaii. When used absolutely, "father" and u mother" are rendered by 
papaii and mamanii; but as soon as the word is qualified by a possessive pro- 

Notes. 269 

noun the forms pat and mttnii are the only ones to be used, e. g., pat etu 9 manii 

185. Kttxi; about kuxi see Grammar, pp. 30 and 31. 

186. It is off with a fish, that is, it is carried off by a fish. 

187. This i is a vocative /, which is freely used where we, in writing, put a 
point of exclamation. It is also often added to a word, and drawn out to consid- 
erable length, when the person speaking is hesitating about what to say next. 

188. Katlku data. Before kati and the destination, the verb kuenda, to walk, 
or to go, is often left out, and must be supplied in the translation. 

189. Ku-kuata mu kibetu, literally, to catch in flogging, is synonymous with 
ku-bana kibetu, to give a flogging. 

I0o. KoUdi is the Portuguese " cobre." 

191. Seta is the Portuguese "cera," i.e., bee's wax. There is no other word 
for the trade-wax. But the wax of the honey-comb is called t-seta, or i-xila^ the 
singular of which (kt-sela and ki-xila) signifies a single cell of the honey-comb. 
To get the honey out of the comb, is called ku-kama o uiki mu ixila. 

192. Teeth of elephant, i. e., tusks of ivory. 

193. Di-konge. This is the genuine Ki-mbundu word for India-rubber, both as 
a plant and as an article of trade ; but the U-mbangala (Kasanji) word ndundu is 
gradually superseding it, at least in the interior. The Ngola and Holo tribes call 
it di~hoke; the Ma-hungu call it mu-konge; some Mbaka people and the Mbondo 
tribe call it ka-nana. The Ma-songo, like the I-mbangala, call it ndunduj and 
the Ma-kioko pronounce this with a different intonation, giving the last syllable a 
higher tone. 

194. Tata (father) is often used without any definite meaning, as a euphonious 

195. Ji-maxu is the Portuguese u machos." 

196. Ma-sotadi, sing, dl-soladi^ from Portuguese "soldado." 

197. Mujika is the. Portuguese " musica," and means, in these stories, a military 

198. On taking leave, it is customary for the one who goes to say xaP if that 
is, remain, or stay ! (with or without ktambote, i. e., well), and for the one who 
stays, to say : BixiP i (with or without kiambote y well), that is, arrive (safely at 
your destination). 

199. Compare this account of the Ma-kishi (singular Di-kishi, or Kishi) with 
those given in the Ma-kishi stories, Nos. V., VI., VI L, and others. The description 
of the Ma-kishi given by " Piolho " and other A-mbundu informants, agrees in all 
main points with that of the cannibals of the Zulu folk-lore in Dr. Callaway's 
"Nursery Tales," vol. i. pp. 28, 29, 33, 43 (many-headed monster), 145, 146, 157, 
esp. 158. Like "Piolho," in the explanations asked of him, the Zulus describe 
the cannibals as wearing long tangled hair, which falls over their faces. This 
long hair, and the many heads of some Ma-kishi, are the only points in which the 
Ma-kishi of the A-mbundu disagree with their descriptions of the A-tua, or Ba- 
tua, the famous pygmies of brown complexion, who are found in the great forests 
of all Africa east of the Niger, and who seem to be the aborigines whom the 
immigrant Bantu (including all the African Blacks or Negroes) had to fight and 
drive back before they could establish peaceful communities. But, though I have 
not heard of any pygmy tribe wearing long, tangled^ hair, or having the faculty of 
growing another head as soon as one is cut off, it does not shake my present 
belief that our Ma-kishi, the cannibals* of the Zulus (Ma-zimu) and those of the 
Be-chuana (Ma-rimo) are the aboriginal pygmy tribes. Not so much as they are 
now, but as they appeared to the first Bantu settlers, and as they were by these 
incorporated into the semi-historic and semi-mythologic folk-lore of their race. 

2 70 Folk* Tales 0/ Angola. 

The hydra-like heads of the Ma-kishi are an excellent symbol of the system of 
guerilla warfare common to all the Ba-tua (see Callaway's " Nursery Tales," p.. 
354). It is strange that Callaway did not notice the similarity of his cannibals 
with his Aba-twa, so graphically described at pp. 3^3 and 354. His informants 
there declare that the Aba-twa kill those who say they did not notice them from 
afar, because they consider that an insulting reflection on their undersized stature. 
This is identical with the account of the Ba-tua given me by natives from different 
parts of Angola. (Concerning the Ba-tua in the forests of the Kuangu River, see 
the notes to my Vocabulary of U-iaka, which will be published with a number of 
other vocabularies in the Bulletin of the American Geographical Society, 1894.) 

200. Tenda! uatendela 'nii? could not be explained by any native I ques- 
tioned on the subject. The expression is only used in connection with divining. 
The translation I venture to give is sufficiently warranted by similar questions 
and answers in the divinations of the A-mbundu. 

201. About the "sandu," or "xalaV' i. e., namesake, see note 8$* 

202. Kuaki, from ku-kia, to dawn ; ku-ina is the subject of ku-aki. 

203. Kezuatu, contraction of the genitive ka izuatu. 

204. Kia-lumingu. The full form is kiz&a kia lumingu, i. e., the day of 
lumingu* This lumingu is the Ki-mbundu pronounciation of the Portuguese 
" Domingo," which, again, is the Portuguese pronounciation of the Latin " Do* 
minicus," i. e., the Lord. Therefore kia-lumingu means, in its Latin origin, the 
day of the Lord. It is used for Sunday. The days of the week, in Ki-mbundu, 
are, Sunday, kia-lumingu / Monday, kia-xikunda, from Portuguese "segunda 
(feira)," i. e., second (holy day); Tuesday, kia-telesa, from "terga;" Wednesday, 
kia-kualata, from " quarta ; " Thursday, kia-kinda^ from " quinta ; " Friday, kiar 
sexta, from "sexta;" Saturday, kia-sabalu, from "sabbado." In literary Ki- 
mbundu these exotic names will probably be superseded by the native names: 
Kia-Ngana, Kiaiadi, Kiatatu, Kiauana, Kiatanu, Kiasamanu x Kiasambuadi. 

205. JVgeleja, from Portuguese " igreja." Compare ki-ngelejh from " inglez." 

206. Katalaiu, in Portuguese " Catraio." This name is particularly used as a 
proper name for male slaves. Katalaiu is generally a trusted domestic slave, not 
a plantation hand. Here, Katalaiu is evidently a faithful old slave of Nzud and 
Maria's father ; and he still respects in Maria his old master's daughter. 

207. Ngaft a ndenge. This form is used in Loanda together with ngari ia 
ndenge and ngana ia ndenge; In Malange, the latter, the full form, is the only 
one used. 

208. / abindamena ngenju This expression denotes the exceeding beauty or 
goodness of the thing or things to which it refers* Ngenji, from ku-enda 9 to walk, 
is a traveller. But, as Africans always travel for trade, it is also used for tracjer, 
merchant The traders, of course, desire beautiful articles to trade with ; and, 
being in the business, they are the best judges of the quality of goods. 

209. Kaluaji, from Portuguese " carruagem." 

210. Misa, the Portuguese " missa." The blind and the cripples are regular 
attendants at church in Loanda, because the " Misericordia " benevolent fund 
has alms distributed to them by the priest on each Sunday. 

211. Id. Who these id are is explained in the following words, ni mujika U; 
they are the men composing her band. 

212. Embamba, i. e., o imbamba. The Kisama people and some Quanza and 
Loanda people use this form, e- Instead of o i-. 

213. On the remarkable law of preference or precedence which determines the 
use of the negative suffixed pronouns, when combined with infixed pronouns, see 
Grammar, pp. 78 and 79. 

214. Makutu mil This expression is not only not insulting, but it may be 

Nates. 271 

complimentary as expressing surprise, when it is known the person addressing one 
intended to cause surprise. It corresponds then to our "you don't say so!" or 
"is it possible?" Intonation unmistakably shows in each case whether makutu 
ntf expresses contradiction, doubt, or astonishment, 

215. This se is not si " without," nor se " if," nor se "saying," but an old nega- 
tive particle. In Loanda they would say, ukala kota kana eie. The three negative 
particles of Ki-mbundu are : ne, se, and k 9 ; the two first have almost disappeared 
in the modern Loanda and Mbaka dialects. 

216. Kuaki marks the beginning of day, ku-nanga the spending of the day, 
ku-zeka the end of day, and the spending of the night. 

217. Ngonge is both the instrument used in a proclamation and the proclama- 
tion, order, or command itself. In the native towns, the herald shouts the proc- 
lamation in the principal thoroughfares. Sometimes he first calls the people's 
attention by striking a native bell, or by sounding a bull's horn. This horn, I was 
told, is also called ngonge by the Kisama people ; at Malange the name of the 
horn is kipanana. At Loanda it is called mMnga or mbungu. But ngonge y no 
doubt, signifies primarily a bell, and is synonymous with ngunga. A bell is still 
used for proclamations, and * called ngonge^ by the tribes north of the Bengo and 
Dande rivers, i. e., among the Dembos (ji-ndembu). The ngonge is made of 
iron, and consists of a double bell in the shape of U, each leg of the U represent- 
ing one bell. There are no clappers in these bells. They are rung, or rather 
played, by striking with a piece of iron on either cup alternately. This native 
African bell has been noticed in many parts of the Continent, and is described in 
the works of several great African travellers. 

218. Saku is the Portuguese "sacco," i.e., sack. The sum represented by a 
saku is thirty Portuguese, or nearly thirty-three American, dollars. It is called 
saku, because thirty dollars in Angolan copper money make up a man-load, and 
this is the sum usually put up in a sack when cash remittances are made to the 
interior. The two " sacks " promised by the Governor represent, therefore, about 
sixty-five dollars of American money, and their local value is best illustrated by 
the fact, that even now (1891) two young slaves could be bought with the money, 
at Loanda, while in the interior it would bring three or more adult slaves. Slavery 
is abolished, bylaw in all Portuguese dominions ; but the natives, even in Loanda, 
buy, sell, and own slaves without regard for the white man's law. The same is 
the case in some English and other colonies. 

219. Kadifele, from Portuguese " alferes." 

220. Thus far "Piolho's" dictation of the story. The remainder, which is 
rather disconnected, was sent me to America by my former Loanda pupil, Domingos 
de Lemos, who was then employed at Bom-Jesus. 

221. Azalma / is the Portuguese "as armas!" 

222. Tuma ku k 1 ijia is an idiom for " know thou well," or " mind." 

223. Ngi bangefavolo is, in pure Ki-mbundu, ngi bange kiadi. 

224. Kaleia is the Portuguese " cadeia," i. e., chain or prison. In Ki-mbundu 
ku-ta mu lubambu is to put in chains (native jail); ku-ta mu 'aleia is to put in 
(Portuguese) jail. 

225. Ku-nganala, from Portuguese " enganar." In pure Ki-mbundu, to deceive, 
is translated by ku-fumba, when synonymous with cheating, and by ku-ta makutu, 
when no money or property is involved. 

226. Ku-folokala, from Portuguese "enforcar." In Ki-mbundu, hanging is 

Z2j r This saying is not very proper. Nga Nzu£ must be very bitter to apply it 
to his wife. The meaning of the saying is, "we, the women, must be paid for, 
before we marry, because our bodies are a merchandise which, owing to the 

272 Folk - Tales of Angola. 

demand, we can sell at any time." With a few honorable exceptions, the mulatto 
girls of a poor mother are taught from tender childhood that their support, and 
that of their relatives, will depend on their making a profitable trade of their 
bodies with white men. 

228. There seems to be a short blank between this and the following. 

229. Alumazd, oxlumazi, from Portuguese "armazem." 

230. Kikusu is a fresh-water fish which is much relished, notwithstanding its 
countless bones. 


Informant. Most of the stories in the present collection were, like this, dic- 
tated by a native of Malange, whose full Portuguese name is Jeremias Alvares da 
Costa, while his current name is Jelemfa dia Sabatelu, that is, Jeremiah, son of 
the shoemaker. His father was a shoemaker from Mbaka (Ambaca) who had 
settled at the court of Bangu, the head-chief of the scattered Mbamba tribe, and 
married a daughter of the chief's elder sister. By this marriage the sons of the 
shoemaker belong to the royal family of the Mbamba tribe and are eligible to 
the chiefship. They are both Mbamba and Mbaka, but first of all Mbamba. The 
informant learnt his father's trade, and has become his successor as shoemaker at 
Bangu's village. In the natural course of events, he may also inherit the chief- 
ship and become a Bangu himself, for the present presumptive heir is his uncle 
and he comes next to his uncle. 

In 1890 he came with me to America, and most of his stories were dictated 
at Vineland, N. J. A life-size model of him is to be seen in the Ethnologic 
Section of the National Museum, Washington. Since 1891, he is again with his 
family at Bangu's near Malange (Malanji). Though by no means exempt from 
human and African frailties, Jeremiah has always been an abstainer from drink 
and native dances, and in all the time we lived together I have never known him 
to tell a lie, or steal, or behave unseemly. 

Dialect. The informant is equally familiar with the Mbaka dialect of his 
father and the Mbamba dialect of his mother. This story is entirely Mbaka, 
both as to dialect, origin, and dramatis personae. 

Comparative. The first part of the legend, where Kimanaueze*s wife will eat 
nothing but fish, and thus overtaxes the River's kindness, appears differently told 
in Story No. IV. of Loanda. The metamorphoses into a variety of animals are of 
frequent occurrence in all Bantu fiction. 

The marriage of Kimanaueze's son with the Governor's daughter seems to be 
identical with that of Kimalezu's granddaughter with the Governor's son. (Story 
still unpublished.) In the Bantu languages, where the same word means either 
son or daughter, a confusion of sexes is quite natural. 

In Schlenker's "Temne Traditions" (London, 1861) p. 89, the Temne hero 
Tamba renders some services to animals who, in return, give him instructions, 
which later on greatly help him to win the daughter of the King, whose successor 
he becomes; all very much like Nzud's experience with the beasts and the 

Passing from Sierra Leone to the extreme southeast corner of Africa, we find, 
among the Zulus, Ubabuze, who like Nzua" is deprived of men and oxen by wild 
beasts, but saved by a mouse, on whose skin he is lifted up in the air, and carried 
to his damsel whom he marries. (Callaway's " Nursery Tales," p. 97.) As to the 
personification of the river, compare the one reported by Du Chaillu, " Equatorial 
Africa," New York, 1890, p. 358. 

The Portuguese stories u A Torre Babylonia " and " A Torre Madorna," whose 

Notes. 273 

fundamental outline is found in the folk-tales of many other nations, have some 
resemblance to this number. See " Contos populares," by Ad. Coelho, p. 34* and 
" Contos nacionas," by the same, p. 50. 

231. Kilundu kia makamba. This expression, it seems, is not known in Lo- 
anda. The informant says it signifies " possessor of many friends," i. e., a popu- 
lar man. Ki-lundu is a non-human spirit, the same as di-bamba. Ku-lunda is 
to lay aside and keep in a safe place. See note 620. 

232. Uatunga, uasoma. Used both at Loanda and in the interior. Ku-tunga, 
ku-soma is an idiom, signifying to build one's house, marry, have children, cattle* 
and get on. The tense used here is preterit III., indicative of a distant past. 
The preterit II. is uatungile, uasomene> and preterit I. is uatungu, tiasomo. This 
tense implies that the action is still fresh, recent. 

233. Na mvualeji. Na mvuale is the title of the chiefs head-wife, and cor- 
responds, therefore, to our Queen. This use of the plural concord (ii) with a 
singular noun (mvuale), as a sign of respect, is remarkable. It is also used with 
the prime-minister, e. g., ngolambole j$, but -neither with the chief's title soba nor 
with di~kota> head-man. To show somebody respect by this use of the plural is 
called ku mujingisa. 

234. Mbiji ia menia* In the interior, the word mbiji, in the plural form jt- 
mbiji, is used to denote meat or vegetables eaten with the staple funji (mush). 
Mbiji is one of the general Banrtu words for meat ; and so mbiji ia menia, i. e., 
the waterrmeat, was probably the first denomination of fish. In modern Ki- 
mbundu, mbiji is used almost exclusively for fish. 

235. Katumua, from ku-tuma, to send, to command. The regular passive form, 
of the Bantu, formed by the insertion of u before final a, which has disappeared 
as a living form in Ki-mbundu, is still preserved in this word and a few others, 
Katumua means " messenger." 

236. Uxi, This is the most common form in the interior for uixij but they 
never say axi for exi, which proves that -ixi is the root, even in the dialects of the 

237. Lukala is the largest affluent of the Kuanza River, which it joins at Mas- 
sangano (Masanganu, confluence, from ku-sangana, to meet). 

238. Ku-tamba is used only for fishing with nets (ma-uanda) and with the large 
fish-baskets, used solely by women, and which are called i-sakala. These are like 
the mi-z&a, only larger. With the mu-z&a the verb to be used is ku-kuata for 
catching (fish), while ku-lunga is used for the setting of the basket-trap. With 
hooks, the verb for catching is ku-loua. 

239. Ngidia-hi? In Loanda ngidia-nii t or ngidia'niif The absolute form 
is inii in Loanda, ihi in the interior. 

240. Kizu* eki } or kizu 1 okio, or kizfia kimoxi, can all be used for "one day n 
when beginning an episode in a narrative. In the folk-tales of Louisiana negroes, 
the expression " this day " for " one day " is also met with. 

241. Mbanza signifies really the house, yard, and adjoining huts belonging to 
the chief and his wives ; that is, his residence, his court. It also means capital, 
for it is applied to the whole village inhabited by the king. In the Mbaka, as in 
most inland dialects, mbanza is moreover used for the chief himself. 

242. Ubixila, in Loanda ubixila. The natives of the interior pronounce the x 
of Loanda like tsk, in words which in the Bantu mother-tongue had a /. It only 
occurs before -/*, and the change of the ancient t to x and x is due to the presence 
of this -1. Mu-ti (tree) becomes mu-xi in Mbaka, mu-xi in Loanda. 

243. Koxi, boxi, moxiy are contractions of ku o J xi, bu o 'xi, mu o ^xu Compare 
m'o'nso equal mu o'nzo. 

244. Ha or ba is the word used by the Mbaka, and other inland tribes, for the 
Loanda word anga, or inga f meaning, " whether, or, if, and, then." 

2 74 Folk - Tales of Angola. 

245. Kiximbi is the spirit or genius who is supposed to be lord of a river- or 
lagoon. It may be masculine or feminine. In Loanda, the same genius (di- 
hamba, di-bamba or ki-lundu) is called Ki-anda or Ki-tuta. See Nos. IX. and L. 

246. Ku di ijila, to come spontaneously, unsent, unbidden ; from kuiza. The 
form is a combination of the reflexive {di) with the relative (-ijila) verb. 

247. Imana I " stand ! " is also used for " stop 1 " Ku-im-ana is a medial form 
of ku4m-ika^ to erect, hence to stand erect. 

248. The first time, the fisherman pulled the net barely out of the water ; then 
he let it drop and ran. The second time, he dragged it on to dry land. 

249. Mundu is the collective of mu-tu. As a collective it has no plural form. 
It means u crowd, congregation, tribe, nation, mankind, world." . 

250. Among most tribes, to the farthest interior (Mbamba, Ndongo, Mbondo, 
Ma-songo, Ma-holo, Ma-hungu, I-mbangala, Tu-pende, Bashi-lange, Akua-lunda), 
the chief is approached in the manner here described, by a subject as well as by a 
stranger. That is, the subject or the stranger sits down on the ground, throws 
himself flat on his back, then bows forward and touches the ground with his chin. 
The Mbaka tribe (i-mbadt) and their offspring are exempt from this custom. 
The Ma-kioko and Ma-shinji, in addition, pick up dust and rub it on chest and 

251. Kalunga* This word is used to signify: (1) death; (2) the personification 
of death in the shape of the king of the nether world, called Kalunga-ngombe, 
and the world of shades itself ; (3) the ocean ; (4) an interjection of wonder ; (5) a 
title of respect, given to a chief, and, among the I-mbangala, to every freeman of 
some importance. 

252. Mi, This is the objective of the personal pronoun, second person plural, 
in most dialects of the interior, which use mu- for the prefixed subjective. In 
Loanda nu is used for both the prefixed (subjective) and infixed (objective) pro- 

253. Kunu; in Loanda kuku. 

254. Mahezu. What the original meaning of this word is no one has been 
able to tell me thus far. Its use, however, is plain enough. It stands like our 
" amen," after a prayer, as the word signifying that the speech has come to a 
" full stop ; " that the speaker or talker has reached the end of what he wanted to 
say. To this mahezu the other party answers a Nzambi, that is, " of God." The 
.word mahezu is probably imported from a dialect or language of the far interior. 

255. Ngolamboh) composed of Ngola (probably old Ki-mbundu for ngana^ 
Lord) and mbote, i. e., hunt ; hence, " Lord of the hunt " (ngola a mbole). It is 
the title of the chief's prime minister, and presumptive successor, if he be of 
royal blood and closely related to the king. The other royal officer is the sakala 
or tandala, that is the secretary, who, in the Kuangu basin, is almost invariably 
a Mbaka-man. The council of the ma-kota, or elders, is the legislative body (par- 
liament) of the tribe, while the king, with his cabinet, is the executive; wielding 
absolute power as long as he is constitutional enough to keep in favor with the 

256. In the interior, only the chiefs and civilized Mbaka men are allowed to 
sit on a European chair. The elders may sit on native stools; the plebeians and 
slaves sit on mats, or on the bare ground. 

257. M'o'xi, in Loanda mu *xi. Written in one word, moxi, it signifies 
u under." 

258. Palahi, or Paldhit m'Lozn&a.pala'nii? composed of pa/a (Portuguese 
* para) " and tnit 9 i. e., what ? The purely Ki-mbundu equivalent is mu konda 
dia f hif in Loanda mu konda dia 'nii? 

259. Matm, with accent on last, long, and nasal syllable, is an interjection sig- 
nifying " I, or we, don't know." 

Notes. 275 

260. M boxi, i& bulu, is an idiom signifying "he, or she, is restless." 

261. In the interior, when a woman is going to give birth she generally goes 
out, with female assistants, into the bush, and delivers there, out of sight of the 

262. Kitala, like kisoko^ is both size, or stature, and age. 

263. A-ba, or o-ba, signifies " take." Compare with ku-ba t to give. They also 
say ama* 

264. Monde, possibly from Portuguese "montar," i. e., to mount, ride.. 

265. Ku em a, often used in the interior for ku dima. In U-mbundu, and other 
dialects, the prefix di- is often substituted by the prefix e-, or, more correctly, by 
the old article *-. 

266. Bu kota dia muxi, is " at the foot of a tree," in the same sense as we say 
" at the foot of a mountain." The kota of a tree is the space and the ground 
around it, as far as its shade extends while the sun is high. 

267. Xitu is " flesh, meat," used, as in the Bible, to signify all animate beings, 
but especially animals used for food, and par excellence "game." Ki-ama is a 
ferocious animal ; ki-bamba, a reptile or an insect, a crawling animal. 

268. Mu ngongo is never used in Loanda as one word ; but in the Mbaka 
dialect it may be spelled and used as mungongo, a noun of class II. Only the 
doubled use of mu (mu mu-ngongo) is to be avoided. 

269. " That made God," an inversion, which, straightened out, means " that 
God made." The rule No. 8 of the twelve laws of Bantu grammar, formulated 
by Lepsius, that the subject is always placed before the verb, and the verb before 
the object, is not to be accepted without reserve. 

270. Mbunda is really the soft part between the ribs and the hips, called waist. 
But, by extension, mbunda is most frequently psed for any bottom : in animals, 
men, baskets, bottles, and other things. Compare mbnnda> meat, in the Kuangu 
dialects. See, note 376. 

271. Kdkele, from ku-ila, imperative future III. 

272. Telejif looks like Portuguese "tres," three, used to introduce a conjuring 
formula. The meaning of these formulae is intentionally obscure or unintelli- 

273. Ngudi signifies wolf, or hyena, in the U-mbangala dialect 

274. The njinji is a wild cat looking like a leopard, but smaller. 

275. Bana mu kanu, literally, " give the inside of mouth," graphic for " hold out 
thy open mouth." On spittle, cf. "Journal American Folk-Lore," 1890, pp. 51-59. 

276. As the, njinji and the leopard (ingo), so the mukenge and the mbulu ase 
close relatives. 

277. Hadi % meaning hardship, in the interior, is, in Loanda, an objectional word 
for dung. . 

278. Kikuanzomba; this name of the hawk is only used in fiction ; it is, we 
might say, its poetic name. 

279. Kabungu is any tailless bird. The Holokoko looks, indeed, as though his 
tail had been clipped ; and for this reason science has named him Helotarsus 
ecaudatus. He is celebrated for his high flight, which gave rise to this laudatory 
saying of him, " uate (or uasud) mbambe ni diulu (or dilu)? i. e., he set the bound- 
ary with the sky, or, he touches the sky. Compare these "poetic" names with 
the "laudatory" names in South Africa. 

280. Mutu a lubila-suku. This is the " poetic " name of man. The transla- 
tion given in the text is a mere guess, suggested by the sound of the words. It 
may be more correct to write Lubi la (lua) suku. See note 628. 

281. Mon? a mundeh) i.e., "young white .man;" also applied to a civilized 

2 76 Folk - Tales of Angola. 

282. Muania is the heat and light of the sun; daylight and noon-heat. In 
Loanda, the word is pronounced luania* 

283. Ma-letd, sing. di4etd % from Portuguese "leit&o." 

284. Muhamba is the long basket in which goods are packed for carrying on 
head or shoulders. 

285. Uo\ ngi lambela-u, would be in Loanda ua ngi lambela-mu, or ua ngi 
lambela namu, 

286. In the interior, the prefix of the futural present is often used with the 
final form of the preterit L, or vice versa. 

287. Ku-kuata ku minangu, an idiom, meaning to pass time doing nothing, at 
least no manual work. 

288. TuelBy contraction of tua + tie, preterit II., of ku-iaj not to be confounded 
with tuedi, preterit I., from ku~ila. 

289. Ku-londekesa is " to show a thing not seen before ; " double causative of 
ku-londa, to see for the first time. 

290. To express " entire, whole," the A-mbundu say " of entireness." 

291. The infinitive is used instead of the personal form to give more animation • 
to the style. 

292. Ngaielu, from Portuguese " gaiola." 

293. Dikolombolo didianga^ the first cock (-crow), means about midnight. At 
an interval of about one hour, or a little more, follow dikolombolo dia kaiadi, 
dikolombolo dia katatu, and dikolombolo dia kauana* The latter is synonymous 
with kuma kuaki, u e., dawn, which is regularly about 5.30 A. m. Dikutnbi dia- 
iundu is said when the sun is just up. 

294. Mueza, the same as ueza. In the interior the ancient form of the con- 
cording prefix for class I., sing. mu~, is sometimes used for the usual #-. 

295. Ni boxi ni bu-lu, i. e., from head to foot, with the special meaning " having 
foot-wear and head-wear," 

296. Ku-takena, contraction of ku-takanena of Loanda, or ku-takenena of 

297. Utokaj in Loanda utokua. 

298. See Grammar, p. 104. 

299. Ku-kalakela, contraction of ku-kalakalela, relative form of ku-kalakala, 
to work. 

NO. IV. 

Informant. Jo2o Borges Cezar, a nephew of his namesake, the informant of 
No. L Joao had been for one year in my school at Loanda, and on my return to 
Europe accompanied me to Portugal, England, and Switzerland, where he learnt 
French ; and subsequently to America, where he learnt English and some Ger- 

Dialect. That of Loanda. 

Comparative. This Loanda story is not unknown in the interior, as is proved 
by the first part of No: III. See also "Journal American Folk-Lore," 1889, p. 37. 

In " Etudes sur la langue Se*chuana," by Eugene Casalis, Paris, 1841, p. 100, 
there is a Se-suto. story of a woman, who insisted on having the liver of a certain 
animal, until her husband got it for her. When she had eaten it, such an internal 
fire consumed her, that she went and drank up the whole lagoon of the desert. 
Elephant, the king of the animals, punished her for the thirst thus inflicted on 
his people, by having the ostrich tear up her abdomen, from which the water 
flowed back to its former place. 

300. Ku dima dia kukala, literally, " back of being," idiom for " long, long* 
ago." In the interior they say m* uxahulu. 

Notes. 277 

301. Ku-$ema r to crave, long for a special kind of food. Not used in Mbaka. 

302. Ku-didika and ku-ludika are synonymous forms in Loanda. In Mbaka 
the form ku4dika alone is used. Ku-id-ika may be a causative form of ku-ila, 

303. Huta is food (provisions) for a journey. 

304. Ku-ivua, generally translated by " to hear," means really u to feel with any 
of the senses, except sight.** So one may ku-ivua an odor, a flower, a sound, 
heat, or cold; but not an object apprehended by sight. Hence Angolans, and 
many other Bantu, when speaking a European language, often use such expres- 
sions as " I heard a bad smell ; " " Let me hear it," instead of " Let me taste it ; ** 
" Don't you hear the cold, or the heat ? " 

305. " It is heavy," refers to the net, as the prefix u* in uaneme shows. 

306. King anji for kinga hanji. The abbreviated form anji is commonly used 
in Loanda, the full form hanji in the interior. 

307. Mufa? enu, thy fellow, companion, friend, stands for " I, who am speaking 
to you ; " mukua-mona, owner of a child, parent. 

308. Ualald / ualald / An onomatopoeia for the rustling produced by some- 
thing passing through the dry grass. To this Loanda word correspond the Mbaka 
synonyms uaid / uaid / zn&fotofoto I 

309. Ku-kuvitala, from Portuguese " convidar." 

3x0. Mu kanga is "within, or in the centre of, a cleared space," also "in dis- 
tance." Bu kanga is outside. Here mu kanga means " in the yard." 

NO. V. 

Informant. Jelemfa dia Sabatelu. See No. III. 

Dialect. Mbaka. 

Origin. Though written in pure Mbaka dialect, this epic in prose does not 
seem to belong to the A-mbundu branch of the Bantu stock. It is current among 
the Mbamba tribe, which, with the Ma-hungu tribe, forms a connecting link be- 
tween the A-mbundu and the Ba-kongo. The original seat of the Mbamba tribe 
is the old Duchy of Mbamba in the Kingdom of Kongo, south of the lower 
Kongo River. The Mbamba with whom I am personally acquainted live scattered, 
as welcome strangers, among the A-mbundu of the District of Malange. Their 
chief settlements are found (1) on the Lombe River, (2) in the vicinity of Malange, 
(3) on the Kambu River. The head-chief of all the scattered Mbamba is old 
Bangu, whose residence is rather less than a mile northeast of Malange, (See 
note about Informant of No. III.) Well do I remember my first visit to Bangu in 
the beginning of 1887. Then I knew but little Ki-mbundu, yet enough to under- 
stand from Bangu's eloquent speech that he was a vassal of the King of Kongo, 
"the elder brother ti the King of Portugal,*' and that his people had come to 
this region from Mbamb* a Mbuila. The exodus of the tribe seems to have 
taken place about a century ago. The emigrants probably moved along the 
upper course of the Lukala River, then down the Lombe valley. It was from Lombe 
that the Malange settlement branched off under the predecessor of the present 
Bangu. (See my vocabulary of Mbamba in Dr. C. G. Biittner's "Zeitschrift fur 
Afrikanische Sprachen," Berlin, 1889, January.) 

Since writing the above, I have had the pleasure of meeting in Loanda (in April, 
1892) the ndembu Mbamb' a Mbuila himself, who had come to Loanda, with his 
tandala and several ma-kota, to transact some business and visit the Governor. 
He and his attendants were highly surprised to see a white man posted on Mbamba 
matters. They confirmed the linguistic and ethnic identity of the Malange 
Mbamba with those of Kongo. 

278 Folk - Tales of Angola. 

Comparative* The grandfather of the hero being Kimanauese kia Tumb* a 
Ndala, and his son Nzua" a trader, the story is thereby connected with others of 
Kimanaueze's cycle. 

It also belongs to the Ma-kishi stories. Kinioka, the serpent, appears also in 
four manuscript stories of my collection. The description of the spirit world 
fully agrees with that given in No. XL. The scene in which the hero is swallowed 
by the fish reminds us of one in the unpublished story of Kabindama and a number 
of similar swallowings in universal folk-lore. 

In "fitudes sur la langue Se'chuana," by E. Casalis, Paris, i84i,p. 97, there is a 
legend of a hero, Litaolane, who behaves very much like Sudika-Mbambi*; only the 
enemy he conquers is not a Ma-kishi tribe, but a huge monster, Kammapa, who had 
eaten up the human race. The latter is saved by Litaolane, who after being swal- 
lowed too, kills the monster and leads the victims out of their stomach-prison. 
Casalis suggests, without affirming, that this might be a tradition of the Saviour's 
contest with Satan, whom he conquers by his very death ; but evidently, as in the 
case of so many supposed traditions of the Deluge, the resemblance is merely 

The life-tree, which thrives, fades, and dies simultaneously with the absent 
hero's life, is common to the folk-lore of all racial stocks. In the Portuguese folk- 
tales, it recurs in many places. 

It would be easy to find epic heroes whose careers coincide in many points with 
that of Sudika-Mbambi, but that would throw little light on the question whether 
this story is originally native, or imported, and whence. The Portuguese and 
Italian parallels alone are important in this respect. In the a Contos populares 
do Brazil," p. 69, No. XIX. has all the appearance of another version of our story ; 
it is itself only a version of a Portuguese story which belongs to the cycle of 
Gargantua (op. cit. p. 215) and may be seen in No. XLVII. of Theoph. Braga's 
"Contos tradicionaes " and in No. XXII. of Ad. Coelho's "Contos populares/' 
Still as the story seems to belong to the Mbamba exclusively and as these are 
fanatically opposed to any innovation, the probability is against a Portuguese 

The epilogue of Sudika-Mbambi's legend is remarkable, as it makes of it a 
meteorologic myth, one brother representing the thunder-clap, the other the echo 
roaring back from the opposite side of the cloud-world. 

311. Sudika-mb&mbu Ku-sudika is a dialectic variation of ku-tttdika? which 
signifies " to hitch, or hang on, or in, a high place ; " mbdnibi is " antelope." Both 
words go to make up a pretty good descriptive name of the thunderbolt " up on 
high, in the clouds, leaping to and fro like a deer." 

312. Kindaula is pronounced kindala in the Loanda dialect 

313. She is so changed that she recognizes him sooner than he her. 

314. Xibata, the Portuguese "espada." The Portuguese word " chibata " for 
switch, stick (to beat with), and " chibatada " may possibly be derived from the 
Ki-mbundu word re-introduced into Portuguese with a modified meaning. 

315. Kilembe is a mythic plant, which we translate by "life-tree." Its peculi- 
arity was that it flourished, withered, and died simultaneously with the life, peril, 
and death of the person with whom it was connected, just as the quicksilver in 
the thermometer rises and falls with the temperature. 

316. These verses are somewhat obscure ; probably intentionally so. 

317. Lukula is the redwood or camwood tree. The word lukula is Mbamba ; 
in the Mbaka dialect it is hula or lu-hula. The Portuguese call the tree and wood 
" tacula." The wood is used in many ways, as a dye, or medicine, and it consti- 
tutes an important article of purely native commerce and industry. 

31S. The song of Kabundungulu is more mysterious than his brother's. 

Notes. 279 

319. Nuandcty abbreviated form of nuandala> is used in the Mbaka dialect as 
an auxiliary verb in the formation of the future tense. It is from this shortened 
form that the contracted future of Loanda -ondo- (or -ando-) is derived (?anda ku- 
banga, -anda 'u~banga, andobanga, and lastly ondobanga by retroactive vowel 

320. Adi etu (from sing, mu-adi, master). In the plural (adi) it signifies 
" parents." 

321. The principal stages in native house-building are : (r) the cutting of poles 
inia-sokd), (2) the erecting of the same, as skeleton of walls and roof (ku-kuba), 
(3) the tying (ku-tatd) of wild cane or other poles horizontally across the erect 
poles, (4) the thatching {ku-za?nbela) of the roof, (5) the filling up of holes between 
the sticks of the walls, either with mud (ku-bebeka), or with thatch (ku-xita). 

322. The wall poles must be set up in a deep foundation ditch, or the house 
will soon tumble over. To erect a house on bare rock is pretty much an impossi- 
bility. \ 

323. Di-kumbi is the sun ; and " one sun " signifies " one day." In Loanda, 
di-kumbi is also used for "hour," or rather "o'clock; " e. g., kumbi dianiit at 
what time of the day? 

324. This is somewhat obscure. Muezit signifies both beard and chin. 

325. Kijandala-midi evidently signifies "who eats a thousand," from ku-jandala 
and midij the following " a hundred only serve to rinse my mouth," confirms 
that meaning, and is itself made intelligible thereby. 

326. Di-tutu is what has been called by African travellers the " prairie," or 
" campine " or " park-land." It is an open country, covered with the tall grass of 
Africa, and strewed with shrubs or trees, in some places denser than in others, 
but never thick enough to touch each other and prevent the growth of grass be* 
tween them. Muxitu is the thick forest, as found along the banks of river::, in 
damp hollows, and on moist slopes. In the Mbaka dialect, mu iangu and mu tutu 
are pretty well synonymous. In Loanda any uninhabited stretch (wilderness) is 
called muxitu. Englishmen in West Africa give the name " bush " to both mu- 
xitu and di-tutu. 

327. Kuaki mu kimenej this expression is not used in Loanda. 

328. Ku-xina^ " to fight, beat," belongs to the inland dialect, and is not known 
in Loanda. The Kisama tribe also use it. 

329J Ku-jika signifies "to press on something," hence "to close "(of door): 
also " to secure " by holding tight in place under some weight In this case, the 
Kipalendes were not killed, but held on the ground by a stone too heavy to be 
rolled off, but not heavy enough to crush the life out of them. Ku~jik-ula is the 
reverse of ku-jika, 

330^ Sudika-mMmbi, it seems, had the gift of second sight. 

331. Ku-bana mueniu, literally "to give life," signifies, when used with an 
object (accusative), " to save," and when used alone, " to be saved, to escape." 
Kiba-mueniu signifies " savior," literally " life-giver." 

332. Ngandu is a coar&e mat, made of papyrus (ma-btt) \ dixisa is a fine mat 
(made of senu grass) which *s spread on the ngandu, so as to make the couch 
softer ; di-bela is the finest mat, made of palm-fibre. 

333. Ku4ela, in the interior, signifies " to wither; " in Loanda, on the contrary, 
" to be green." 

334. This is a case of a half-person ; or rather of one that had the gift of sepa- 
rating the upper part of the body from that below the waist. Compare the half- 
woman in No. I. 

335. Ku-idika is not used in Loanda. Here they say ku-dikiza or ku-dikisa. 

336. It is a funny coincidence that this " narrow path " leads to destination, and 
the "wide one n to " perdition " (the lost estate). Cf. p. 309, Additional Note. 

s8o Folk - Tales of Angola. 

337. jVdungu, in botany, Capsicum sps. It, is very common all over Angola, 
and is freely used by the natives. This is a pun, based on the similarity oindungu 
and ndunge. Compare * sharp " as applied to pepper and as synonym of " shrewd." 

338. The Angolan Pluto also has his Cerberus. 

To " spread for one " (a mat) is the same as giving him a bed. 

339. Ku*kunda (mutu), is to ask one all the polite questions included in native 
greetings or salutations. Ku di kunda> " greeting each other," includes all ques- 
tions and answers on either side. Examples of ku di kunda are found in several 
of these stories, e. g., on pp. 163, 171, 

340. The ngalu\& a small basket, sometimes of quite an elaborate pattern, and 
so tightly woven that it is watertight Therefore it can be used as a dish for 
funft, instead of a platter or dish. 

341. ffama, from Portuguese "cama;" as "hala" from Portuguese "cal," 
lime. The native word for bed is tudidi, in the interior, and madidim Loanda. 
Ma-didi is a plural form of ku-didi. 

342. The driver-ants are celebrated for their voracity and pugnacity. 

343. Niuki, so in the interior* In Loanda it is pronounced niiki. 

344. Kirmbiji is " Big-fish \ " didenda, sing, of ma-hnda, is the largest river*fish 
about Malange; ngandu is the crocodile. This ngandu is pronounced with an- 
other intonation than ngandu, a papyrus-mat. 

345. JH-ietd, from Portuguese " leitao ; " with Ki-mbundu prefix di-. Compare 
Nzud from J0S0, papinid from pavilh2o, but kabitangu from capiOo. 

346. Nzolo, from Portuguese "anzol." For catching crocodiles, the natives 
make a hook of crossed pieces of hard wood, with both ends sharply pointed, and 
on this they stick a suckling pig as bait. On swallowing the pig, the crocodile gets 
the sharp pieces of wood stuck in his throat or stomach, and can then be pulled 
ashore, provided the rope and the men are strong enoughs A single man would 
naturally have to let go or follow the beast into the water, as Sudika-mbambi did. 

347. Ku4udijika is derived from ku-bula, to break, by the following process: 
(1) ku-budila relative form, (2) ku-budika medial relative, (3) ku-budi-ji-ka y iterative 
of medial relative. See Grammar, pp. 91, 98, 99. 

NO. VI. 

Informant. Jelemfa dia Sabatelu. See No. III. 

Dialect. Mbaka, but story of the Mbamba, as the one preceding. 

Comparative. In this story the Ma-kishi appear only as human beings, 
though adepts in Cannibalism. There is no monstrosity about them, nor can they 
perform anything superhuman. Cf. " Journal American Folk-Lore," 1890, p. 319 j 
also 1 891, p. 19. 

As in No. VII. and manuscript stories, the river plays an important part as a 
barrier between the pursuers and the pursued. The dropping of tiny objects to 
delay the pursuer, who can't help picking them up, belongs to the folk-lore of all 

348* Ka-sabu, diminutive of sabu. In the interior, at least at Malange, a mu- 
soso is sometimes called sabu or musabu, which is the word generally used for a 
proverb. In Loanda, the distinction between mu-soso, a fictitious tale, sabu, a 
proverb, and twngonmgo^ a riddle, is observed more strictly s than in the interior. 

349. Kixzbu. From this the Portuguese Creole "cacimbo," with the additional 
signification of dew, is derived by the same process as the Creole "Cacimba" (a 
well) from kixima. That is, ca- for ki-, and ci for xi. 

350. Kitumba, like dirtutu % is not known in Loanda, because there are no 
prairies around the city. 

Notes, 281 

351. Ji-fiuku. House-rats (ma-bengu) are not eaten, but land or field rats are a 
delicacy. A great variety of species is found in the Angolan, as in all the African, 

352. Puku ia dixinji is one of the numerous species of field rats. 

353. The song is not in Ki-mbundu proper, but mixed with words of a Kuangu 
dialect. Kazenze stands for dixinji; mulenga for dibia or iangu; baku y etu 
bakuata for aku* etu akuata; katnue for hamoxu Ku mtdenga is the chorus. 

354. W aku'd is an idiom, instead of aku 1 d, probably in order to avoid a 

355. Ku-ongolola, the same as ku-bongolola. 

356. Ka-di, common in the interior for ka-iadi. 

357. Lelu> to-day, is often used with the signification of " soon." 

358. Ku-tuam-ek-esa, double causative of ku-tuama. See Grammar, p. 97, note 


359. For the music to songs, see Appendix. 

360. The meaning of kelekexi is only guessed. 

361. Ukato is the Sesamum Indicum of science,. It is grown only on the high 
plateaus of the interior. Luku is the Eleusine coracana of botanists. 


Informant. Jelemfa dia Sabatelu. See No. III. 

Dialect. Mbaka ; but the story is Mbamba. 

Comparative. In this story the Ma-kishi are simpty Ba-tua, stripped of all 
fabulous additions. 

The conclusion of the story brings this tale into the class of those which try to 
give the origin or the cause of certain habits or natural phenomena, and which 
may be called the aetiologic class. See Additional Note, p. 309. 

The fact that the salvation of the adults is due to the obstinacy of an innocent 
child reminds one of a corresponding case in Kimona-ngombe's story, No. XV. 

362. That is, *' We won't take you with us." 

363. Elliptic form of speech : "'( I will insist, or persist) until I have gone with 

364. Ku-sungidisa, causative of ku-sungila, which signifies to chat, to visit, and 
entertain each other, in the evening ; a favorite occupation of the leisurely Afri- 
cans. The causative is synonymous with "to entertain," but only after dark. 
In daytime, it is ku-nangesa. 

365. The Ma-kishi's, or Ba-tua's, language having disappeared from the memory 
of the A-mbundu (if they ever knew it), they substitute for it in their tales the 
dialect of some distant, uncivilized tribe with whose language they are somewhat 
acquainted. In this case, the dialect us 2d for the Ma-kishi's is that of the Ma- 
holo> who live between the Luiyi and Kambu rivers, both western affluents of the 
Quango (Kuangu) River. 

Holo: Ngingi* ngingt^ muazeka kadiaf 

Ki-mbundu: Enu, enu, nuazeka kid? 

The final 4 in ngingi is pronounced very long, because the words are sung. 

366. The .first three verses of the little girl's song are obscure. The differing 
words are : 

Holo: nguiii, 'huina, ji-tnue, 

Ki-mbundu : kv kusuka, diniota, ji-hamue. 

367* Ku*tenda is " to consider too small, insignificant, miserable," that is, " to 
despise;" The reflective ku di tenda is "to consider unsatisfactory for one's 
self," that is, " to complain about." 

282 Folk -Tales of Angola. 

368. The use of manii for " in order to " occurs only in the interior, and very 
seldom at that. 

369. Ndoloh is not used in Loanda. 

370. Ku-hkela is not used in Loanda. Here they say ku-xalesa. 

371. Kisiia. In the interior the day is sometimes counted from noon to noon, 
and then midnight is called mid-day. So in this case. 

372. Itf is a contraction of the Mbaka dialect for id ala (mu buabud). The -a 9 
is pronounced very long, as it represents three letters a. 

373. The Ma-kishi would probably refrain from eating "sick meat;" hence 
their concern. 

374. That is, "the other people, the women and children and slaves who are 
not at the «soire*e,' are all gone to bed; " then the party breaks up, and the Ma- 
kishi retire to their huts. 

375. Homba is the hollow between the breasts. As the native women, when 
they wear a long "panno " (cloth), tuck it up about that hollow, they also fold in, 
or tuck in, securely, whatever we would put in our pockets. Hence the verse and 
rhyme in a Loanda song : 

" Madika dia Paulu, 
Bu homba i£ baulu." 

"Madika of Paul, 
Her bosom is a trunk." 

Kn-fuxika is causative in -ika of ku-futa; the transition from ku-futika to kit- 
fuxika is as natural as that of si to ji and si to xi. See Grammar, p. 38* 

376. Holo: Hamene; mbunda; ia makenia. 
Ki-mbundu: Mungu; xiiu; ia mbote, 

377. 3fanianiu, in Loanda tna-kanda. 

378. The subjunctive implies that the Hawk is, of course, not indifferent to the 
prospect of a reward : " Save us, that we may give thee a reward." 

379. Ni tufu for ni tufue. In the inland dialect the preterit I. is sometimes 
used for the futural present or the subjunctive. 

380. A-manii etu for ji-maniijetu, because manii etu is, in this case, considered 
and treated as a proper name. 

381. Abuila. To have the same word for being tired and being disappointed 
may seem strange to some, yet, in Ki-mbundu, it is rational enough. Ku-buila 
(from ku-bua) is originally, "to be exhausted (empty, finished) from some cause 
or other," hence " to be done, to be broken or knocked up, to be unstrung, to be 
down in the mouth, to hang one's head, to give up, to be weak, faint," etc. Try 
to sketch disappointment in a man's picture, are you not going to represent him as 
"tired"? Disappointment is the collapse of mental and moral effort, just as 
fatigue and prostration is that of physical effort. 

382. Ku-mona, to see, signffies here ** to choose." 

383. Mu-dimu, from ku-dima* The word for hoeing, cultivating, which is the 
work " par excellence," is used for any kind of work, job, service. 


Informant. Musoki, a tall young Mu-suku (from U-suku, east of the Kuangu 
River, between the Ma-iaka and the Ma-xinji), who was my fellow passenger from 
Loanda to St. Vincent, Cape Verde Islands, in May, 1890. See "African News" 
of Vineland, N. J., December No., 1890, p. $y6. His home was at Mukunda, four 
days' march from the Kuangu River. He had been sold into slavery, because at 
play he knocked out another boy's eye with a stone. His Portuguese master lived 

Notes. 283 

at Kaxitu, on the Dande (Ndanji) River, north of Loanda, and was then taking 
Musoki as personal servant with him to Lisbon. 

Dialect. That of the Dande, or Ndanji, River, as spoken by the plantation 
hands. All these are " redeemed " slaves, mostly from Novo-Redondo. As soon 
as they arrive on a plantation, they learn the Ki-mbundu of Loanda, spoken by 
the native foremen, and the variety of the local dialect, spoken by the native 
neighbors of the plantation. This Ndanji dialect differs from that of Loanda only 
in a few forms borrowed from the inland dialect and from the Kongo dialects 
spoken in the basin of the Lufuni (Lif une) Riven 

Comparative. In this story the king of the Ma-kishi alcne seems to have 
more than one head. While the Ma-kishi of the preceding stories were agri- 
culturists, these are hunters. About the swallowing of the hero see the notes to 
No. V. and the "Journal American Folk-Lore," 1891, p. 43. Cf., also, ibid., p. 249. 
The deliverance of the captive ladies and the hidden treasures remind one of sim- 
ilar incidents in No. I. and other unpublished tales. 

In the story of the widow's second lot of children, the stratagem by which the 
old woman is killed corresponds to the way Macilo kills Maciloniane in Casalis' 
Sechuana legend of those two brothers. 

In the Brazilian folk-lore of Portuguese origin we find the feats of the two 
couples of children related of only one couple (p. 84 of " Contos populares do 
Brazil "), and in Portuguese folk-lore, the story of the first couple is told in Ad. 
Coelho's " Contos populares," p. 67. 

The Portuguese origin of the second part of our tale is evident, as also the fact 
that the story is made up of two distinct mythographic elements : (1) the hydra, 
(2) the intending murderer dying by his own trick. 

384. Jlfbanza, here, is not the residence of a soba or king, but a small kisanji. 
This is a musical instrument, which is played with both thumbs. Cf. notes 241, 51 1. 

385. The pakasa is the Bubalus Coffer^ the fiercest inhabitant of the African 
forest. The natives shoot him from a stout tree, where the buffalo cannot get at 

386. It is impossible for a man, much more for a pygmy, to carry a buffalo. 
The meat of two buffaloes was brought by the people belonging to one pygmy, 
who either was in charge of or owned the meat-loads. 

387. Aku'enji for aku 1 ^ peculiarity of the Dande dialect, due to the proximity 
of Kongo dialects, in which -enji is the possessive suffix of the third person. 

388. Ku4ena, '* to be able, capable of, equal to, up to, strong, or clever enough 
lor." Here the meaning is : By mere physical force we cannot conquer him ; we 
must sit down and think of a stratagem. 

389. Mixima does not mean that the di-kishi had several hearts (or livers) as he 
had many heads ; but the muxitna^ liver, being the principal of inner organs, 
mixima is used to designate all collectively. 

390. See law of preference in negative suffixes, on pp. 78-81 of Grammar. 

391* Di*fundu t from Portuguese " defunto," i. e., defunct, deceased. It might 
easily be taken for a genuine Ki-mbundu word, derived from ku-funda, to bury. 

NO. IX. 

Informant. One of my Sunday-school boys at Loanda, whose name I do not 

Dialect. Loanda. 

Comparative. In the first part of this story, which is composed of two sepa- 
rate ones, the chief actor is the Kianda, one of the most popular spirits of Loanda 

284 Folk - Tales of Angola. 

mythology. It is the water-genius, and it controls the finny tribe on which the 
native population of Loanda chiefly depend for their sustenance. Hence its pop* 
ularity. The water-locked rocks beyond Fort St. Michel, at Loanda, are conse- 
crated to Kianda and serve as altars, on which the natives still deposit offerings 
of food. The Axi-Luanda (inhabitants of Loanda Island) celebrate a yearly holy- 
day, with elaborate rites, in honor of Kianda. When the locomotive began to 
puff up and down the Loanda railroad, the natives ascribed its origin to Kianda. 
In the Mbaka dialect this water-genius is called Kiximb^ and bears in every 
valley the name of the local riven So in the Lukala valley, offerings are made 
to Lukala, in the Kuanza valley to Kuanza. See No. III. Another name of 
Kianda is Kituta* See note 620. The kalubungu occurs in this as in most 
Loanda stories. 

In the second part, the woman's Di-kishi husband has evidently more than one 
head, as he wants the woman to give him two-headed children. Compare her 
flight to that in No. VI. When the woman ran away, a Di-kishi smelled her 
presence in her refuge. This scenting the presence of a stranger is not uncom- 
mon with any negro when he enters his house, but it is also a universal incident 
in tales of monsters. In Portuguese folk-lore the expression " Aqui cheira-me a 
sangue humano" is frequently met with. 

About speaking skulls, compare No. XLV., and p. 224 of " Contos populares 
do Brazil," by Sylvio Romero. There is also a Loanda variant which I have in 

392. Ku~xidivila, from Portuguese " servir," to serve as, be good for, be fit, 

393. Ji-kolodd, the Portuguese " cordao." 

394. The translation of this verse is guess-work. I could not aver whether the 
myth is meteorologic or not 

395. All these calamities are the consequence of the woman's disobedience to 
her husband. 

NO. X. 

Informant. Jelemfa dia Sabatelu. See No. III. 

Dialect. That of Mbaka. The story also originates from Mbaka, though 
many of the Mbamba have learnt it. 

Comparative. This story does not personify an animal, nor relate any super- 
natural occurrence, and yet it is accounted a musoso y because the case of four sis- 
ters taking the same name and wanting a common husband appears at once to the 
Angolan as an invention. According to rule, Kimanaueze is the father of such 
fictitious heroines. As the tale accounts for the origin of the unwritten native 
law, that a man shall not marry a sister of his wife, not even after the latter^ 
death, it belongs to the class of aetiologic tales. 

The law just mentioned prevails among the Mbaka, Ngola, Akua-Lunda, and 
Ma-kioko. The Ma-songo also generally keep that law ; some, however, in south- 
ern Songo, can marry a sister of a deceased wife. The Bashi-lange alone, of all 
the tribes known to the informant, consider it lawful to marry two sisters. 

Our story gives a detailed view of the wooing and honeymoon of the A-mbundu. 

396. Uoua signifies " silliness, stupidity," from ki-oua, a fool, a simpleton. 

397. Besides their birth-name, the A-mbundu get a name from their parents, 
nicknames from the villagers, and, when they reach a certain age, they give them- 
selves their own, freely chosen, name. 

398. I-tala, pi. of ki-tala. It signifies both height of stature and age. The 
plural is used because each girl had her own age. 

Notes. 285 

399. Inso ia unsangaia is the house in which one or more young folks, either 
male or female, live while unmarried. Children live in their parents' house until 
they are from nine to twelve years old. Then they enter the inzo ia unzangala, 
but continue to eat, and stay over day, with their parents. Where the houses are 
large and have two or more rooms, the mi-nzangala, or young folks, sleep in a 
separate room, the sexes, too, being kept separate. There is far more promiscu- 
ous living, witb its concomitants, in the crowded slums of our great cities than 
in purely native Africa. In the Ngombota (a native quarter) of Loanda, the na- 
tives are terribly crowded, and this is one factor in the moral looseness for which 
that city is notorious among inland tribes. 

400. The /refers to ngoloxi % the evening salutation. 

401. The following sentences are proverbs, puns, and figurative sayings, espe- 
cially used by young folks in courting. 

402. Munangi a nzamba is a verbal noun class I., with its objective genitive. 
The translation is free, because munangi has no equivalent in English. 

403. These two proverbs have a clear meaning : Every phenomenon has a cause 
and a reason ; there is no smoke without fire. Hence, u my visit has a reason and 
au object." Every one of these proverbs is in some way suggestive of marriage. 

404; As the bird-seed is gathered to feed the birds, marriageable girls exist for 
the purpose of marrying. 

405. And so do young wives adbrn a home. This allegory is at the same time 
a good pun ; for mi-lemba reminds of ku-lemba (to woo) axAmi-bangu of ma-banga 

406. In this saying there is a pun based on the similarity of nguvu and ngu- 
vulu. An' a ... , children of .... , signifies subjects of (a chief). In the 
East (of Malanji and Mbaka) is the Kuangu River, which abounds in hippos, kings 
among river-animals. In the West is Loanda, where the Portuguese Governor 
(nguvulu) has his residence, and where the natives are subject to his rule. Ku 
luiji or ku luanda (or Luanda) that is " downwards " is more commonly used 
than ku ngela for " in the West." 

407. To place the dibeka, or mantle, in its right place around the neck and 
bust, one corner of the right side is thrown with the right hand over the left 

408: Makembu, plural of u-keinbu from ku-ketnba. Usaldjendu from salajendu y 
the* Portuguese " sargento." 

409. Both words, hete and kobo are in the Mbamba dialect. Kobo is in the other 
Ki-mbundu dialects kopo, the Portuguese "copo," English "cup." In Mbamba 
the p of Portuguese loan-words becomes invariably b. So "chapeu" becomes 

410. Only used in inland dialects, and less frequently than makesu. 
4ii. He now pops the question. 

412. Ma-koua plural of u-koua (in the sing, usually ukouakitni) as ma-ta is pi. of 
u*ta. See Grammar, p. 5: AS soon as the father of a girl has accepted a young 
man as husband of his daughter, he is his father-in-law; he has done his part. 
The wooing-present, or price of the wife, is the seal and pledge of the contract, 
which it is the bridegroom's and bride's business to carry out. 

413. Di-lembct) from ku-lemba, to give the wooing-gifts to the parents. Di-banga 
seems to be derived in the same way from a verb ku*banga 9 which must have' been 
a variant of the present ku-benga, to bring the bride home. 

414. Mu-kunji is usually a messenger. The word is derived from ku-kunda, to 
announce. See note 235. 

415. The plural form ma-nzu iorji-nzo, is not used in Loanda. 

416. As long as the companions of the bride (the imbalatnbi), who have accom- 

2 86 Folk - Tales of Angola. 

panied her to her new home, are with her, the bridegroom cannot sleep with his 
bride, and during that period her house is called the house of brideship (imo ia 

417. In Loanda a trap is called ki-betu, differently "intoned" from ki-betu, 
thrashing. Both are derived from ku~beta* Ku-beteka is to incline, bend down. 
The rod of the trap, when set, is bent down. 

418. Di-fue^ leaf, is pronounced in Loanda di-fu. The word uisu signifies life, 
newness, freshness, youth, rawness, greenness, inexperience, according to its sub- 
ject Therefore natives, in speaking a European tongue, sometimes talk of " a 
green child " (baby) " green (fresh) meat" Compare the American " greenhorn." 

419. Ambaf d. The imperative with following objective is used in the JVSbaka, 
but not in the Loanda, dialect. In this it should be m* ambate, the object preced- 
ing the verb in the subjunctive, but without personal prefix, or mnbaia namu. 
See Grammar, p. 7$. 

420. Him or her. It should always be remembered that the Bantu languages 
are genderless. 

421. The order given by Nzua* is purposely ambiguous and cannot be written 
or translated satisfactorily: V a di jitule is "let him, or her, not untie it,** while 
k& di jitule is "let him, or her, untie it." In the spoken language, the difference 
consists in the intonation. The boy was probably instructed to pronounce the 
message in such a flat, colorless tone, that the order was neither positive nor nega- 
tive; thus leaving it to each wife's intelligence to find out the right meaning. 
Moreover, there is the pun of ki-oua and uoua. 

422. Mud signifies " in the house, or place, or town, of — -." 

NO. XI. 

Informant. A man at Bom-Jesus, whose name I fail to recollect. 

Dialect. That of the lower Quanza (Kuanza) River. 

Comparative. This story we class as a musoso because the fact of one man 
growing on to the back of another is manifestly fictitious and unnatural. By 
some natives it would be given as a maka, owing to its moralizing nature. Ths 
names and the narrative were invented in order to illustrate the lesson that we 
must mind one another's warnings and words of advice. The origin of the story 
must doubtless be sought in Mbaka. 

423. ICa-mu-ambat& and ICa-mu-ambel& signify literally " they not him carry " 
and "they not him tell ; " or, if it be taken as the passive form, " he who is not 
(to be) carried " and " he who is not (will not be) told or taught" 

424. That is, they fastened their merchandise into the two long sticks, joined in 
front, on which, during a march, the load is stayed erect, while the carrier rests j 
or they fastened their goods in the load-baskets, called mi-hamba. 

425. Kifuangondo is a village on the Bengo {Mbengu) River, north of Loanda, 
and the third station of the Loanda railroad. Here, tradition says, the queen 
Njinga Mbandi lost a copper coin, and that gave the name to the place. 

426. Kijila is a prohibitory precept, enjoined by the Kimbanda, or medicine- 
man, on an individual, a family, or a tribe. 

427. Nsenza is the name of the Bengo River from its head to Kabidij thence 
to the sea, it is called Mbengu, Mud Palma, at the place of Palma. This Palma 
is the name of Jose* Francisco di Palma, who later changed his name to Jose" 
Aleixo de Palma. He was known to me, and his Portuguese friends, simply as 
Aleixo, but kept among the natives the name of Palma. He died in 1890, while I 
was in America writing these stories. He was an active and intelligent mulatto, 

Notes. 287 

son of a Neapolitan soldier of Napoleon I. (See Comparative Note of No. I.) 
Kabidi is the name of the place where he built his house, and other traders joined 
him. Now, Kabidi is also an important station on the Loanda railroad. Ca- 
margo, a mile below Kabidi, is the capital of the "concelho " Icolo e Bengo. 

42$. Mu Jipulungu. Literally "at the paupers'." The place may owe its 
name to some crippled paupers, who at one time subsisted on the alms of passing 

429. Ku-nwka. So in the Mbaka dialect ; it is pronounced ktt-mpha in Loanda. 

430. Diezua, contraction of dia izua* 

431. This is a proverb, usually applied to foolhardy actions, or, as here, to one 
acting on his own hook, against the advice of friends. 


Informant. Jelemfa dia Sabateiu. 

Dialect. That of Mbaka ; but the story is of Mbamba origin. 

Comparative. There is a striking resemblance between this fratricide and 
its revelation by ever reviving animal-witnesses, and that told on page 96 of 
CasauV "fitudes sur !a langue Sechuana." There, too, the younger and more 
fortunate brother is killed by his envious elder brother; but the animal that 
reveals the crime is a little bird, which revives as often as the fratricide kills it 
In a variant published in the Sierra Leone " Weekly News" (1890) a mushroom 
on the victim's grave reveals the fratricide. Everybody will notice some, merely 
accidental, resemblance to the story of Cain and Abel. 

In the Ki-mbundu story of "The Man without a Heart" (unpublished) the 
criminal is sued by his own son from court to court until he finally gets the pun- 
ishment he deserved. I have have not yet found a Ki-mbundu word for remorse, 
but this story shows that the Angolans know its effects, for Mutelembe and 
Ngunga represent the protests of conscience. 

From this story to No. XX. inclusive, personified animals are chief actors in 
combination with men. From No. XX. to XXXVI IL, personified animals are 
the only actors. In No. XXXIX. we again find animals speaking. So, the 
present collection contains altogether twenty-eight animal stories of Bantu origin. 

432. Ngunga is a large bell ; mutelembe y in the inland dialect, is a small bell. 
See note 217. 

433. EU, from ku-ia, preterit 1 1., third person plural {a + tie). 

434. Ku-zanguia is sometimes used without an object, and in that case signifies 
to start, set out. When one lifts his load, it is understood that he is doing so 
only when starting on a march. Africans invariably have a load to carry, when 
they go a certain distance, for they need at least water in a calabash, a bag of 
flour (fuba) or meal (Judinia) for the mush (Junji), an earthen cooking pot, and 
a mat to sleep on. 


Informant. Jelemfa dia Sabateiu. 

Dialect and Origin. Mbaka. 

Comparative. Although this is one of the finest stories we have, there is 
little that connects it with other African or foreign folk-tales known to us. That 
Kimanaueze is the father of the hero is not surprising in a fictitious story. What 
seems remarkable is that the idea of the cobweb serving as a kind of Jacob's 
ladder between the terrestrials and the celestials should be common to the Bantu 

288 Folk -Tales of Angola. 

of Angola and to the Hausas of the Sudan. In Dr. J. F. Schon's " Magana 
Hausa," London, S. P. C. K., 1885, we find a whole story (No. LXIV.) about the 
spider and cobweb going to a wedding feast in the sky. 

The frog, who plays such a prominent part in this story, appears again in No. 
XXXVIII. In the " Contos populares do Brazil," Frog goes to a feast in heaven 
by hiding himself in Urubii's banjo, just as our frog went up in a jug. But on 
the way back to the earth, the bird turns his banjo upside down and Frog falls 
from a terrific height. 

About marriage rites, compare No. X., and about divining practices, see the 
Ma-klshi in No. I. 

435. Mbdmbi is the Cephalophus Bnrchelii. The soko is larger than the 
mbdmbi and has larger horns. Kikuambi may be the Fiscus CapelliQ). Holo- 
koko is the Helotarsus ecaudatus. 

436. Na vein is the title of the son of a soba, used in addressing him. Velu is 
the native pronunciation of the Portuguese " velho," old man ; but this cannot be 
its meaning in the present case. " Lord old man " would not be a flattering title 
for a young prince. 

437. Compare uandanda with uanda % net. 

438. Ka-bube and Ka-zundu, personal names derived from di-bube and di-zundu y 
by prefix Ka-. See Grammar, pp. 127, 128. 

439. Saku ia kitadu A saku is thirty " milreis fortes," which is nearly thirty- 
three American dollars. In the present case, it looks as though the saku was paid 
in paper, and not in copper ; for a. saku of copper is exactly one man's load, and 
for the water-girl not to notice such an addition to the weight of her jug would be 
a big "poetical license." 

440. Thus, also, siseme ia ngombe, a young cow, or bull. 

•441. Literally kita is a bundle; pronounced khita by some natives of the inte- 
rior. It consists of bones, claws, rags, hairs, etc., which the diviner shakes in his 
divining basket before throwing them on the ground. From the positions taken 
by the different objects, he reads, or divines, what the visitors want to know. 

442. That is, the people who consult the diviner. 

443. lAanga, with which compare ng-anga, wizard, signifies witchcraft, both 
criminal and non-criminal. Here, as the young man is simply supposed to have 
secured the aid of spirits in order to obtain his qlue, and not to destroy wantonly, 
or unjustly, his uanga is not of the sort that would stamp him a muloji (wizard). 

444. Akua-muzambu is the same as akua-kusambula. Mu-zambu is the noun, 
divination; ku-zambula is the verb, to divine, or, better, to consult the oracle. 
Mu-zamb-u and ku-zamb-ula seem to have the same radical as N-zamb-i t the 
name of God. Ngombo is the spirit who reveals the unknown through the medium 
of his servant, the mukua-Ngombo. 

445. Asakana is in the plural because the logical subject is plural, namely, he 
and she. 


Informant. Jelemfa dia Sabatelu. See No. III. 

Dialect. Mbaka. The story, however, belongs to the Songo tribe, and the 
song is in the Songo dialect. 

Comparative. Concerning bridal customs, compare Nos. X. and XV. Birds 
revealing something, warning from a danger, or inciting to do something by 
worded song, are of frequent occurrence in universal folk-lore. 

446. Mbombo is the manioc, or cassava-root, after it has been fermented and 
dried. In this state of mbombo the manioc is brittle, and can therefore easily be 
pounded into fuba, i. e., flour. 

Notes* 289 

447. The song is in the Songo dialect. The j of the Mbaka and Loanda dia- 
lects is pronounced #. Sporadically, this pronunciation occurs also among the 
Mbaka people. Thus also Xikundu of the Mbaka and Loanda dialects becomes 
Sikundu, that is xi becomes su This phonologic preference for ss and s is due 
to the proximity of the Urmbundu cluster. Sikundu is probably the> Portuguese 
"segundo," Le., the second. Mund signifies "that one there," or "the other." 
Here it indicates "the last." Kuedi, the same as huedL Zed is the old Ki- 
mbundu jai, jaie, contraction of jia eie. Hulakana is the same as bulakana. 
The b of other. Kwnbundu -dialects* often becomes k in Mbamba and its cognates. 
The acute accents show where the rhythmic accents fall. 

448, Ku-bakela (tmUu) jmguzu is not used in Loanda. Here, people say ku- 
banga J$ufa r ih<i, latter word being the Portuguese " bulha," with the plural prefix 
of class IX, /*-. 


Informant. Jelemfa dia Sabatelu. 

Dialect. Mbaka. The story, too, comes from Ambaca. 

Comparative. Metamorphoses of lions into human beings, and vice versa* are 
frequently met with in African folk-lore. As showing a faint resemblance with 
this story we mention the Hottentot story, No. XXIV., of "Reynard the Fox in 
South Africa," by Dr. Bleek,, and the Herero story, No. I L, in Brincker's " Wor- 
terbuch des Otji-Herero." Here, two lions, transformed into young men, succeed 
in marrying two girls. 

As to the father being saved by the obstinacy of hi* child, compare it with a 
similar case in No. VII. , 

The killing of an enemy in the burning hut corresponds to similar acts in our 
No. VII. and the two above-mentioned Hottentot and Herero stories. 

449. Mm ngongo is generally understood to mean, not the objective world or 
universe, but the subjective world, that is, the part of the world concerned in the 
facts told, or in the mental horizon. 

450. The distance of a camp signifies one day's march, because the grass-huts 
of the camps are put up for the night after each day's march. 

451., Kimona-ngombe kia Net Mbua, literally, the " owner of cattle of Mr* Dog." 
Ktmona-ngombe is derived from ku-mona and ngombe^ according to section four 
of my Grammar, p. 12. 

452. "Let us sleep with me" is a peculiar idiom, which may be analyzed this 
way: Let us (both) sleep, (thou) with me (i. e., together). " Let us do," instead of 
"do thou," is a polite, coaxing way of giving an order. 

453. This leniency of the parents, and the crying of the child until it gains its 
point, is characteristically African. 

454. That is, on the mat in front of the bride's bed. 

455. That is, " I won't listen to you any more." 

456. Ku-fidisa^ to disturb, spoil, hinder, impede ; from ku-fua^ to die, to cease, 
stop. Relative : ku-fila* to cease, or stop, because of, for the sake of ; causative 
relative : ku-Jidisa, to cause to stop on account of ; which gives the meaning of 
to hinder, to impede, to disturb, spoil. 

457. A proverb, the parallel of which is " uenji kidi? trade is truth. That is, 
it is not something imaginary, Utopian, or deceptive, but something real, sub* 
stantial, profitable. Children are not a cross, but a blessing. Compare the oft- 
repeated expression, "The woman was going to cause the death or ruia of the 
man," with the universal pagan idea of the inferiority, moral as well as physical, 
of woman, and with the Bible account of the fall. Compare also the oft-recurring 
fact of a child saving adults, with the universal conception of infantile innocence 
and intuition, and Christ's utterances about children. 

290 Folk -Tales of Angola. 


Informant. Jelemfa dia Sabatelu, 

Dialect and Origin, Mbaka. 

Comparative. This story belongs to the class of judicial sentences. See 
Nos. XXVI., XLII., XLI1I., XHV. By the conclusion, it also belongs to 
those stories which account for some habit. The one here accounted for is the 
turtle-dove's cooing. 

458. Mu4ombe from ku-lomba, i. e., to get dark, black, signifies always a black 
bird, but never the species called blackbird in Europe or America. Even in An- 
gola proper, the bird called mu4ombe near Dondo and the coast is not the bird 
known by that name at Malange. Here it seems to be a kind of crow, while 
near the coast it is a smaller bird of beautiful black plumage with bluish metallic 
glimmer. In Loanda the large white and black crow is called ki-lombe-lombe from 
the same root ku-iomba. The plural of ftfulombe is formed by prefixing a- to the 
singular, because mulombe is here treated as a proper name. See Grammar, p. 
128, note 185* The appendage a Nganzu, like a Tumba to Musu-di, and a Lubi 
la Suku to mutUy etc., serves to make the collective name of the species look more 
like a proper name. 

459. Tu xile-u would be in Loanda tu xile-mu. In the Mbaka dialect the suf- 
fixed objective pronoun of classes IV., V., VI., VII., VIII. plural is not *mu, aa 
in Loanda, but -u. Here the m- was dropped by the same process as in the con* 
jord a, for Loanda ma of the same classes. 

460. Ku-dia jingoma, literally " to eat the drums," for "to empty the hives," 
is an idiom. Ku-dia may signify any kind of undoing, therefore also undoing 
the work of the bees in the hives, by taking out the sweet treasure. The hives 
are called drums because they have exactly the shape and size of a big tom-tom ; 
only instead of the solid wood of a tree they are made of the bark alone. Another 
name for hive is ki-au, used more especially in the central region of Ki-mbundu, 
around Dondo. 

461. This is a proverb : "Before you can hammer the baobab-fibre, you must 
peel the baobab ; " meaning that one thing depends on the previous execution of 
another. The baobab-fibre is used by the natives for many purposes and exported 
to Europe for the manufacture of paper, ropes, and sail-canvas. The fibre is 
obtained from the inner bark of the baobab-tree, whose outer bark must be peeled 
off before one can get at the inner bark. This inner bark is pounded or hammered 
with a club in order to separate the fibre from the non-fibrous parts. 

462. Kolo is probably the Portuguese " cor," color. It is also used to signify 
"quality, species, kind." The plural isji-kolo, 

463. Moso, the same as muoso, is used by the Mbaka like mutu uoso, everybody, 
whoever, any one, and the impersonal "one." 

464. Ktfrkoleloi to accuse and have summoned, from ku-kola, to call, is the 
genuine Ki-mbundu word for the popular loan-word ku-xitala, from the Portu- 
guese "citar." 

465. M ku bata dt'S, elliptic for M uaV $ ku bata du. The elision of the word 
for going leaves the impression of quick arrival. 

466. Mu-kulu is a word that appears as the name of God in several South- 
African languages. It is no longer used in Ki-mbundu except in idioms, like the 
present, which is at the same time a title. The word is derived from ku-kula, to 
grow in stature or age, hence " the great one, the old one, the chief." 

467. Ku-bonza is a synonym of ku-buiza and £u-vzza, to be difficult, but it is 
used only inland. 

468. That is, muhngay of which u is the objective pronoun. 

Notes. 291 

469. Ku di tuktduta, to manifest one's self ; hence, to confess. Another verb 
for to confess is ku-lokola, literally to spit out. 


Informant. Jelemfa dia Sabatelu. 

Dialect and Origin. Mbaka. 

Comparative. As this story gives a reason why the Turtle, or Terrapin, is so 
fond of water, it belongs to the aetioiogic stories. 

As a Turtle-story it should be compared with No. XXXVII. 

The fact of the Turtle being saved by what was intended to kill it has a parallel 
in the story of the "Turtle and the Baboons" on the last page of Torrend's 
" Xosa-Kafir Grammar," Grahamstown, 1886. There, the baboons are the enemies 
of the turtle ; here, its enemies are men. In a story of Bahaman Negroes, pub- 
lished on p. 51 of the "Journal of American Folk-Lore," 1891, B' Rabbit (the Hare 
of our collection) escapes from his enemies by the same trick as our Turtle. 

470. Jifbaxi a Koka, from ku-koka, to drag ; because of the dragging motion pi 
the turtle on land. The hatchet is also of Koka because ku-koka also signifies 
" to fell (a tree)," and the felling is done with the hatchet. Hence the connection 
and friendship of Turtle and Hatchet. Farther on, the stone is said to be a rela- 
tive of the Turtle, because its shell is as hard as a stone. Finally, the fire cannot 
hurt it because of the stony nature of its shell. 

The turtle found on the plateau of Malanji (Malange) is a small turtle which 
lives as much, or more, on the dry land of the prairie as in the water. In the 
Kuanza River lives a large species, which is rarely found on dry land. 

471. The expression "to say or speak by mouth " seems strange to us; but in 
Ki-mbundu it is all right, as sometimes — for instance in the preceding phrase 
ngandala kufua — the verb " to say " is used for " to think," that is, to say to 
one's self, to speak in one's heart, ku-zuela ku muxima. 


Informant. Jelemfa dia Sabatelu. 

Dialect and Origin. Mbaka. 

Comparative. This story and the two following illustrate the Mbaka hunter's 
moral as well as physical life. Di-nianga or nianga is, in the interior, a hunter. 
On the coast, a hunter is called niu-kongo. Nianga dia Ngettga or Mukongo a 
Tumba are, like Musudi a Tumba (No. XVI.) collective names of professions or 
crafts, modified into proper names. 

The animal hero, here, is the Leopard, whose character is always represented, not 
only in these stories, but it seems throughout African folk-lore, as made up of 
brutal force, wickedness, and mental shortsightedness. 

Compare the Ki-mbundu proverb on ingratitude : " Sasa 'ngo, rCa ku tololc o 
xingu" i. e., feed and clothe a leopard (and) he will break thy neck. 

The Hare is, as usual, characterized by "smartness." 

472. A proverb. The argument is this : Would a man rescue another from the 
knife of the assassin or from the deep waters, and refuse him the needful piece of 
bread or drink of water to sustain that life just saved at great risk ? Surely not ; 
the greater includes the smaller. 

473. The hare is settling the question as umpire, though the story does not 
.state that any one of the parties requested him to act in that capacity. 

292 Folk -Tabs of Angola. 


Informant. Jelemfa dia Sabatelu. 

Dialect. Mbaka. 

Comparative. Nos. XVI I L, XIX., and XX. are hunter-stories, as also No. 
XXXIX. From our standpoint, the latter ought to come in here ; but, in obedi- 
ence to the informant's positive assertion, it is classed with the anecdotes of actual 
facts, the maka. 

474* Already during pregnancy the spirits are consulted in order to know to 
which of them the family is indebted for the expected addition. When the child 
is born, it is kept in the house until the parents know what ji-haku, the first solid 
food of a child in addition to the mother's milk, are to be given it, and until the 
ji-haku are procured. It is a joyful day for the family, when the baby is formally 
taken out of the dark hut and introduced to God's great world, 

475. Mudia-tnb&tnbi is, according to Count de Ficalho, the coffee-tree, Coffba 

476; Ki-sumbula and nzambi are synonyms ; both signify a stick, which the 
hunter puts up in the fork of a tree in order to be seated less uncomfortably while 
watching for the game. 

NO. XX, 

Informant, jelemfa dia Sabatelu. 
Dialect and Origin. Mbaka. 


Informant. The same as for No. II. Of version B, Jelemfa dia Sabatelu. 

Dialect. Lower Quanza. See No. II. Of version B, Mbaka. 

Comparative. If the preceding stories have already destroyed the theory, as 
vouchsafed by Dr. Bleek, that the Bantu folk-lore evinces an inferior flight of im- 
agination to that of the sex-denoting Hottentot languages, the following fables 
will put an end to the still prevailing opinion that the Bantu have no fables or 
animal stories* 

Of our present slory we give two versions, one from the coast-belt, on the lower 
Kuanza River, the other from the interior, in the districts of Ambaca (Mbaka) and 
Malange (Malanji). They complete each other, and agree to a remarkable extent 
with a third version which is current among the negroes of Brazil. This version 
can be seen in the " Contos populares do Brazil," by Sylvio Romero, p. 151. The 
story consists really of two tales ; that of Antelope's foolishness and death and 
that of Monkey's revenge on the criminal Leopard. 

My peculiar informant of Bom-Jesus had given me only the first part of the 
story, assuring me that it was the whole story, and I believed him. But weeks 
after, at Loanda, on perusing the above " Contos populares," I found out my mis- 
take. So, when I made a second stay at Bom-Jesus, I asked for the lacking part. 
At first " Piolho " feigned to know nothing about it ; but when he saw he could 
not evade the truth, his surprise and amusement at being found out were great. 
Then he willingly told the second part of the story. 

As usual, the Leopard is here characterized by cruelty and meanness, the Ante- 
lope by simplicity or foolishness, and the Monkey by shrewdness. 

The forcing an enemy to eat the flesh of his own people, either knowingly or 
unconsciously, is the ne plus ultra of revenge for an African. It occurs pretty 

Notes. 293 

frequently in Bantu folk-lore. So on p. 86 of Torrend's Kafir Grammar, the tor- 
toise makes the baboon eat the flesh of a brother baboon ; in our No* XXIV* 
the young Goat gets the old Leopard couple to eat t'ueir own son. 

477. Nddy abbreviation of ndoko, come ! let us go ! please. 

478. Uloua, the same as ukoua, parent-in-law. The first form is rarely used. 

479. Ngalafd is the Portuguese "garrafao," demijohn; ngalafa is the Portu- 
guese "garrafa," bottle. 

480. Uaknde is a contraction and adaptation of the Portuguese u aguardente ; " 
an intermediate form is ngualende* The rum used in Angola is of two sorts (1) the 
indigenous, made of sugar-cane, (2) the imported, made of the vilest alcohol mixed 
with unfiltered river-water. 

481. O u mu sanga often sounds like mu sanga, because «, vowel, can be 
dropped after 0. 

482. " Our wife," for " my wife," is a polite form. 

483. The driver-ants travel generally in such a compact column that, at some 
distance, they do not look quite unlike a greasy black belt, such as the natives 
wear. Therefore the old rogue succeeds in making the Antelope believe that the 
black string across the path might indeed do for a belt. The drivers are the 
fiercest of ants. Whenever they are disturbed in their march, they immediately 
attack and furiously bite the disturber. 

484. Mako for maku is a dialectic variation. The final -u may be pronounced 
like -0 in most dialects, whenever the words are pronounced slowly and distinctly. 
In most Bantu languages it is pronounced and written -0. 

485. Kala for kikala (it shall be) is a peculiarity of the informant's diction. 

486. Madianga the same as mateUlz, sing, lu-tetele. So in the interior; in 
Loanda the singular is di-tetele. 

487. From ku-ztza, to be green, unripe, more especially of corn. The enclitic 
~kc or -ki seems to be a contraction of kid; hence ntalu-zeza-ke may be malu-zeza 

488. Di-xita is a heap of any kind of refuse, rubbish ; as the sweepings of the 
house, or the weeds in a field. These refuse heaps are often used by those who 
have no regular fire-place and fuel at hand, for roasting corn, peanuts, fish, etc. 

489. " To leave (unnoticed)," signifies here, " to neglect, to despise." 

490. Mu-hetu is the contracted form of the archaic mu-haitu (a -f- / = e\ and 
does not differ in meaning from mu-hatiu 

491. Kulete is the Portuguese " collete " waistcoat ; jungu, the Port. 4t junco," 
bamboo-cane; kalasd, the Portuguese "calc^o," xttola> the Port, "ceroula;" mM« 
nza % the Portuguese "camiza," kazaku, the Port. " casaco." 

492. Boas-tadi or buajitadi is the Portuguese " boas tardes." 
493* K** f° r ** * s a peculiarity of the informant's dialect. 

494. Vioko is an insulting term. 

495. In spite of the social inferiority of women, it is no uncommon thing for 
them to thrash men. 

496. About the law of personal preference or precedence, see Grammar, pp. 

497. Here the women quote textually their conversation with Leopard. 

498. Endo for ondo or ando is a peculiarity of the informant's dialect. 

499. Tuandele, contraction of tuandalele* 

500. That is, on being welcomed, he (the Leopard) gave the two bottles that were 

501. This o is a contraction of a ku. 

502. This enclitic -ki seems to stand, like -ke % for a somewhat pleonastic kid. 

503. Oilumba is here contracted into elumba. This is the usual form in the 
Kisama dialect. 

294 Folk -Tales of Angola. 

504. This is the Leopard speaking. Manii, la is peculiar to the informant for 
manii) se. 

505. That is, they pack into his mu-hamba (carrying-basket). 

506. Ku-amba, with an accusation, often signifies " to speak badly." Ua ng 1 
ambe is " he scolded, or slandered, me," while ua ng 9 ambela signifies " he told 
me." The mother uses this expression, because among Africans, even more than 
among civilized people, it is not polite to mention the possibility or probability of 
the death of a friend or any one present. The world over, men do not like to be 
reminded of the inevitable " king of terrors." 

507. The word tambi includes : (1) the funeral; (2) the dances with eating and 
drinking, which follow it ; (3) the waitings which are repeated on stated days and 
hours ; (4) the people who gather for the occasion. 

508. lenene, for tonene, is archaic and peculiar to the informant. 

509. To say ku-sisa for the usual ku-xisa is not incorrect, but unusual, 

510. Maiinga. Unusual for maniinga. A further contraction gives menga. 

511. The mbanza is a small kisanji, and therefore quite unlike a banjo; but 
the word banjo is probably derived from mbanza^ which foreigners pronounce 
banza, or banja. As to the change of -a to -o f compare the English Loando for 
Loanda, and Sambo for Samba, and the usual confusion of -a and -o among Eng- 
lishmen speaking a Romanic language. 

512. Probably he was humming a tune with these two extemporized verses : 

Uatobesele ugana Nguhmgu ; 
Manii Kahima u$ a mu tabes *d ? 


513. Aba-diu is used when addressing one person, abenu-diu when addressing 
several. These words are said by the person proposing to tell a jnusoso. If the 
bystanders agree to hear it, they say dize* It is not clear to what noun the prefix 
di- refers. 

514. Kalunga is a yet mysterious word which frequently recurs in the Bantu 
languages. In Ki-mbundu it has several meanings : (1) Death ; (2) Ku f alunga f 
Hades ; (3) Mu 'alunga, the Ocean ; (4) Sir ; in this sense it is only used by the 
I-mbangala and some of their neighbors; in Loanda never; (5) sometimes an 
exclamation of wonder, amazement. 

515. Baiita, the Portuguese "baeta," a coarse woollen cloth. 

516. Kisonde is here used as a collective noun, and its singular pronoun has to 
be translated in English by the plural. 

517. The njilu is the Solatium edule, Schum. et Thonn. This word, as well as 
the plant, is of American origin. It is the Brazilian " gild." 

518. That is, "because (we are) in the field," etc. 

519. Ngolamata is the same as the mbanza. See note 511. 

520. Mahaxi is only used in the interior, alongside with maniinga^ which alone 
is current in Loanda. 

521. This ku-xila is not used in the Loanda dialect. Ku-xila, to be dark, or 
dirty, is differently intoned and is ussd in Loanda as well as in the interior. 

522. When we would most likely say, " He who went with you," the A-mbundu 
prefer to say, " He with whom you went." The reason is this : the Bantu par- 
ticle ni or na, which we have to translate by " with " or " and," still retains the 
original idea of possession. Therefore the greater goes " with " the smaller, be- 
cause it is more likely to possess it, than vice versa. In European languages we 
S&y that the smaller goes "with" the greater, because we think the smaller 

Notes, 295 

belongs to, is possessed by, the greater, rather than the reverse. The Bantu take 
the active, subjective, we the passive, objective, aspect of the same relation. 

523. Ku-senga is "to lift or raise in order to throw or strike," therefore ku- 
zenga poko, to brandish a knife or sword. 

524. Leopard had not yet brought home (ku-benga) his bride. He was son-in- 
law only in so far as he had been accepted by the girl and the parents (engaged). 
Therefore the girl could now be given to Monkey who, of course, would have to 
complete the presents before taking the girl home. See note 412. 

525. Ngitna, a word rarely used. The usual word for mush-stick, and the only 
one used in Loanda, is nguiku. 


Informant. The same as for No. II. 

Dialect. That of the lower Quanza River. 

Comparative. By its conclusion, accounting for the Monkey's and the Hare's 
habits, and for the Leopard's spots, this story belongs to the aetiologic tales. 

The characters of the Leopard and the Monkey in this story are in harmony 
with those given them in the preceding two. The Hare has the swiftness and 
shrewdness of the Monkey ; but he never is reckless, as the Monkey sometimes 
appears to be. 

The Leopard's hole-traps at the foot of the tree remind one of the sharp sticks 
under the tree, with which the Tortoise caught the Baboon, in the Kafir story 
published by Torrend in his Grammar, p. 85. 

The two dolls covered with gum, on which the Hare and the Monkey get 
stuck, are evidently the prototypes of the tar-babies, so popular among'the negroes 
of the Southern States. See "Journal of American Folk-Lore," 1889, p. 79; 1893, 
p. 48 ; also 1888, p. 148. The tar-baby is also known in Brazilian folk-lore, where 
he is called " o moleque de cera " (the wax-slave), and in the Portuguese tales* 
See " Contos populares do Brazil," p. 228. 

The last incident, when the Monkey and the Hare, having gone to a safe dis- 
tance, reveal the secret of their mischief to their dupes, occurs also in the preced- 
ing story, in No. XXIV., and in the Kafir tale of the Tortoise and the Baboons 
already referred to. 

With the origin of the Leopard's spots, we may compare the Hausa tale of how 
the hyena got hers ("Magana Hausa," p. 92), also how the Fox marked the Lion, 
and thereby killed him (Ibid., p. 165). Just as in our story the Hare and the 
Monkey, so in the latter Hausa story the Fox "for this reason (marking and kill- 
ing the Lion) does not lie down anywhere except under the trunk of a tree, and he 
has not two shadows." 

526. Mu-zondo. Probably the Pseudospondias mkrocarpa % Engler, or Spondias 
microcarpa> Rich. 

527. The A-mbundu often kill a chicken by forcing it head first into a pot of 
boiling water and keeping it there for some time. Thus all the blood is saved, 
and the feathers come off more easily. 

528. Anda, abbreviation of andala, the auxiliary verb for the formation of the 
compound future tense. 

529. There were two dishes for washing the hands, one for each girl. 

530. Ku-zala is to spread (unroll) a mat ; ku-zal-ela (relative) to spread it for 
somebody; ku-zal-ula (reversive) to unspread (roll up) the mat, and to remove 
what may be on it. 

531. One of the essential parts of most native dances in Angola is the smack- 
ing of stomachs (ku-belela). Two dancers, leaving the circle, advance. trippingly 

296 Folk ~Tales of Angola. 

toward each other, and, when near enough, simultaneously thrust forward their 
stomachs so that they touch ; then they gracefully turn round with a bow, seek 
another party in the ring, and repeat the smack. Those just smacked jump into 
the circle, smack each other, and choose their successors in the ring ; and so it 
goes on and on. 

532. The ki-takala is a sack generally made of the split leaves of the di-teba 
palm (a kind of Hyphaene). It is triangular in shape, and suspended by a cord 
from one shoulder. The ki-takala is most popular among the people south of the 
lower Quanza, the Kisama and Ba-sumbe tribes. 

533. Mbaulu, from Portuguese " bahti ; n kadifele f from Portuguese " atferes; " 
bon4) as in Portuguese, from the French " bonnet ; " kabitangu, from Portuguese 
" capitaV 

534. Ku-sozolola, transitive, from ku~zoza, to slacken, intransitive. 

335. Hanta ia mukuta. A mukuta (in colonial Portuguese ** macuta ") is worth 
about three cents ; 100 macutas are equal to #3.20. 

356. The carriers run away, instead of eagerly responding to the call as usual, 
because they fear, from past experiences, that they will not be paid for " official 
services*" When a native chief or a Portuguese " chefe '? has lost his prestige, it 
is often hard for him to find anybody when he needs official (unpaid) servants. 

537. " Like this.'* The height is shown by the narrator with his hand. When 
the stature of human beings is to be shown, the hand is held perpendicular ; for 
other things, it is held horizontal. 

538. "No one shall — he shall " is the Ki-mbundu way of saying " No one but 
he shall; he alone shall." 

539. The ii often repeated is because they shout from a great distance, and 
pause between the words, so as to give each one time to reach the ears of those 
addressed without being interfered with by the echo. 

540. Tualengele etu. Speaking in the usual way, these two words are pro- 
nounced as tualengelietu ; speaking rapidly, most coast-people pronounce tualenge- 
dietu. Unaccented e before a vowel becomes semi-vowel /-/ and / before i be- 
comes a\ 


Informant. Jelemfa dia Sabatelu. 

Dialect and Origin. Mbaka. 

Comparative. The Leopard's ruse to obtain food suggests that of the Old 
Lion, for the same purpose, in one of the best known fables of iEsop. The sing- 
ing with drum accompaniment in order to induce one to approach, or to warn him 
before a danger, is also found in a Hausa tale on p. 87 of " Magana Hausa." 
See, in No. XXL, the Monkey's song in the early morning, and the other songs in 
this collection. 

It is very common among African negroes to express in song, with or without 
instrumental accompaniment, that which they would not dare to say in plain 
words. So the slaves on the plantation sing satires against their task-masters ; 
the carriers on the path, against the head of an expedition ; any ill-used inferior, 
against his superior. Beginning with very vague allusions, these satirical produc- 
tions may often, if not checked in time, degenerate into fierce denunciations and 
insolent curses. 

541. Soko is an antelope larger than the mb&mbi, of the same color, but with 
longer hair, and with large horns bent backwards. 

Notes. 297 


Informant. Jelemfa dia Sabatelu. 

Dialect and Origin. Mbaka. 

Comparative, like Nos. XXIX., XXX., XXXI., XXXIV., this story begins 
by stating that the Young Leopard and the Young *^oat were friends. Faithful 
to his character, the Leopard is wicked and crafty, but not so shrewd as the Young 

The conclusion of the piece, saying that the hatred of the leopards for the goats 
originated with the fact therein recorded, classes this story with the aetiologic 

The deceit by which some are caused to eat their kinsman's flesh has already 
been noticed in No. XXI. 

542. Ngubu is a large piece of cloth, able to cover the whole body at night. 
The word is also used for the mantle, tanga> or dibeka. The A-mbundu tribes have 
no longer any shields ; but some traders of Malange have seen shields in the far 
interior, and they call them ilso ji-ngubu. 

543. That is " a whining voice." 


Informant. Jelemfa dia Sabatelu. 
Dialect and Origin. Mbaka. 

544. Kaxikia and kaxika are both admissible. The apparent irregularity of 
the genitive kia is probably due to the dropping of an obsolete prefix ki- (ki-kaxi; 
dim. ka-kaxi, with which compare kaxaxi of the Loanda dialect). 

545. In the interior ku-zala is sometimes used as a parallel form of ku-izala. 


Informant. Francisco P. dos Santos Vandunem, of Loanda, a poor and 
blind, but very gentlemanly old man. The Vandunem family belongs to the native 
aristocracy of Loanda. Two brothers of the informant have repeatedly been, in 
the Portuguese service, " chefes " of important districts. The Vandunems say, and 
others confirm it, that they are descended from a royal line of the Akua-Luangu 
or A-bidi tribe. See note 1 13. The great-grandfather of the present old Vandu- 
nems came to Loanda in order to submit to the Governor's decision a question 
about the succession to the chiefship of his tribe. He was so pleased with the 
city that he settled there. Judging from the intelligence for which the Vandu- 
nems are renowned, that ancestor must have been a remarkable man. The inform- 
ant, though totally blind, goes now and then on a trading tour to Kisama, where 
he buys .cattle, or honey, and victuals which he sells in Loanda. 

At Malange, I met a blind Ambaca (Mbaka) man of great energy and sagacity 
who is always on the move, leading extensive trading expeditions through the far 
interior of the Kassai basin. These blind traders judge of the quality of the goods 
they buy by feeling therewith their fingers and also by the information they receive 
from trusted servants. 

Dialect. That of Loanda, as spoken by the old men. 

Comparative. This story belongs to the judicial class, which constitutes the 
main part of the maka or fact-stories. But for the fact that the animals are made 
to speak, this piece should be classed with the latter and not with the fictitious 

298 Folk -Tales of Angola. 

The regular mythologic order of animal creation is here strictly observed : the 
Elephant is the king ; the Deer is the messenger ; the Antelope is, as usual, the 
simpleton; the I*eopard"lS M3 and crafty, though finally outwitted by such a 
punjr Jhiag as the Philantomba, to whom " nature made up in wits and beauty 
wHat she denied in stature." 

Indirectly, this fable no doubt refers to the custom prevailing in all Bantu 
Africa, by which heredity and kinship are transmitted through the females and 
not, as in Europe, through the males. 

The whole plot of this story is found in No. XL VII. of Ad. Coelho's ** Contos 
populares." In this Portuguese story, the part of the Antelope is played by a trav- 
eller, who bought six boiled eggs at an inn and came to pay for them many years 
later ; the Leopard's part, by the hostess, who wanted the poor mau to pay for all 
the eggs and chickens that might meantime have been laid and hatched from 
those six eggs he had eaten ; the Philantomba's part, by the devil, who appeared 
in the court and declared to the judge that his (devil's) blackness was due to his 
roasting chestnuts in order to plant them in his orchard. When the irascible 
hostess called him a liar, he retorted that chickens could no more come from boiled 
eggs than chestnut-trees from roasted chestnuts. 

546. Pctfanga is the Hippotragus equinusj pakasa is the Bubalus Coffer; sefu 
is the largest of Angolan antelopes; it is fully the size of a bull; kisebeh and 
semvu are two species of antelopes found in the Kisama region. 


Informant. Jelemia dia Sabatelu. See No. III. 

Dialect and Origin. Mbaka. 

Comparative. As it is calculated to give the origin of the enmity between 
the Lion and the Wolf, this story pertains to the aetiologic class. 

As to the description of man by the wolf, it is interesting to compare it with 
the Hottentot story No. XXIII. of Bleek's "Reynard the Fox," where a lioness 
warns her presumptuous son to " Beware of him whose head is in a line with his 
shoulders and breasts, who has pinching weapons, who keeps white dogs, and 
who goes about wearing the tuft of a tiger's tail." 

547. Nzamba Ngola *Aniinii is the Elephant's proper name. Ngola Kaniinii 
is a native chief in the concelho of Ambaca (Mbaka), residing a few miles from 
the Portuguese fort. The first Ngola Kaniinii was a son of Ngola Kiluanii, 
fourth king of Ngola or Ndongo, by his wife Kaniinii ka Kiluanji. When the 
Portuguese first conquered the region of Ambaca, the Ngola Kaniinii of that time 
favored them, and was recognized by them as owner of the land, with the excep- 
tion of a circuit around their fort. This was built, the first time, in 1614. It was 
the duty of the chief Ngola Kaniinii to serve the church, as a " soba da igreja," 
which he faithfully did. Kisonde kia malemba, a mu salela ngongo, which it is 
difficult to interpret, is the " laudatory " name of the Red-ant. The ant is here 
considered by the Lion to be his equal, because it is the only animal that can 
kill the elephant 


Informant. Joao Borges Cezar. See No* IV. 
Dialect and Origin. Loanda. 

Comparative. In the Sierra Leone "Weekly News" of October 11, 1890, 
was published a " Nancy story," which is a variant of the present. The Tortoise 

Notes. 299 

stands for the Frog, the Deer for the Elephant, and the King for the women acting 
as judges of the dispute. See " Journal of American Folk-Lore, " 1891, p. 180. 

The population of Sierra Leone is a mixture of natives of the adjacent tribes, 
Temnes, Sosos, Mandingos, Bulloms, of freed slaves from most tribes of West 
and Central Africa, and of freedmen from the West Indies and the United States. 

The folk-lore of Sierra Leone must, therefore, be exceedingly rich. From per- 
sonal inquiry I know this to be a fact, although, so to say, nothing has yet been 
made public. 

Among the distinct settlements of released slaves, I found, at Freetown, one of 
Angola natives in the suburb called Angola-town. There I discovered represen- 
tatives of the Kisama, Lubolo, Mbaka, and Ngola tribes, who, though Christian- 
ized and anglicized, have kept up the use of Ki-mbundu, and still cherish the 
remembrance of their native land. 

About the Frog's intelligence, see No. XIII. 

A Brazilian negro variant of the story is published in Sylvio Romero's w Contos 
populares do Brazil," p. 145. In this the Frog's part is played by the Turtle, and 
that of the Elephant by the Teyti. 

548. Ku-namulalela is the relative of ku-namulala, which is the Portuguese 
" namorar," to make love. 

549. Mukaji is not used exclusively for " wife," but also for "intended, bride, 
sweetheart." That both are courting at the same house does not imply that they 
are courting the same girl; as the next sentence shows, there were several 
females in that house. 


Informant. Jelemfa dia Sabatelu. 

Dialect. Mbaka. But the origin is Mbamba. 

550. Sute is an African mole, which the natives eat, like almost all field-rats. 
Mu-kenge is not our fox. It has long, coarse, gray hair. The civilized natives, 
in speaking Portuguese, call it " raposa," i. e., fox. 

551. Uabanga> preterit III., shows that the tunnel had been made before. It 
was not made for the purpose of cheating the Fox, but only used to this end. 
See Grammar, p. 44. 

552. Ngenddy from ku-enda^ by the same process as ngenji (Grammar, p. 125). 
Another word for underground road or dwelling is uina. The opening of the 
tunnel was hidden by the reed-like grass called nzunga, which grows in the rivers, 
close to the banks. 

553. /<£-#-/, or iaU 4 (pronounced idui). The u is both euphonic and archaic. 
Whenever the vocative or emphatic / or i follows •<£ or -6, a euphonic #, semi- 
vowel, is inserted. If the final vowel is -/, this is changed into -at. Grammar, 
notes 76 and 79. Final -4, ~6, and -i were in old Ki-mbundu -au, -ou, -at, or -eu. 


Informant. Jelemfa dia Sabatelu. 

Dialect and Origin. Mbaka. 

554, An old, deserted, ant-hill is a favorite dwelling-place for animals living 
in holes or caverns. It is water and fire proof, and can easily be hollowed out as 
required. It is also frequently used by homeless men in the far interior, especially 
in times of war. 

3<x> Folk - Tales of Angola* 


Informant. Jelenria dia Sabatelu. 

Dialect. Mbaka. But the origin is Mbamba. 

Comparative. This story shows that the Bantu negroes are iamiliar with the 
game of hide-and-seek. As in the Hottentot folk-lore, so in that of the Bantu, 
the Jackal plays the part of cunningness, which the Fox discharges in European 
folk-lore. The tnbulu differs from the dibeku, another kind of jackal, in that his 
color is darker. The mukenge of the two preceding tales is smaller than the 
jackal, has coarse, long, gray hair, a long hairy tail, a head somewhat like that of 
the ichneumon, and is proverbial for his chicken stealing. 

Though both are cunning, the Hare seems, in Bantu folk-lore, to surpass the 
Fox in shrewdness. 

In a Bahaman negro story, on p. 49 of the "Journal of American Folk-Lore," 
1891, the Dog plays to Man the same trick as our Hare. u Now de dog jut' leave 
*e two heyes out. Vwen 'e get dere, de man say, * Ho my ! look at de san' got 


Informant. Jelemfa dia Sabatelu. 

Dialect and Origin. Mbaka. 

Comparative. The Angola squirrel is smaller than ours, but just as restless. 
It is an excellent symbol for impatience. The scientific name of the Angolan 
squirrel is Scirrus palliatus, Peters. In the coast dialect it is called Kaxinja- 
ngele. The word is composed of Ka-xinji-a-ngele* 

This story is the counterpart of the following. Here the Squirrel loses his 
glorious chance by his impatience J there the Dog misses the same golden oppor- 
tunity by his greed. 

555, Lelu a lele t a kind of superlative of leluj not in common use. 

$$6. This & is the pronoun of ungana. In Loanda, it is U and would have to 
be infixed, tua u ambela. 

557. A proverb* 


Informant. Jelemfa dia Sabatelu. 

Dialect and Origin. Mbaka. 

Comparative. See the preceding number. As a few stories, illustrative of 
the Angola dog's characteristics, follow, it is well to note how different from ours 
is the African's estimate of the dog's moral make-up. With us he is the image 
of faithfulness and intelligent devotion ; with them he personifies all that is mean 
and low. As among Orientals, so among the A-mbundu, the dog's name is used 
as an insult equivalent to our " swine, hog." This difference of appreciation is 
not quite unwarranted. The aspect of the skeletoned and mangy scavengers of 
African streets, and the guilty look with which they sneak out of your reach, in- 
spires nothing but contempt and abhorrence. What a difference with our civilized 
and almost christianized St. Bernards and Newfoundlanders ! It takes a philoso- 
pher to make the first impression yield to that of pity ; to search for the cause of 
this difference, and to find that it is not the dog's fault, \>ut that of his masters. 
Ill-fed, if fed at all, and constantly ill-used, the poor African dog has had no chance 
of evolving his latent virtues into improved breeds. It is the struggle for exist- 
ence that has made him a thief and a scavenger. No. XXXIX. shows that the 
Imnting-dog's life is not so unhappy. 

Notes. 301 

There is a striking resemblance between this fable and the &sopian, in which 
the cat, changed by Venus into a blooming maid and married to a young man, 
cannot help catching and eating- the first mouse she sees in her husband's house. 

The Sierra Leone ft Weekly News," 1890, contains a variant in modern Negro- 
English garb. 

558. The kijinga of a "soba" has generally two appendages like horns, either 
hanging or sticking out on either side. As the cap passes from generation to 
generation, the greasier it is the nobler. A " soba " has the right to give a kijinga 
(the equivalent of crown) to any of his subjects who sets up a village or town of 
his own. Thereby the head of a village is endowed with all the prerogatives of a 
chief, but he has to pay homage and tribute to his suzerain who raised him to the 
chieftainship. Such a tributary chief is called a kilamba. 

559. The mbas&t probably from the Portuguese " bastao," is a staff of choice 
wood, the thicker end -of which is ornamented with sculptures or inlaid tin or 
silver. The Akua-Luangu smiths show much skill in manufacturing such inlaid 

560. Mukaka is a rodent about the size of a squirrel, with red-brown fur. 

561. Mbenza is a chair of native make. The natives of Tombo, on the Quanza 
River, manufacture ji-rnbenza of Bordao palm-ribs; these find a ready market 
among the whites and blacks of Loanda. 


Informant. Jelemfa dia Sabatelu. 

Dialect and Origin. Mbaka. 

Comparative, Here the dog himself proves what was advanced in the pre- 
ceding notes concerning the injustice he has to suffer. No. XXXIX., however, 
shows that among African hunters and dogs there are exceptions to this, as to most, 

562. Mungudinia, form of the inland dialects. In Loanda it is mungudind. 


Informant. Jelemfa dia Sabatelu. 

Dialect. Mbaka. But the origin is Mbamba. 

Comparative. This story tells us how the dog came to exchange the freedom 
of bush-life and the company of his brother, the jackal, for the company of men 
and the charms of civilization. 

It is a counterpart of the following piece, which relates the separation of the 
house-hog from his brother, the bush-hog. Both stories must, therefore, be located 
in the aetiologic class. 

Compare with this ^Esop's fable of the sleek House-dog and the lean Wolf. 


Informant. Jelemfa dia Sabatelu. 
Dialect. Mbaka. But the origin is Mbamba. 
Comparative. See No. XXXV. 

563. Kiombo is the Phacdchcerus athiopicus. All the domestic pigs of Angola 
are black, while all the wild ones I have seen were of a dirty white. 

302 Folk - Tales of Angola. 


Informant. Jelemfa dia Sabatelu. 

Dialect. Mbaka. 

Comparative. In all the Bantu folk-lore the Tortoise or 1 urtle plays a promi- 
nent part as a shrewd little animal. So in this story it comes out victorious in its 
dispute with the Partridge. It should not, however, be inferred from the story 
that the turtle always escapes from the prairie fires. I have seen proofs of the 
contrary, one of which is now in the National Museum, Washington, in the shape 
of a burnt turtle-shell, whose inhabitant was baked in it by the prairie fire. 

Compare No. XVII. and Bieek's "Reynard the Fox," Nos. XIV., XV., XVI. 

The Indians of Brazil tell a long string of adventures of the Turtle or Tortoise 
{yabuti), in which it gives many proofs of its shrewdness. Nearly all those tricky 
feats of the Turtle are found in African folk-lore, from the Sahara to the Cape, 
though they are sometimes played by other animals than the tortoise. That the 
Negro lore of America, North and South, has had a marked influence on the 
Indian lore has already been shown by F. T. Crane and others. Another instance 
is offered by this story of the Turtle as cempared with pp. 175 and 176 of " Contos 
populares do Brazil," by Sylvio Romero, where the Turtle wanted a bone of its 
adversary to make a flute with, and when it got one of the Leopard, it sang on it, 
just as our turtle : " A minha frauta £ do osso da on$a, ih ! ih ! " 

564. The word ku-xikina is predicate of the unexpressed subject ku4enga; 
thus, Nguadi ulengaj (o kulenga) M kuxikina; the Partridge runs ; (the running) 
it will not do (fails). When the running fails, the Partridge resorts to its last 
resource, its flying apparatus ; but this also fails. 

565. Kalutnbinga, from mbinga* Horns being in pairs, a single horn, in the 
interior, is called lu-mbinga (Grammar, p. 5, note 12), and a little one, with 
diminutive prefix, ka-lu-mbinga. 


Informant. Jelemfa dia Sabatelu. 

Dialect. Mbaka. But the origin is Mbamba. 

Comparative. Compare with the Frog in Nos. XIII. and XXVIII. 

In their tales the Africans do not conceal their consciousness of the evils of 
polygamy; in candid argument, they are also easily convinced of the rationality 
and moral obligation of monogamy ; but in practice it is hard for them to obey 
the dictates of reason and conscience. 

See " Magana Hausa," by J. F. Schon, p. 8. 

$(&. Uasakenene, in Mbaka, instead of uasakanene of Loanda. Whenever a 
suffix has -e- as accented vowel, and the last vowel of a polysyllabic verb modified 
by it is -<*•, this may be changed by retroactive vowel attraction into -*% Thus, 
ku-bindem-ena for ku-bindam-ena, from ku-bindatna; ngataJun-me for ngatakdn- 
ene, from ku-takana. 

567. Di-nangu, the place where the day is spent leisurely, from ku-nanga, to 
spend time without working. Thus also di-sungi, or di-sungilu, the place where 
the evening is spent in chatting, from ku-sungila, to spend the evening or night in 

$68. Ku-tuma is both "to send" and "to send for, to send word to come;" 
also "to order, command, bid, govern." 

569. DUzundu is the full form; Zundu is the shortened form, due to the fre- 
quent dropping of the prefix di~j Ka-sundu is either the diminutive or proper 

Notes. 303 

name, derived from d>zundu by the substitution of the prefix ka- for th$ prefix 

570. Kate. This word is not used in the coast dialect. 

571. Ku-tangalala. This verb signifies particularly "to be perplexed, at a 
loss." It is not current in the coast dialect, where another medial form of the root- 
verb, ku-tangamana, signifies " to be crossed by something, hampered." 


Informant. Jelemfa dia Sabatelu. 

Dialect and Origin. Mbaka. 

Comparative. This and the two following stories are classed as maka or 
fact stories by the informant. We, who do not believe in their supernatural por- 
tions, would have placed them among the mi-soso. Now they stand here as links 
between the mi-soso and the maka* 

The present story proves that the " professional " dogs, used in hunting, are 
held in higher estimation than the common dogs, whose woeful lot is mentioned 
in No. XXXIII. 

As a hunter story, this number may be compared with Nos. XII., XVI II., 
XIX., XX. 

The final scene, in which the Hunter calls the villagers to be witnesses of what 
he is going to say, corresponds to the final act of No. X. 

Like the following story, this is intended to inculcate the supernatural power of 
the ki-mbanda or medicine-man, and his u-mbanda, or magical power. 

572. Uala mu kolela, instead of uala mu kuolela. Before -<h the semi-vowel 
-u», preceded by a consonant, may be dropped in pronunciation. In writing it 
should never be omitted. 

573. Here "we speak" stands not for the dogs only, but for all the animals: 
"We, animals." 

574. In most parts of Africa, as among the old Germans, human lives have a 
money value. This value depends on the fluctuations of the slave market. Ifow 
the traffic originates can be illustrated from the present; story. If the uncles had 
not had the six head of cattle, or if they had rather kept them, they would have 
sold the woman and her children, or another nephew or niece (enough to make 
up the six head of cattle, and thus pay the penalty). To whom would the woman 
have been sold ? To the highest bidder, of course. Now, as the greatest number 
of unfree laborers (or slaves) are wanted, and the highest prices are paid, by the 
white residents of Africa, who need bond servants, carriers, and plantation hands, 
it follows that they are preferred as purchasers. To meet the demand, colored 
and w.hite agents roam about in quest of the best districts, where they may 
"redeem" (European parlance) or " buy " (African parlance) with greatest profit 
the poor fellows, who are sold, according to the native law, by their uncles or chiefs 
in order to pay a private or public debt. Generally, the people thus bought are 
called by Europeans "laborers," " apprentices," or " contract-laborers," but they 
are still called "slaves" in the native languages, and by many white colonists. 
Another source of the slave-traffic is man-stealing. Prisoners of war are, accord- 
ing to native law, saleable merchandise, if their kindred fail to redeem them. 
Therefore, where the whites offer high prices for "redeeming" or "buying" 
slaves, ambitious chiefs obtain from their European clients better arms ancTam* 
munition than some neighbor, attack and conquer him, seize all the cattle and 
human kind they can, keep the former and sell the latter to their whjte, yellow, or 
black, but civilized, customers of the coast region. Thus the Makioko nation, 

304 Folk~TaU$ of Angola. 

provided with guns and powder from Benguella, has wellnigh destroyed and 
"sold" the once great Lunda nation, its feudal superior. Among the victims of 
this traffic whom I questioned in various places, I found several who had been 
wantonly stolen by passing traders and incorporated in their caravans of slaves, 
sure to die if they should try to divulge the secret. How is the thing to be 
stopped? Only by stopping the " demand," by absolutely forfr'dding and severely 
punishing the so-called "redeeming' 9 and "contracting" of Africans. See No. 


Informant. Jelemfa dia Sabatelu. 

Dialect. Mbaka. 

Origin. Cassange or Kasanji. This is the title of the head-chief of . the 
I-mbangala (sing. Ki-mbangala), whose language is called U-mbangala. From 
the head-chief all the country of the I-mbangala has been called Kasanji, in Portu- 
guese Cassange. Properly, however, this Portuguese name only suits the ancient 
" Feira," or market, or trading-post, situated some twenty miles' waik west of the 
Kuangu River. 

See my Vocabulary of U-mbangala, in Dr. C. G. Biittner's "Zeitschrift fiir 
Afrikanische Sprachen," Berlin, January, *88o. 

About the history of Kasanji (Cassange), see H. de Carvalho, " Ethnographia 
e Historia tradicional dos Povos da Lunda," Lisbon, 1890. On page 83, our 
Kitamba kia Xiba (Quintamba-quia-Xiba) appears as the twentieth in the line of 
the kings of Kasanji. One of our unpublished historical traditions gives an 
account of the origin of the Kingudi dynasty and of the exodus of the Pende 
tribe from Kasanji to its present quarters in the Kasai basin. 

Comparative. The description of Kalunga or Hades, in this piece, should be 
compared With that of Nos. V. and L. The wetting of the fire-place in this num- 
ber also reminds one of the watering of Sudika-mbambi's life-tree in No* V. 

The people in the lower world not only live on, much as they did in this upper 
world, but they have also to die again a natural or unnatural death. Then they 
enter the kingdom of Mbulu a Maminiu 9 which is the end of their existence. 

As to the power of u-mbanda, or magic, see the preceding and the following 

S7$. Kuku is usually "grandparent;" as to the honorific plural form for one 
person, compare na fmmaleji, note 233. 

$76. That is, tuck your loin cloth at the waist without wearing a girdle. 

577. lunid, for tund, is a very unusual form. Compare mungudinia of inland 
dialects, for mungudind of the coast dialect. 

S7& No answer is expected to the question, "How many years?" It simply 
means an indefinite number of years, a few years. 


Informant. Jelemfa dia Sabatelu. 

Dialect and Origin. Mbaka. 

Comparative. In No. III. we have already seen the Lukala River as a per- 
sonal being dealing with men. Here, the River, without any specification as to 
locality or name, acts the part of just Providence, by rescuing an innocent slave 
from his bondage, and enriching him above his countrymen. This wonderful 
change is brought about through the art of healing revealed to him by the River 

Notes. 305 

in dreams. See, also, Nos. III., IX., L., about water-spirits, and Nos. XI I L, 
XXIIL, XXXIX., XL., XLVIL, about magical medicine. 

This story is important as illustrating one phase of African slavery. 

579. Kuala, the same as kua. The first is probably the full archaic form of 
the second. 

580* That is, the uncle owed an ox, and not being able to pay, gave one of his 
nephews as pledge. See notes 574 and 582. 

581. The infinitive is used, here, as impersonal verbs are in other languages. The 
subject is left in the dark, so that one cannot tell whether one or several persons 
would not redeem the lad, or whether the wherewithal was lacking. In English 
the passive would give the exact meaning, " he was not redeemed," cause or reason 

582. This is a fair description of the African domestic slave's lot. Sad as it 
is for the native's feelings, this lot is incomparably preferable to that of the "con- 
tract-laborer," or bondman, in the service of a white man or a civilized native. As 
the uncivilized native master has no more needs to satisfy than his slaves, he does 
not drive them, with whip in hand, to a continued ten or twelve hours' work per 
day, Sunday often included ; nor does he call, consider, or treat his bond servant 
as a u beast." 

583. Peso, unusual term for munzangala. In the times of the export slave- 
trade, slaves as articles of merchandise were called in Portuguese "pe$as," i. e., 
" pieces," perhaps from this pesa. 

584. That is, before the people have opened their doors, to go out ; before they 
are astir. 

585. Ngonga is a neat, tight, and small basket with a lid. 
586 literally, it walked, went, how ? 

587. Ku-anjiua = ku-anjua, to dream. In Loanda, they say ku-anda nzq/t. 

$88. Mastulu, in Loanda ma-zunu, is literally "the nostrils" or the "noses 5 w 
applied to guns, their muzzles. A a beteka is literally, they (the guns) hold them 
(the muzzles) down. 

589. One might suppose that the three things were emblems of three trades : 
the guns, hunting; the bales of cloth, trading; the medicine-basket, doctoring. 
It was wisdom to prefer the humble basket to the valuable guns and bales. 

590. It is strange that most of the insulting epithets used by natives, even in 
the far interior, are of European origin, thus diabu (diabo) nikulu (negro) maid- 
ndulu (malandro). The native way of insulting is to say something disparaging 
of the other fellow's mother; his mother being the most sacred thing the Angolan 
can think of. 

591. Fidila, Portuguese "ferida," is the word used for wound or sore by the 
natives of all tribes that have accepted scraps of civilization. The purely native 
word kipela is only used by the so-called matumhu ("gentio," heathen) tribes, e. g., 
the Mbondo, Mbamba, Holo, Hungu. 

592. A piece of trade-cloth, which is common white calico. 

593. "We are two," for "we are together." 

594. That is, thou dost not even know the commonest vermifuge. The Ango- 
lans ascribe the gnawing of hunger and most of their intestinal ailments to the 
semi-mythic di-buka, which they render in Portuguese by "lombriga," which is 
our thread-worm. Rum is supposed to be a specific for the uneasiness caused by 
the di-buka. That is why a drink is called " mata-bicho," i e., worm-killer. 

595. That is, if he fails to master it (the disease). 

596. That master was mean. The boy had been given him as pledge for one 
ox; and after so many years' service he demands three cows. The generosity of 
the slave, who only leaves his master when he has grown to be decidedly more 

306 Folk -Tales of Angola. 

than his master, and then gives him all he demands, is peculiarly African. After 
living a number of years with his master, the slave often gets so attached to him 
and his surroundings that he considers himself one of the family. 

597. The meaning of every verse is : " What you do, do it with all your might," 
and "aim high." The deeper meaning of "Wealth came from medicine " is that 
knowledge is the source of prosperity. 

598. Another series of sayings. Evidently, to keep tongue and teeth hidden in 
mouth, means tt to hold one's tongue." 

599. These three sayings mean, «* I have done what I proposed to do ; therefore 
I have finished." 


Informant. Jelemfa dia Sabatelu. 

Dialect and Origin. Mbaka. 

Comparative. In Nos. XVI. and XXVI. we already have seen a court of 
umpires giving their sentence ; only the judges were animals. In this and the fol- 
lowing stories the judges or umpires are men. All the maka turn about some pivotal 
question of who or what is right or wrong. In all of them one of the chief actors is 
represented either as justified or condemned in what he did or said. Sometimes, 
as in this and the stories following immediately, there is a lawsuit with pleading 
on both sides ; sometimes, too, the final events show which of the persons or prin- 
ciples involved was right or wrong. Most stories of this class are illustrative of 
some moral truth, which maybe expressed concisely in a proverb. Some only turn 
on a witty remark or pun. 

The present story may, as it concerns hunters, be compared with Nos. XVIII., 
XIX., XX., and XXXIX. 

The sentence reminds one of that of Solomon about the child which two women 

600. This maka begins with a proverb, which may be either the cause or the 
result of it. Quarreling in the bush implies that there were no witnesses. 

601. Milonga, pi. of mulonga. Here the plural is used for the singular in a 
loose way of speaking, Mulonga means word, speech, dispute, quarrel, lawsuit, 
crime, offense, insult. 

602. When natives cry, because they deem themselves wronged, or because of 
a relative's death, they strike a monotonous tune, or improvise a rhythmic verse, 
which they go on repeating and repeating until exhausted, or until some unex- 
pected event calls their attention elsewhere. For the foreigner it is sometimes 
very hard to tell whether a native is whining or singing. Kingungu a N jila, whose 
emotion is genuine, stammers at first in his complaint. 

603. A ixana may also be exana> the i Sounding then longer than usual be- 
cause it is a contraction of a -f a + ixana j not only a + ixana. 


Informant. Francisco P. dos Santos Vandunem. See No. XXVI, 
Dialect and Origin. Loanda. 

604. Muxixi is the Sterculia tomentosa, GuilL et Perr., of botanists. It is 
found in the coast-belt. 

605. Andaxi) from the Portuguese " ainda assim." 

606. Dikui, from the Portuguese '* do que ; " the genuine Ki-mbundu equiva- 
lent is na or kana. 

Notes. 307 

607. The forms ngano ... for ngenio ... or ngine mu, and ngajo . • .for 
ngojo ... or ngejio ... are used by many elderly persons in Loanda. 


Informant. Francisco P. dos Santos Vandunem. See No. XXVI. 
Dialect and Origin. Loanda. 

608. Kitombe kia kifefeteVi disu-badi is an idiom, signifying great darkness. 
Ku*fefetela is " to become dim, gloomy " of light, or " to whisper, to be low or 
weak " of sound. "He was dead (of, by) eye one," that is, " one of his eyes was 
dead, blind." 

609. T4! is an interjection expressive of dazzling brilliancy. " The moon is 
like a shining pate," is an idiom ; and the father-in-law did have a shining pate, 
though black. 

610. Musumbe is a native of the Sumbe country about Novo Redondo, half- 
way between Loanda and Benguella. See my article on Novo Redondo and the 
Ba-sumbe, in " Goldthwaite's Geographical Magazine," New York, 1891. As 
most of the Loanda bond servants and most plantation hands have been « re- 
deemed " (bought) at Novo Redondo, musumbe is used, in a wider sense, for any 
unfree servant. Ku-sumba is " to buy," and the word may also be derived from 
this verb and mean simply " a bonght one." This proverb shows that the natives 
have a regard for the feelings of their slaves. White owners of " bought servants " 
are not so particular. 

611. In rapid speech, one often hears £ for eie. 


Informant. Jelemfa dia Sabatelu. 
Dialect and Origin. Mbaka. 

612. Kabolongonio, also kaholongonio from kibolongonio, and kiholongonio. 

613. This u refers to mutue. 


Informant. Jelemfa dia Sabatelu. 
Dialect and Origin. Mbaka. 

614. That is, nobody in the village has any dried fibre-cords on hand, and the 
green ones, to be got from the forest, would require some time to dry and prepare 
so as to be fit for the present work. 

615. Or, I was weaving a mat, which was interrupted to me, that is, I was 
weaving a mat, and something forced me to stop my work, though unfinished. 


Informant. Jelemf&.dia Sabatelu. 

Dialect. Mbaka. The origin may be either Mbamba or Mbaka. The story 
is popular among both tribes. 

Comparative. For us the metamorphosis of a man into a lion is fictitious, 
and the story seems, therefore, to belong to the mi-soso; but the natives hold 
such metamorphoses to be not only possible, but frequent. In all earnest they 

308 Folk-Tales of Angola. 

will quote a fact like the present one, which passes as historical, to prove that by 
means of a charm or talisman a man can be transformed into any imaginable 
thing. See No* III. for a whole collection of metamorphoses. Compare with 
this the "man-leopard" of the British West Coast of Africa. The man-leopard 
is supposed to be a man, changed by magic into a leopard. As such he is invul- 
nerable and far more dreaded than the natural leopard, who can be killed. In 
reality, the man-leopard is a man, dressed in a leopard-skin, who waylays and 
kills people, especially defenseless women and children. Sometimes he is a mem- 
ber of a secret society, and this man-killing is part of the rites. Its object is to 
inspire fear of the organization, and also to test the greatness (hardness) of heart 
of the candidate. On Lycanthropy, see "Journal of American Folk- Lore," 1891, 
p. 189. , 

6*6. A proverb. 

617. HUu is probably derived from the same root as ku-kituka, to be trans- 
formed. About change of k into A, see Grammar, p. 126, 3. 


Informant. Jelemfa dia Sabatelu. 

Dialect and Origin. Mbaka. 

Comparative. In No. XLII. we have already mentioned that some of the 
maka, though there is no apparent court, and judge or umpire, still are of the 
same nature as the regular judicial pieces. Thus, in the present case, the two 
parties make contrary assertions; they try to prove them by putting them in prac- 
tice ; the result decides the question in favor of one and against the other. One 
wins, the other loses *, one is justified, the other is condemned. In native parlance 
it is said, in such a case, that Cod is the judge. 

618. "Builder of ability," that is, "able builder;" "builder of haste," that is, 
"hasty builder." 


Informant. Jelemfa dia Sabatelu. 
Dialect and Origin. Mbaka. 

NO. L. 

Informant. Senhor Sant" Anna e Palma (now dead); an educated negro of 
Calumbo, whom I met in 1896, at Bom-Jesus, where he promised me to collect 
some native folk-lore. His poorly written notes were sent to J. C. da Matta, who 
transcribed this story for me. 

Dialect and Origin* the lower Quanza, or Kuanza, River. 

Comparative. As illustrative of life in the spirit world, this story should be 
compared with Nos. V. and XL. Like No. XL. it tackles the great problem of 
death and the future life. While the common people always ascribe death to 
Kalunga-ngombe, who wants ever more subjects for his underground kingdom, 
the wiser men hold that the true cause of most deaths is to be found in men's 
vices, crimes, and carelessness. 

620. Ngunza signifies, in the Kisama and Quanza region, a herb ; one who has 
killed an enemy in war. Some civilized natives of Loanda also use Ngunta for 
God; but erroneously. Kilundu is a spirit, like the kituta, into which pur hero 
is finally transformed. Thus the name indicates the substance of the story, (1) thd 

Notes. 309 

(heroic) fighting with Kalunga-ngombe, (2) the transformation of Ngunza into a 
Kituta. This is the same as Kianda. See No. IX. 

621. This does not signify that he went to the Loango coast, north of the 
Kongo River ; but that he went to some of the wandering Loango smiths, who are 
scattered all over the Kongo and Loanda districts of Angola, 

622. The second informant was unable to make out these words in the manu- 
script of the first informant. 

623. Ulumba, and ukembu> signify (1) ornament in dress, (2) the love of orna- 
ment, vanity, (3) its cause and concomitant, sexual love, and flirting. The indul- 
gence of the latter induces its abuse, adultery, and its punishment, death by 
poison-test or murder. 

624. The crowds of Ndongo is the same as " the tribes, or nations, of Ngola 

625. A word that could not be made out in the original manuscript. Milunda 
is a place near Tombo on the Qtfanza River. 

626. Fruits and vegetables, the equivalents of which in English, or in botanic 
language, are not known. 

627. Makunde is the Vigna unguiculata, Walp., or Vigna Sinensis, Endl. Di- 
niangua is the Cucurbita maxima, Duch. Diniungu a slightly different kind. 
Kinzonji is the Cajanus Indicus, Spreng. Uangela is the Sesamum, called gerge- 
lim by the Portuguese. Kabulu is a kind of beans. 

628* Compare with mutu a tubi la suku of the Malange dialect, note 280. 
Suku is the name of a great spirit. Sometimes it is used by the people south of 
the Kuanza for God. 

629. Many of the Kuanza people use a instead of Loanda ma for the concord 
of prefix ma-. 

Additional Note (see p. 281). 

The "Bulletin Missionnaire " (Lausanne, February, 1887) contains a story cur- 
rent among the Ma-gwamba of Louren^o Marques, Southeast Africa, which differs 
from our No. VII. almost only in the fact that Banga-kulu, the cannibal, plays 
the part of the Ma-kishi. As the little girl's song in the Gwamba tale helps to 
make ours intelligible, we reproduce it here in English : — 

"Ayiwa; ayiwa! 
We are not asleep, 
Because of the mosquitoes. 
I tell them, " Let us take the narrow path ; " 
They take the wide path, 
The easy path that leads astray ; 
They want to return to their mother." 

To which Banga-kulu replies : — 

" Ka molingi ; ka molingi ! 
They are not gone ; 
They are still there ; 
Are they not, little mother? »' 



South Africa. 

Bleek, W. H. I. A Brief Account of Bushman Folk-Lore. London, 1875. 

_^_ Reynard the Fox in South Africa ; or, Hottentot Fables and Tales. 

London, 1864. 

Brincker, H. Worterbuch des Otyi-Herero. Leipzig, 1886. 

Callaway \ Rev, H. Nursery Tales, Traditions, and Histories of the Zulus. 
Natal, 1868. 

The Religious System of the Amazulu. Parts I.— III. Natal, 1868- 

70. 2d ed. (Publications of The Folk-Lore Society, xv.) London, 1884. 

Casalis, E. Etudes sur la langue Se'chuana. Paris, 1841. 

Cape Monthly Magazine. [Scattered articles by Bleek, W. H. L, Orpen, J. M., 
and Theel, G.] Capetown, 1870-1879. 

Folk-Lore Journal. (South African Folk-Lore Society.) Capetown, 1879-81. 

Fritsck, G. Die Eingeborenen Siidafrikas. Breslau, 1872. 

Grouty Rev* L. Zulu Land, or Life among the Zulu Kaffirs. Philadelphia, 

_ . The Isizulu. A Grammar of the Zulu Language. Natal, 1859. 

Kr'dnlein % Rev. J. G. Wortschatz der Khoikhoin. Berlin, 1889. 

Theal, G. McC. Kaffir Folk-Lore. 2d ed. London, 1886. 

West Africa. 

Bohner, Rev. H. Im Lande Jes Fetisches. Basel, 189a 

Boil at, Grammaire de la langue Woloffe* Paris, 1858. 

Bouche, Abbi. Les Noirs peints par eux-m6mes. Paris, 1883. 

Bowen y Rev, T. J. Grammar and Dictionary of the Yoruba Language. Wash- 
ington, 1858. 

Burton, R* F. Wit and Wisdom from West Africa. London, 1865. 

Cnristaller, Rev. J. G. A collection of 3600 Tshi Proverbs in use among the 
Negroes of the Gold Coast. Basel, 1879. 

Koelle, Rev. S. W. African Native Literature, or Proverbs, Tales, Fables, 
and Historical Fragments in the Kanuri or Bornu language. London, 1854. 

Reichardt, Rev. Ch. A. L. Grammar of the Fulde Language, with some original 
Traditions. London, 1876. 

Schlenher^ Rev. C, F. A Collection of Temne Traditions, Fables, and Prov- 
erbs. London, 1861. 

SchdHy Rev. T. F. Magdna Hausa. Native Literature, or Proverbs, Tales, 
Fables, and Historical Fragments in the Hausa language. (With a translation in 
English.) London, 1885. 

East Africa. 

Almeida da Cunha, % d*. Usos e Costumes dos Banianes, Bathias, etc., de 
Mozambique. Mozambique, 1885. 
Kibaraka. Swahili Stories in Swahili. Zanzibar, 1885. 

Steere, Rev. E. Swahili Tales, as told by natives of Zanzibar. London, 1870. 
Sultani Darai. Swahili Tales, as told by natives of Zanzibar. Zanzibar, 1884. 
Taylor y Rev. W. E. African Aphorisms (in Swahili). London, 1891. 


Buttner, C G. Zeitschrift ftir Afrikanische Sprachen. Berlin, 1887-89. 





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g^= CT^=-J J.UJ J J : 

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ni Ngu - nga A a te - xi - le mi - dia Ngui ku i - dia, Tu - xi - ma - 1 

jr. j j.n 

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kua - mbe-l'e, u - tua I Hu - la - ka - na, ngu ku a - mbe-l'& 


Adelina da Camara, 262. 

Almeida da Cunha, 17. 

Ambaca. See Mbaka. 

Angola, area, 1 ; climate, 2 ; resources and 
trade, 3; political division, 4 ; tribes, 5, 6; 
dialects, 7 ; customs, 7-9 ; religion, 10 ; in- 
dustrial arts, 11 ; anthropologic data, 14; 
folk-lore, 20-22. See Ngola. 

Animal stories, 292. 

Ant, 22, 71, 79, 93, 161, 169, 201 ; note 483. 

Antelope, 22, 161, etc., 173, etc., 197. 

Bailundo, 6. 
Bantu, 14, 17. 
Baskets, 12 ; note 589. 
Ba-sumbe, 6; note 610. 
Ba-tua, 17; note 199. 
Beasts (assembled), 69, 298. 
Bells, note 217. 
Benguella, 5. 
Bird, 77 (Nzua), 143, 151. 
Blackbirds, 151 ; note 458. 
Blacksmith, 151. 
Bleek, Dr., 17, 292. 
Boar, 215; note 563. 
Bom-Jesus, 253, 265. 
Bride, 141. 
Bushmen, 17. 
Biittner, C. G., 16, 18. 

Callaway, Dr., 17 ; note 199. 

Cannecattim, B. M. de, 23. 

Carry-me-not, 125. 

Cezar, Joao Borges, 253, 276, 298. 

Charms, 185, 219, 231 j note 180. 

Chatelain, Heli, 24. 

Chefe, 4. 

Child, 103, *47, 225. 

Christaller, J. G., 16, 19. 

Climate, 2. 

Cock, 207. 

Concelho, 4. 

Congo. See Kongo. 

Customs, 7-9; note 250. 

Dancing, note 141. 

Deer, 131, 159, 191, 235. 

Dembos. See Ndembu. 

Diniangadia Ngombe, 159, 291. 

Diseases, 15. 

Divining, 10, 11, 139, 183, 254; notes 180, 

Dog, 69, 157, 211, 213, 219, 300. 

Elephant, 22, 199, 201, 203, 233. 

Fele Milanda, 31, etc, 

Fenda Maria, 29, etc. t 43, etc., 53, etc., 255. 

Fiction. See Mi-soso. 

First-food, 159. 

Fish, big, 83. See Kimbiji. 

Fishing, 1 1 ; note 238. 

Folk-lore, Angolan, 20-22; African, 15-22; 

of Sierra Leone, 299. 
Fox, 203, etc., 207, 300. 
Fratricide, 127, 287. 
Frog, 131, 203, 217. 

Goat, 53, $s, 191, etc., 197, etc 

Governor, of Angola, 4, 53, etc„ 77 ; note 

Grout, Lewis, 16, 17. 

Haarhoff, 16. 

Hades. See Kalunga. 

Hare, 157, 183, etc., 197, 209. 

Hawk, 71, 81, 109, 131 ; notes 278, 279. 

History. See Ma-lunda. 

Hog, 215. 

Holo, notes 365, 366, 376. 

House-building, note 321. 

Hunter, 157, 159, 219, 233, 292. 

Hyena, 22. See Wolf. 

India-rubber, note 193. 
Italians in Loanda, 253. 

Jackal, 209, 213, 300. 
Jeremiah, 272. 



Judicial sentences, 10, 235, 239, 241, 247, 290, 

Kabidibidi, 191, 

Kabundungulu, 85, etc 

Kalubungu, 31, 47, 57, 59, 115, 254, 256. 

Kalunga, 95, 225, 249, 304; note 251. 

Kalunga-ngombe. See Kalunga. 

Kamadfa, 36, etc., 45, etc., 258. 

Kamasoxi, 35, etc., 43, etc., 258. 

Kasanji, 5, 304. 

Katalaiu, note 206. 

Katete, 153. 

Katumua, note 235. 

Kijandakumidi, 87 ; note 325. 

Kilembe, note 31$. 

Kimalezu. See Kimanaueze. 

Kimanaueze kia Tumb* a Ndala, 53, 64, 85, 

117, 131; note 156. 
Kimbanda, 185, 219, etc, 225, etc, 231, etc., 

260; note 97. 
Kimbiji, 82, 95; note 344. 
Ki-mbundu, area and dialects, 7 ; literature, 

23; pronunciation, 25; in Sierra Leone, 

Kimona-ngombe, 145, etc.; note 451. 
Kianda, 10, 115, etc, 251, 284; note 245. 
Kingship, 211. 
Kingungu a Njila, 233. 
Kinioka, 93, 278. 
Kinoueza. See Kimanaueze. 
Kioko, 6, 284. 
Kipalende, 87, etc. 
Kisama, 5, 7, 13, 14, 253, 299. 
Kitamba kia Xiba, 223, 304. 
Kituta. See Kianda. 
Kiximbi. See Kianda. 
Koelle, S.W.,16, 19. 
Kola nuts, 257. 
Kongo, district, 4 ; nation, 5. 

Leopard, 71, 157, 161, etc., 173, etc, 183, etc., 

189, 191, etc, 197, 295, 296. 
Leopard-men, 308. 
Life-tree. See Kilembe. 
Lion, 22, 71, 75, 145, etc., 199, 201, 245, 254. 
Lizard, 213. 
Loanda, 4. 
Lousing, note 181. 
Luangu, 5, 297 ; note 113. 
Lubolo, 5, 13, 14, 299. 
Lukala, 64; note 237. 
Lunda, 6. 

Maka, 21, 249, 297, 303, 306, 308. 
Ma-kk>ko. See Kioko. 
Ma-kishi, 57, 85, etc, 97, m, 117, 278, 283; 
note 199. 

Malange, 13, 272, 291. 

Ma-lunda, 21. 

Maria, the Governor's, 77, etc 

Marriage, 9, 119, etc,- 133, etc, 235. 

Mats, 12* 

Matta, J. C. da, 25. 

Ma-xinji, or Ma-shinji, 6, 282. 

Mbaka, 5, 14, 272, 281, zgp, 298, 299; notes 

250, 256. 
Mbamba, 13, 272, 277, 281. 
Mbanza, notes 241, 384, 511. 
Mbondo, 5, 13. 

Medicine-man. See Kimbanda. 
Metamorphoses, 73, etc, 145, 245, 289, 307. 
Mirror (speaking), 29, 254. 
Mi-soso, 20, 21, 284, 303. 
Mole, 203; note 55a 
Monkey, 169, 177, 183, etc 
Mossamedes, 4, 5, 6. 
Muhongo, 225, etc 

Mukenge, 71, 300. See Fox, and note 55a 
Music, 21. 
Mutelembe, 127. 
Mythology, 10, 11. 

Namesake. See Sandu. 

Ndembu, 5,8. 

Ndongo. See Ngola. 

Negro, 17, 243. 

Ngola, 5, 13, 14, 298, 2995 note 160. 

Ngolambole, 8 ; note 255. 

Ngunga, 127. 

Ngundu a Ndala, 233. 

Ngunza Kilundu kia Ngunza, 249; note 620. 

Nianga dia Ngenga, 157, 219. 

Nigritic 17. 

Nzenza, note 427. 

Nzuana, ngana, 53; note 159. 

Nzud, 53, etc, 64, 121, etc.; note 159. 

Old woman, 32, 49, 57, 89, 93, 113, 183. 
Ovi-mbundu, 6. 

Partridge, 22, 215. 

Philantomba, 199. 

Polygamy, 8, 9, 217, 362 ; note 176. 

Pottery, 12. 

Proverbs, 21, 119, 233 ; notes 180, 348, 457, 

461, 47*- 
Putu, 255. 
Pygmies. See Ba-tua. 

Rabbit See Hare. 

Rats, I2i ; note 351* 

Religion, 10. 

Riddles, 22. 

River (personified), 64, 229. 



Samba, 97,- 235. 

Sandu, 26a 

Sant* Anna e Palma, 308. 

Schon, J. F., id, 19, 302. 

Skull, 115, 243. 

Sierra Leone, 298, 299. 

Slavery, 9, 229; note 574, 

Smithing, 12. 

Soba, 7, 8, 301. 

Songs, 5, 13, 14, 284, 288; note 447. 

Spider, 133, 141. 

Spirits, 10, 26b; notes 97, 245, 474, 628. 

Squirrel, 211, 30a 

Sudika-Mbambi, 85, etc, 278. 

Sun and Moon, 13a 

Tambi, 9. 

Tar-baby, 185, 295. 
Tell-me-not, 125. 
Terrapin. See Turtle. 
Trades, 11-13. 
True stories. See Maka. 
Turtle, 291, 153, 215, 302. 
Turtle-dove, 22, 153. 

Uouas, the four, 117, etc. 

Vandunem, F. P. dos Santos, 297, 306; 307. 
Vidiji Milanda, 43, etc 

Weaving, 12. 

White man, 243, 259; note 78. 
Widow's children, m, etc 
Wolf, 71, 73, 201. 
Wood-carving, 12. 

JUN 2 3 m* 

Sketch Map showing" relative 
> size and position of Angola. 




Nom— The eastern half of Angola has never yet been occupied by Portugal. It is a quite recent accession, and has not 
hitherto been included in maps of Angola. 

When Angola is spoken of, generally the western half alone, partially occupied, is understood. The dispute with England 
as to the boundary on the Zambezi River is not yet finally settled. 

The pronunciation of the names is as follows: Consonants, as in English; vowels, as in German or Italian (continental 

Names ra parentheses c l are Portuguese, when differing from the native names. 
* Capitals of districts. 
f American mission stations in Angola. 

■■" T Baiiroads constructed. 

. - ■ ■ 3 Itailroads in course of construction. 

^m -M Swamps. 
TsnflTffijnitflJw* Approximate line of depression between the highland and the coast belt. 
jmmtmfm Boundary of Angola, 

Approximate boundary of the A-mbundu nation, speaking the Ki-mbundu language, and constituting the 

ancient kingdom of Xgola (Angola) and Matamba. 

3 9015 01033 9854 



2 - *,9h;